Samut Prakan province

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Samut Prakan province
จังหวัดสมุทรปราการ
From top: Wat Phra Samut Chedi, Phi Sua Samut Fort, Samut Prakarn Tower.
Flag of Samut Prakan province
Official seal of Samut Prakan province
Nickname(s): 
Muang Pak Nam (Thai: เมืองปากน้ำ)
Muang Prakan (Thai: เมืองปราการ)
Motto(s): 
ป้อมยุทธนาวี พระเจดีย์กลางน้ำ ฟาร์มจระเข้ใหญ่ งามวิไลเมืองโบราณ สงกรานต์พระประแดง ปลาสลิดแห้งรสดี ประเพณีรับบัว ครบถ้วนทั่วอุตสาหกรรม
("The naval fort. Phra Chedi surrounded by water. Large crocodile farm. Beautiful Mueang Boran. The Songkran festival of Phra Pradaeng. Tasty dried gourami fish. Lotus receiving festival. Complete in industry.")
! Nasa map worlds
Map of Thailand highlighting Samut Prakan province
Country Thailand
CapitalMueang Samut Prakan
Government
 • GovernorSupphamit Chinnasri
(since October 2022)
Area
 • Total1,004 km2 (388 sq mi)
 • Rank71st
Population
 (2019)[2]
 • Total1,344,875
 • Rank13th
 • Density1,340/km2 (3,500/sq mi)
  • Rank3rd
Human Achievement Index
 • HAI (2022)0.6297 "somewhat low"
Ranked 53rd
GDP
 • Totalbaht 717 billion
(US$25.7 billion) (2019)
Time zoneUTC+07:00 (ICT)
Postal code
10xxx
Calling code02
ISO 3166 codeTH-11
Websitewww.samutprakan.go.th

Samut Prakan province, (Thai: จังหวัดสมุทรปราการ, pronounced [sāmùt prāːkāːn] ) Samut Prakan, or Samutprakan is one of the central provinces (changwat) of Thailand, established by the Act Establishing Changwat Samut Prakan, Changwat Nonthaburi, Changwat Samut Sakhon, and Changwat Nakhon Nayok, Buddhist Era 2489 (1946), which came into force 9 May 1946.[5]

It is a part of the Bangkok Metropolitan Region. Neighbouring provinces are Bangkok, to the north and west, and Chachoengsao to the east. Samut Prakan was previously once home to a Dutch trading post who referred to the area as New Amsterdam.[citation needed] Suvarnabhumi Airport is in Bang Phli district of Samut Prakan province as well as the districts of Bang Kapi, Lat Krabang, and Prawet in neighbouring Bangkok city.

History[edit]

Sanphet Prasat Palace replica, Ancient Siam Museum Park

The province was created during the era of the Ayutthaya Kingdom, with its administrative centre at Prapadaeng. It was the sea port of Siam, and was secured with forts, town moats, and town walls. King Rama II started building the new centre at Samut Prakan in 1819, after his predecessor King Taksin had abandoned the town fortifications. Altogether six forts were built on both sides of the Chao Phraya River, and on an island in the river the pagoda, Phra Samut Chedi, was erected. These were involved in the Paknam incident of 13 July 1893, which ended the Franco-Siamese conflict with a French naval blockade of Bangkok. Of the original six forts only two still exist today, Phi Sua Samut and Phra Chulachomklao.

Toponymy[edit]

In Thai the word samut is from Sanskrit, samudra, meaning 'ocean' or 'sea', and the word prakan is from Sanskrit, prākāra, meaning 'fortress', 'walls', or 'stronghold'.

Geography[edit]

Samut Prakan lies at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River on the Gulf of Thailand. Thus the province is also sometimes called Pak Nam (ปากน้ำ), Thai for 'mouth of river'. The part of the province on the west side of the river consists mostly of rice paddies and shrimp farms as well as mangrove forests, while the eastern part is the urban centre, including industrial factories. It is part of the Bangkok metropolis. The urbanization on both sides of the provincial boundary is identical. The total forest area is 28 km2 (11 sq mi) or 3 percent of provincial area.[6] The province has a coastline of approximately 47.2 kilometres. Samut Prakan is the site of a skirmish between French and Siamese forces on 13 July 1893, subsequently referred to as the Paknam Incident. This battle resulted in a French victory and the signing of the Franco-Siamese Treaty of 3 October 1893 which ceded territory east of the Mekong River to France, territory that forms much of modern Laos.[7]

Symbols[edit]

The provincial seal shows the temple Phra Samut Chedi, the most important site of Buddhist worship in the province.

The provincial tree is Thespesia populnea.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Map of Samut Prakan province with districts
  City municipalities (thesaban nakhon)
  Town municipalities (thesaban mueang)
  Subdistrict municipalities (thesaban tambon)

Provincial government[edit]

The province is divided into six districts (amphoes). The districts are further subdivided into 50 subdistricts (tambons) and 396 villages (mubans).

  1. Mueang Samut Prakan
  2. Bang Bo
  3. Bang Phli
  1. Phra Pradaeng
  2. Phra Samut Chedi
  3. Bang Sao Thong

Local government[edit]

As of 13 May 2020, there are: one Samut Prakan Provincial Administrative Organization - PAO (ongkan borihan suan changwat) and twenty-two municipal (thesaban) areas in the province. The capital Samut Prakan has city (thesaban nakhon) status. Further seven have town (thesaban mueang) status and fourteen subdistrict municipalities (thesaban tambon).[2]

  City municipality Population  
  1 Samut Prakan[8] 50,843  
  Town municipalities Population   4 Praekkasa Mai[9] 48,146
  1 Puchao Samingphrai[10][11] 73,232   5 Pak Nam Samut Prakan[12] 35,050
  2 Lat Luang[13] 71,882   6 Phraekkasa[14] 27,207
  3 Bang Kaeo[15] 59,548   7 Phra Pradaeng[16]   9,338
  Subdistrict municipalities Population      
  1 Bang Pu[17] 120,127   8 Laem Fapha[17] 21,216
  2 Bang Mueang[17] 100,598   9 Phra Samut Chedi[17] 12,391
  3 Dan Samrong[17]   55,488 10 Bang Phli[17] 12,068
  4 Phraekkasa[17]   36,323 11 Khlong Dan[17] 11,522
  5 Samrong Nuea[18]   30,498 12 Bang Phli Noi[19]   9,155
  6 Thepharak[20]   22,312 13 Bang Bo[17]   6,469
  7 Bang Sao Thong[17]   22,243 14 Khlong Suan[17]   3,164

The non-municipal areas are administered by 26 Subdistrict Administrative Organizations (SAO) (ongkan borihan suan tambon).[21]

  Municipalities Communities Groups
  Puchao Samingphrai[22] 62 5
  Lat Luang[23] 42 3
  Bang Kaeo[24] 16
  Pak Nam[25] 24
  Bang Pu[26] 46 4
  Bang Sao Thong[27] 17
  Bang Bo[28] 10
  Khlong Suan[29] 10

For national elections, the province is divided into three voting districts, one represented by three assemblymen and the other two each by two assemblymen.

Suvarnabhumi Airport[edit]

Suvarnabhumi Airport

Suvarnabhumi Airport (RTGSSuwannaphum; Thai pronunciation: [sù.wān.ná.pʰūːm][30]) (IATA: BKK, ICAO: VTBS), also known as (New) Bangkok International Airport, is one of two international airports serving Bangkok. The other one is Don Mueang International Airport.[31][32] Suvarnabhumi covers an area of 3,240 hectares (8,000 acres).

The airport is on what had formerly been known as Nong Nguhao (Cobra Swamp) in Racha Thewa in Bang Phli, Samut Prakan province, about 25 kilometres (16 mi) east of downtown Bangkok. The terminal building was designed by Helmut Jahn of Murphy / Jahn Architects. It was constructed primarily by ITO Joint Venture. The airport has the world's tallest free-standing control tower (132.2 metres or 434 feet), and the world's fourth largest single-building airport terminal, (563,000 square metres or 6,060,000 square feet).

Suvarnabhumi is the twentieth busiest airport in the world, the sixth busiest airport in Asia, and the busiest in the country, handling 63 million passengers in 2018,[33] and is also a major air cargo hub, with a total of 95 airlines. On social networks, Suvarnabhumi was the world's most popular site for taking Instagram photographs in 2012.[34]

The airport inherited the airport code, BKK, from Don Mueang after the older airport ceased international commercial flights. Motorway 7 connects the airport, Bangkok, and the heavily industrial eastern seaboard of Thailand, where most export manufacturing takes place.

Bhumibol Bridge[edit]

Bang Krachao

The Bhumibol Bridge (Thai: สะพานภูมิพล), also known as the Industrial Ring Road Bridge (Thai: สะพานวงแหวนอุตสาหกรรม) is part of the 13 km long Industrial Ring Road connecting southern Bangkok with Samut Prakan province. The bridge crosses the Chao Phraya River twice, with two cable-stayed spans of lengths of 702 m and 582 m supported by two diamond-shaped pylons 173 m and 164 m high. Where the two spans meet, another road rises to join them at a free-flowing interchange suspended 50 metres above the ground.

The bridge opened for traffic on 20 September 2006, before the official opening date of 5 December 2006. It is part of the Bangkok Industrial Ring Road, a royal scheme initiated by King Bhumibol Adulyadej that aims to solve traffic problems within Bangkok and surrounding areas, especially the industrial area around Khlong Toei Port, Southern Bangkok, and Samut Prakan province.

According to tradition, all the bridges over the Chao Phraya in Bangkok are named after a member of the royal family.[citation needed] In October 2009, it was announced that both bridges would be named after King Bhumibol Adulyadej,[35] with the northern bridge officially named "Bhumibol 1 Bridge" and the southern bridge "Bhumibol 2 Bridge".[36]

The structure of the Bhumibol Bridge consists of two parts:

  • Bhumibol Bridge 1 crosses the northern part of Chao Praya River connecting Yan Nawa district, Bangkok and Song Khanong District, Samut Prakan. It is a cable-stayed bridge with seven lanes together with two high pillars. The structure is reinforced concrete 50 m above the river to enable the passage of ships.
  • Bhumibol Bridge 2 is the one across the southern part of Chao Praya River connecting Song Khanong District and Bang Ya Phraek District. The structure is similar to Bhumibol Bridge 1, with seven lanes and two pillars built using reinforced concrete 50 m high.
Bhumibol Bridge

Economy[edit]

Nissan has two factories in the district, together employing 4,000 workers, 30% of them contract workers. Nissan-Thailand has an annual production capacity of 295,000 vehicles, making the Navara, Teana, Terra, Note, Almera, March, Sylphy and X-Trail models. Nissan plans to make 190,000 vehicles by the end of its fiscal year 2019, ending next March 2020. Roughly 120,000-130,000 units are pickup trucks, the remainder passenger cars.[37] Nissan produces hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) based on its e-Power technology and batteries for electric vehicles at a plant in Bang Sao Thong district. It has a production capacity of 370,000 vehicles a year.[38]

Thai Theparos Public Co., Ltd., a leading Thai condiment manufacturer, has its headquarters in Thai Ban subdistrict, Mueang Samut Prakan district.[39]

Health[edit]

Samut Prakan's main hospital is Samut Prakan Hospital, a regional hospital operated by the Ministry of Public Health. Samut Prakan is also the location of Chakri Naruebodindra Medical Institute, a university hospital operated by the Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University.

Human achievement index 2022[edit]

Health Education Employment Income
3 9 21 2
Housing Family Transport Participation
75 51 14 77
Province Samut Prakan, with an HAI 2022 value of 0.6297 is "somewhat low", occupies place 53 in the ranking.

Since 2003, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Thailand has tracked progress on human development at sub-national level using the Human achievement index (HAI), a composite index covering eight key areas of human development. National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB) has taken over this task since 2017.[3]

Rank Classification
  1 - 13 "high"
14 - 29 "somewhat high"
30 - 45 "average"
46 - 61 "somewhat low"
62 - 77 "low"

Gallery[edit]

Trivia[edit]

Samut Prakan radiation accident

References[edit]

  1. ^ Advancing Human Development through the ASEAN Community, Thailand Human Development Report 2014, table 0:Basic Data (PDF) (Report). United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Thailand. pp. 134–135. ISBN 978-974-680-368-7. Retrieved 17 January 2016, data has been supplied by Land Development Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, at Wayback Machine.[dead link]
  2. ^ a b "สถิติทางการทะเบียน" [Registration statistics]. bora.dopa.go.th. Department of Provincial Administration (DOPA). December 2019. Retrieved 22 September 2020. Download จำนวนประชากร ปี พ.ศ.2562 - Download population year 2019
  3. ^ a b "ข้อมูลสถิติดัชนีความก้าวหน้าของคน ปี 2565 (PDF)" [Human Achievement Index Databook year 2022 (PDF)]. Office of the National Economic and Social Development Council (NESDC) (in Thai). Retrieved 12 March 2024, page 73{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  4. ^ "Gross Regional and Provincial Product, 2019 Edition". <>. Office of the National Economic and Social Development Council (NESDC). July 2019. ISSN 1686-0799. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  5. ^ พระราชบัญญัติจัดตั้งจังหวัดสมุทรปราการ จังหวัดนนทบุรี จังหวัดสมุทรสาคร และจังหวัดนครนายก พุทธศักราช ๒๔๘๙ [Act Establishing Changwat Samut Prakan, Changwat Nonthaburi, Changwat Samut Sakhon and Changwat Nakhon Nayok, Buddhist Era 2489 (1946)] (PDF). Royal Thai Government Gazette. 63 (29 Kor): 315–317. 9 May 1946. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 9, 2008. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  6. ^ "ตารางที่ 2 พี้นที่ป่าไม้ แยกรายจังหวัด พ.ศ.2562" [Table 2 Forest area Separate province year 2019]. Royal Forest Department (in Thai). 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2021, information, Forest statistics Year 2019{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  7. ^ "วันนี้ในอดีต 13 ก.ค. 2436 'วิกฤตการณ์ปากน้ำ'" [Today in the past 13 Jul 1893 'Paknam Incident']. Kom Chad Luek (in Thai). 2017-07-13. Retrieved 2020-04-19.
  8. ^ "พระราชกฤษฎีกา จัดตั้งเทศบาลนครสมุทรปราการ จังหวัดสมุทรปราการ พ.ศ.๒๕๔๒" [Royal Decree Establish of Nakhon Samut Prakan city municipality, Samut Prakan province B.E.2542] (PDF). Royal Thai Government Gazette. 116 (19 Kor): 1–4. 23 March 1999. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 10, 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  9. ^ "ประกาศกระทรวงมหาดไทย เรื่อง จัดตั้งองค์การบริหารส่วนตำบลแพรกษาใหม่ อำเภอเมืองสมุทรปราการ จังหวัดสมุทปราการ เป็นเทศบาลเมืองแพรกษาใหม่" [Notification of the Ministry of interior Re: Establishment of Praekkasa Mai Subdistrict Administrative Organization, Mueang Samut Prakan district, Samut Prakan province is Praekkasa Mai town municipality] (PDF). Royal Thai Government Gazette. 136 (Special 286 Ngor): 35. 21 November 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 27, 2019. Retrieved 20 December 2019.
  10. ^ "ประกรศกระทรวมหาดไทย เรื่อง เปลี่ยนแปลงฐานะเทศบาลตำบลสำโรงใต้ อำเภอพระประแดง จังหวัดสมุทรปราการ เป็นเทศบาลเมืองสำโรงใต้" [Notification of the Ministry of Interior change status of Samrong Tai subdistrict municipality, Phra Pradaeng district, Samut Prakan province to Samrong Tai town municipality] (PDF). Royal Thai Government Gazette. 125 (Special 145 Ngor): 21. 1 October 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 9, 2011. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
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  12. ^ "ประวัติความเป็นมา" [History]. parknumsamutprakarn.go.th (in Thai). 2020. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  13. ^ "พระราชฤฎีกา จัดตั้งเทศบาลเมืองลัดหลวง พ.ศ.๒๕๔๕" [Royal Decree Establishing Lat Luang town municipality B.E.2002] (PDF). Royal Thai Government Gazette. 119 (93 Kor): 4–6. 10 September 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 10, 2011. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  14. ^ "ประกาศกระทรวงมหาดไทย เรื่อง จัดตั้งองค์การบริหารส่วนตำบลแพรกษา อำเภอเมืองสมุทรปราการ จังหวัดสมุทรปราการ เป็นเทศบาลเมืองแพรกษา" [Notification of the Ministry of Interior Re: Establishment of Phraekkasa Subdistrict Administrative Organization, Mueang Samut Prakan district, Samut Prakan province Is Phraekkasa town municipality] (PDF). Royal Thai Government Gazette. 137 (Special 112 Ngor): 1. 13 May 2020. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 12, 2020. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
  15. ^ "ประกาศกระทรวงมหาดไทย เรื่อง จัดตั้งองค์การบริหารส่วนตำบลบางแก้ว อำเภอบางพลี จังหวัดสมุทรปราการ เป็นเทสบาลเมืองบางแก้ว" [Notification of the Ministry of Interior change status of Bang Kaeo Subdistrict Administrative Organization, Bang Phli district, Samut Prakan province to Bang Kaeo town municipality] (PDF). Royal Thai Government Gazette. 136 (Special 251 Ngor): 18. 9 October 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 9, 2019. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
  16. ^ "พระราชกฤษฎีกา จัดตั้งเทศบาลเบืองพระประแดง จังหวัดสมุทรปราการ พุทธศักราช ๒๔๘0" [Royal Decree Establishing Phra Pradaeng town municipality, Samut Prakan province Buddhist Era 2480] (PDF). Royal Thai Government Gazette. 54: 1878–1881. 14 March 1937. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 9, 2011. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "พระราชกฤษฎีกา เปลี่ยนแปลงฐานะของสุขาภิบาลเป็นเทศบาล พ.ศ.๒๕๔๒" [Royal Decree Change Sanitation districts to Municipality Act B.E.2542] (PDF). Royal Thai Government Gazette. 116 (9 Kor): 1–4. 24 February 1999. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 9, 2008. Retrieved 10 October 2020, effective 25 May 1999.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  18. ^ "พระราชกฤษฎีกา จัดตั้งเทศบาลตำบลสำโรงหนือ อำเภอเมืองสมุทรปราการ จังหวัดสมุทรปราการ พ.ศ.๒๕๓๘" [Royal Decree Establish of Samrong Nuea subdistrict municipality, Mueang Samut Prakan district, Samut Prakan province B.E.2538] (PDF). Royal Thai Government Gazette. 112 (32 Kor): 10–13. 8 August 1995. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 12, 2011. Retrieved 14 October 2020, effective 7 September 1995{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  19. ^ "ประกาศกระทรวงมหาดไทย เรื่อง จัดตั้งองค์การบริหารส่วนตำบลบางพลีน้อย อำเภอบางบ่อ จังหวัดสมุทรปราการ เป็นเทศบาตำบลบางพลีน้อย" [Notification of the Ministry of Interior Re: Establishment of Bang Phli Noi Subdistrict Administrative Organization, Bang Bo district, Samut Prakan province is Bang Phli Noi subdistrict municipality] (PDF). Royal Thai Government Gazette. 128 (Special 156 Ngor): 3. 23 December 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 25, 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  20. ^ "Number of local government organizations: Summary elevating local authorities". dla.go.th. Department of Local Administration (DLA). 15 October 2019. Retrieved 28 October 2020. No.1.6 Established Thepharak Subdistrict Administrative Organization (SAO), Mueang district, Samut Prakan province is Thepharak subdistrict municipality, effectively 19 December 2019.
  21. ^ Department of Provincial Administration (DOPA), List of 5,324 SAO's information as of date 20 December 2019, 26 SAO's (no.4143-4168) were established in 1995 (18), in 1996 (2), in 1997 (5) and in 2000 (1).
  22. ^ "งานชุมชน" [Community work]. poochaosamingprai.go.th (in Thai). 2020. Retrieved 6 November 2020. 62 communities in 5 groups.
  23. ^ "ข้อมูลด้านสังคม" [Social information]. ladluang.go.th (in Thai). 2020. Retrieved 6 November 2020. 42 communities in 3 groups.
  24. ^ "เขตการปกครอง" [Administrative area]. tambonbagkaew.go.th (in Thai). 2020. Retrieved 6 November 2020. 16 communities.
  25. ^ "ข้อมูลชุมชน" [Community information]. parknumsamutprakarn.go.th (in Thai). 2020. Retrieved 6 November 2020. 24 communities.
  26. ^ "ข้อมูลชุมชน" [Community information]. bangpoocity.com (in Thai). 2020. Retrieved 6 November 2020. 46 communities in 4 groups.
  27. ^ "ข้อมูลชุมชน" [Community information]. bangsaothong.go.th (in Thai). 2020. Retrieved 6 November 2020. 17 communities.
  28. ^ "ข้อมูลชุมชน" [Community information]. bangbo.go.th (in Thai). 2020. Retrieved 6 November 2020. 10 communities.
  29. ^ "เขตการปกครอง" [Administrative area]. klongsuan.go.th (in Thai). 2020. Retrieved 6 November 2020. 10 communities.
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  33. ^ Air Traffic Report 2018 (PDF). Airports of Thailand (AOT). 2019. p. 1. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
  34. ^ "Suvarnabhumi, Paragon top Instagram places list". Bangkok Post, 29 December 2012.
  35. ^ "Bridges Named After His Majesty". The Nation. Archived from the original on 2009-10-24. Retrieved 2012-09-19.
  36. ^ "Bhumibol Bridge in Samut Prakan สะพานภูมิพล - Samut Prakan (Paknam) จังหวัดสมุทรปราการ เมืองปากน้ำ". Paknam. 2009-10-21. Archived from the original on 2012-06-25. Retrieved 2012-09-19.
  37. ^ Maikaew, Piyachart (26 July 2019). "Nissan's unions unfazed by jobs cut". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
  38. ^ Theparat, Chatrudee; Maikaew, Piyachart (26 July 2018). "BoI gives blessing to B30bn in plans". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  39. ^ "Contact Us". Thai Theparos Public Co., Ltd. Retrieved 29 April 2019.

External links[edit]