San Andrés–Providencia Creole
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|San Andrés and Providencia Creole|
|Islander Creole English|
|Native to||Colombia (San Andrés and Providencia islands)|
|(12,000 cited 1981)|
San Andrés–Providencia creole is a creole language spoken in the San Andrés and Providencia Department of Colombia by the natives (the Raizal ethnic group), very similar to Belize Kriol and Miskito Coastal Creole. Its vocabulary originates in English, but it has its own phonetics and many expressions from Spanish and African languages, particularly Kwa languages (especially Twi and Ewe), and Igbo languages. The language is also known as "San Andrés Creole", "Bende", and "Islander Creole English".
- It marks the time. The auxiliar wen (~ben~men) marks a past simple. Future tense is marked with wi and wuda. Progressive tense is marked by de.
- The auxiliars beg and mek before the sentence is a polite way to ask permission or asking something.
- Other auxiliar words before the verb mark probability like maita, mos, mosi, kyan, and kuda; willingness with niid and waan; and obligation with fi, hafi and shuda
- There is no grammar distinction for gender.
- Plural is marked with dem after the noun.
San Andrés–Providencia Creole is an official language in its territory of influence according to the Colombian Constitution of 1991 that guarantees the rights and protections of languages in the country. The population of the Archipelago of San Andres, Providencia and Santa Catalina uses three languages (Creole, English and Spanish). English remained in use for liturgical purposes in Baptist churches, but the coming of satellite television and growth of foreign tourism has revived the use of English on the islands. The standard English taught in schools is British English. The presence of migrants from continental Colombia and the travel of young islanders to cities like Barranquilla, Cartagena de Indias and Bogotá for higher education, has contributed to the presence of Spanish. However, the interest in preserving the native Creole has become very important for locals and Colombians in general. There has been an effort to offer multilingual education in San Andrés and Providencia which includes all three languages.
- San Andrés and Providencia Creole at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "San Andres Creole English". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- "Ethnologue report for language code: icr". SIL International. Retrieved 2009-10-29.
- Ronald Morren. 2010. Trilingual education: On the Islands of San Andres, Providence, and Santa Catalina. In Bettina Migge, Isabelle Léglise and Angela Bartens (eds.), Creoles in Education: An appraisal of current programs and projects, pp. 297–322. John Benjamins Publishing.
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