San Diego Comic-Con
|San Diego Comic-Con|
|Venue||San Diego Convention Center (main)|
Downtown San Diego (various)
|Location(s)||San Diego, California|
|Inaugurated||March 21, 1970(as Golden State Comic Book Convention)|
|Most recent||July 21, 2019|
|Next event||November 26, 2021|
|Attendance||Around 167,000 in 2015|
|Organized by||Comic-Con International|
San Diego Comic-Con International is a comic book convention and nonprofit multi-genre entertainment held annually in San Diego, California, United States since 1970. The name, as given on its website, is Comic-Con International: San Diego; but it is commonly known simply as Comic-Con or the San Diego Comic-Con or "SDCC".
The convention was founded as the Golden State Comic Book Convention in 1970 by a group of San Diegans that included Shel Dorf, Richard Alf, Ken Krueger, and Mike Towry; later, it was called the "San Diego Comic Book Convention", Dorf said during an interview that he hoped the first Con would bring in 500 attendees. It is a four-day event (Thursday–Sunday) held during the summer (in July since 2003) at the San Diego Convention Center in San Diego. On the Wednesday evening prior to the official opening, professionals, exhibitors, and pre-registered guests for all four days can attend a pre-event "Preview Night" to give attendees the opportunity to walk the exhibit hall and see what will be available during the convention.
Comic-Con International also produces WonderCon, held in Anaheim, and SAM: Storytelling Across Media, a conference held in 2016 in San Francisco and beginning in 2018 annually at the Comic-Con Museum in San Diego. Since 1974, Comic-Con has bestowed its annual Inkpot Award on guests and persons of interest in the popular arts industries, as well as on members of Comic-Con's board of directors and the Convention committee. It is also the home of the Will Eisner Awards.
Originally showcasing primarily comic books and science fiction/fantasy related film, television, and similar popular arts, the convention has since included a larger range of pop culture and entertainment elements across virtually all genres, including horror, Western animation, anime, manga, toys, collectible card games, video games, webcomics, and fantasy novels. In 2010 and each year subsequently, it filled the San Diego Convention Center to capacity with more than 130,000 attendees. In addition to drawing huge crowds, the event holds several Guinness World Records including the largest annual comic and pop culture festival in the world.
History and organization
The convention was founded in 1970 by Shel Dorf, Richard Alf, Ken Krueger, Mike Towry, Barry Alfonso, Bob Sourk, and Greg Bear. Initial comic book and sci-fi club meetings would be held at Krueger's Alert Books in Ocean Beach, where much of the foundation of the early Cons coalesced. In the mid-1960s, Dorf, a Detroit-born comics fan, had mounted the Detroit Triple-Fan Fairs, one of the first commercial comics-fan conventions. When he moved to San Diego, California, in 1970, he organized a one-day convention (Golden State Comic-Minicon) on March 21, 1970, "as a kind of 'dry run' for the larger convention he hoped to stage." Dorf went on to be associated with the convention as president or manager, variously, for years until becoming estranged from the organization. Alf co-chaired the first convention with Krueger and became chairman in 1971.
Following the initial gathering, Dorf's first three-day San Diego comics convention, the Golden State Comic-Con, drew 300 people and was held at the U.S. Grant Hotel from August 1–3, 1970. Other locations in the convention's early years included the El Cortez Hotel, the University of California, San Diego, and Golden Hall, before being moved to the San Diego Convention Center in 1991. Richard Alf, chairman in 1971, has noted an early factor in the Con's growth was an effort "to expand the Comic-Con [organizing] committee base by networking with other fandoms such as the Society for Creative Anachronism and the Mythopoeic Society, among others. (We found a lot of talent and strength through diversity)." In a Rolling Stone article about the origins of Comic-Con, it noted the work of Krueger, who handled early business matters, and worked to get the event to be organized by a non-profit organization. By the late 1970s, the show had grown to such an extent that Bob Schreck recalled visiting with his then-boss Gary Berman of Creation Conventions and reflecting, "While [Berman] kept repeating (attempting to convince himself) 'This show's not any bigger than ours!' I was quietly walking the floor stunned and in awe of just how much bigger it really was. I was blown away." From 1984 to c. 1994, a trade fair called the "San Diego Comic Book Expo" was held in association with the San Diego Comic-Con; David Scroggy was the organizer.
According to Forbes, the convention is the "largest convention of its kind in the world;" Publishers Weekly wrote "Comic-Con International: San Diego is the largest show in North America;" it is also the largest convention held in San Diego. The convention has an estimated annual regional economic impact of more than $140 million. Yet, in 2009, the estimated economic impact was criticized for allegedly negatively impacting seasonal businesses outside of Comic-Con, low individual spending estimates of attendees, that a large number of attendees live in San Diego, and that the impact of the convention was more cultural than financial.
The estimated economic impact of that year's convention was $180 million. In 2014, the estimated impact of that year's convention was $177.8 million. In 2016, the estimated impact of that year's convention was down to $150 million. By 2018, San Diego Comic-Con saw increasing competition from other comic conventions in places such as New York City, and Washington, D.C., which caused it to compete for attendees and companies time and budget; yet San Diego Comic-Con was described by Publishers Weekly as "a must-do".
The convention is organized by a panel of 13 board members, 16 to 20 full-time and part-time workers, and 80 volunteers who assist via committees. Comic-Con International is a non-profit organization, and proceeds of the event go to funding it, as well as SAM: Storytelling Across Media and WonderCon. The convention logo was designed by Richard Bruning and Josh Beatman in 1995. In 2015, working with Lionsgate, a video channel was created to host Comic-Con related content. In 2015, through a limited liability company, Comic-Con International purchased three buildings in Barrio Logan. In 2018 Comic-Con International purchased a 29,000-square-foot (2,700 m2) office in San Diego's Little Italy neighborhood.
In 2017, the organization acquired a lease to the Federal Building in Balboa Park, originally built for the California Pacific International Exposition and previously occupied by the San Diego Hall of Champions, with the intention of opening a Comic-Con Museum. By October 2017, the organization began to hire staff for the museum. Nearly a year after acquiring the lease, the museum was not yet open. During the 2018 Comic-Con International, one reason stated for why the museum had not yet opened was the need for additional funds. Organizers are hoping to raise $25 million with a target opening date of late 2020 or 2022.
On April 17, 2020, the 53rd convention was cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic. It was originally scheduled to occur from July 23 to 26, 2020. An "SDCC@Home" digital streaming event was held during the same time period as a replacement for the 2020 event.Although plans were made for the convention to possibly return in 2021 (with 2020 badgeholders given the option to receive a full refund or to roll over their badge to 2021), it was announced on March 1, 2021 that the convention would be cancelled once again. Despite availability of COVID-19 vaccines, the organizers assessed that it was still premature and unsafe to hold an in-person event at SDCC's full scale on the originally-scheduled dates, and that Comic-Con International was exploring the possibility of holding a smaller in-person spin-off event later in the year. SDCC@Home will again be held, but in a downsized form due to reduced financial resources.
Along with panels, seminars, and workshops with comic book professionals, there are previews of upcoming feature films and portfolio review sessions with top comic book and video game companies. The evenings include events such as awards ceremonies, the annual Masquerade costume contest, and the Comic-Con International Independent Film Festival, which showcases shorts and feature-length movies that do not have distribution or distribution deals.
Traditional events include an eclectic film program, screening rooms devoted to Japanese animation, gaming, programs such as cartoonist Scott Shaw!'s "Oddball Comics" slide show, Quick Draw! hosted by Mark Evanier with Shaw!, Sergio Aragones and a guest cartoonist responding to improvisational prompts and games (a la Whose Line Is It Anyway?) and animation expert Jerry Beck's program featuring TV's "worst cartoons ever", as well as over 350 hours of other programming on all aspects of comic books and pop culture.
Like most comic book conventions, Comic-Con features a large floorspace for exhibitors. These include media companies such as movie studios and TV networks, as well as comic-book dealers and collectibles merchants. And like most comics conventions, Comic-Con includes an autograph area, as well as the Artists' Alley where comics artists can sign autographs and sell or do free sketches. Despite the name, artists' alleys can include writers and even models.
Academics and comic industry professionals annually hold the Comics Arts Conference at Comic-Con, presenting scholarly studies on comics as a medium.
In recent years, the number of television shows that are promoted far outnumber films. During the 2011 convention, at least 80 TV shows were represented, compared to about 35 films. The shows not only promote in the exhibit halls, but also use screenings and panels of various actors, writers, producers, and others from their shows.
In 2013, there were 1075 total panels held during the convention, the plurality of which were anime-focused (29%), followed by comic-focused panels (26%). 1036 vendors participated in the convention in 2013.
There are at least 17 separate rooms in the convention center used for panels and screenings, ranging in size from 280 seats to 6,100 seats. The two biggest are Ballroom 20, which seats approximately 4,900; and Hall H, which seats just over 6,100.
The neighboring Hilton Bayfront is also used, with its main ballroom (Indigo) seating up to 2,600. The other neighboring hotel, the Marriott Marquis & Marina, also hosts a lot of Comic-Con activity. Among other things, the hotel serves as the anime headquarters and is where the nighttime films are shown.
In the 21st century, the convention has drawn toy and collectibles designers who sell "Comic-Con Exclusive" products. Such companies have included Lego, Hasbro, Funko, Gentle Giant LTD, Mattel, NECA, ThinkGeek, Sideshow Collectibles, Entertainment Earth, Bif Bang Pow!, Mezco, Toynami, and Kotobukiya. Most such exclusives are licensed properties of film, comic book and animation characters.
In the media
Comic-Con International has served as the setting for Mark Hamill's Comic Book: The Movie, and for an episode of the HBO television series Entourage, the latter of which, while set at the event, was not filmed there. Comic-Con also served as an excuse for the fictional characters Seth Cohen and Ryan Atwood's trip to Tijuana, Mexico in episode 7 ("The Escape") of the first season of TV series The O.C. The convention also featured prominently as a setting for the Numb3rs episode "Graphic". In season 4 of Beauty and the Geek, an episode was featured where the contestants traveled to Comic-Con 07 and were given a challenge to create their own superheroes. In an episode of Punk'd, Hilary Swank gets Punk'd after an "attack from talking robot". In season 5, episode six, of the Showtime show Weeds, attendees from Comic-Con 2009 are seen in Silas and Doug's medicinal marijuana club.
Issue No. 72 of The Invincible Iron Man (January 1975) was set at the July–August 1974 Comic-Con at the El Cortez Hotel and featured cameos by a few of the special guests. The fifth Kelly Green graphic novel The Comic-Con Heist (1987) written by Leonard Starr and drawn by Stan Drake was set at the 1983 con and depicted such regulars as Will Eisner, Milton Caniff, Burne Hogarth and Jack Kirby along with Shel Dorf; it initially only appeared in French until Classic Comics Press issued a collection of all five volumes of the series in English in 2016. Other comics set at the convention include Archie No. 538 (September 2003), Archie Giant Series No. 601 (October 1989) and No. 624 (October 1991), G.I. Joe No. 180 (July 2012), Dazzler No. 30 (January 1984), Lobo Convention Special ([September] 1993) and Fanboys Vs Zombies. 1992-1995 the Con partnered with Dark Horse Comics for an annual San Diego Comic Con Comics giveaway to attendees spotlighting characters published by Dark Horse.
Comic-Con is mentioned in the long-running CBS geek-targeted sitcom The Big Bang Theory in several episodes, and in NBC's Chuck in the episode "Chuck Versus the Sandworm", as an event the characters enjoy attending. On the Futurama episode "Lrrreconcilable Ndndifferences", the main characters attend the 3010 convention (with it being referred to as "Comic-Con Intergalactic" and the iconic eye logo now sporting multiple eyes), where Fry looks for approval for his own comic while Bender attends a panel from Matt Groening (creator of Futurama as well as The Simpsons) on his new show "Futurella" (a twist on the title of the show and a parody of its cancellation by Fox).
In "It's My Party and I'll Bang If I Want To", an episode of the 2011 season of The Real World: San Diego, the cast attends Comic-Con made up as zombies in order to pass out promotional flyers for the House of Blues, where they worked as part of their season work assignment. Filmmaker Morgan Spurlock released a 2011 documentary feature film set at the convention, Comic-Con Episode IV: A Fan's Hope. Writer Robert Salkowitz also used the 2011 Comic-Con as a backdrop for his book Comic-Con and the Business of Pop Culture, an analysis of the comics industry's 21st-century dilemmas and what the future may hold.
Comic-Con Begins Podcast
In 2020, SiriusXM in association with Stitcher started production on COMIC-CON BEGINS: Origin Stories of the San Diego Comic-Con and the Rise of Modern Fandom . The podcast is a six-part mini-series chronicling the birth and evolution of the San Diego Comic-Con, and is told by over 50 of the original contributors. Among the founders there are also interviews with celebrities like Felicia Day, Ho Che Anderson, Jackie Estrada, Scott Aukerman, Trina Robbins, Kevin Smith, Neil Gaiman, and Bruce Campbell. Hosted by Brinke Stevens of Slumber Party Massacre.
Locations and dates
Comic-Con Magazine, formerly known as Update, is the official magazine of San Diego Comic-Con International, WonderCon, and SAM: Storytelling Across Media, published free by San Diego Comic-Con International in the United States. The seed of the Comic-Con Magazine was a short one-shot issue of The Spirit, based on Comic-Con and sold exclusively in 1976 at the San Diego Comic-Con International. The Comic-Con Magazine debuted as Update in July 2005 and mainly focused on the winners of the Eisner Awards. The last Update issue appeared in July 2008; then it went on hiatus. When it came back, it was as Comic-Con Magazine, which not only covered San Diego Comic-Con International, but also WonderCon and the Alternative Press Expo, more commonly known as APE (which the con owned through 2014). The new Comic-Con Magazine features interviews with Comic-Con attendees and complete coverage of the Comic-Con events. The fourth issue of Comic-Con Magazine was a hybrid with Comic-Con's Souvenir Book with cover art by Alex Ross, in full color and exclusive to Comic-Con attendees.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2017)
A large number of exhibitors from art, comics, games, film, TV, and publishing are at Comic-Con.
There are three types of exhibitors at San Diego Comic Con. Inside the convention center, which requires a badge to visit during the convention, includes artists alley and the main exhibitor hall. Artist Alley is for up and coming artists who are new to the pop culture world by selling their new books, comics, toys, and or services. They range from local companies and businesses in Southern California to international ones, but are mainly private endeavors. Artist Alley is usually located in Hall G of the convention center. Spaces for these exhibitors are highly sought after and are on a lottery and need-based system.
The main exhibit hall, which includes larger well-recognized companies, takes up halls F through A. These companies sell or promote new and upcoming movies, television shows, and video games as well as featuring toys and exclusives with many selling for hundreds or even thousands on the secondary markets outside the convention. Some notable recurring companies include Lego, Hasbro, Funko, Hallmark Cards, Nickelodeon, Cartoon Network, The Walt Disney Company, and Blizzard Entertainment.
The other type of exhibitors include offsite exhibitors, booths and events which are located outside the convention center. These locations are usually within walking distance of the convention center but have been moving into nearby parks in recent years. Some notable examples include Gaslamp Quarter, San Diego, Petco Park, and Children's Park (San Diego). In recent years, these offsite events have no connection to SDCC. In the past, most sites have not required a Comic-Con badge. In 2017, one example was a virtual reality and immersive set based on the movie Blade Runner 2049. In 2018, these examples included a Taco Bell Demolition Man themed pop-up restaurant in the Gaslamp; and a Shake Shack Bob's Burgers themed pop-up restaurant in Mission Valley. However, there are some official offsite events that require a badge. In 2018, it was estimated that nearly 200,000 people will be in Downtown San Diego due to Comic-Con related exhibits and events.
Capacity attendance at Comic-Con in 2006 and 2007 has caused crowding issues. Concerns have been raised that the event is possibly too large for the San Diego Convention Center, Comic-Con's home through at least 2022. In 2006, Comic-Con, for the first time, had to close registration for a few hours on Saturday to accommodate crowds. In response, for 2007, Comic-Con introduced a new three-day membership that did not include Saturday. Nevertheless, the 2007 show went on to sell out Saturday, as well as Friday and Sunday for the first time. Additionally, both the four-day and three-day memberships sold out for the first time. For 2008, the three-day memberships were abandoned and the convention decided to sell memberships only in advance, with no on-site registration. In 2008, all memberships were sold out before the convention for the first time. This sellout has given rise to the new phenomenon of Comic-Con memberships being scalped for exorbitant prices on websites such as eBay and Craigslist.
In April 2008, David Glanzer, Comic-Con's director of marketing and public relations, commented on the organization's desire to remain in San Diego:
We've been approached by other cities, [but] I don't think anybody wants to leave San Diego. I certainly don't. It's a perfect fit for us. It's expensive, whether it be paying for the street signs that tell you what streets are closed, or for any police or the hall or any of the myriad things, it's expensive. But it's a great city. There's been some talk of expansion of the center, which we would certainly welcome. Hopefully if everything lines up, we will be here for many more years.
Heidi McDonald reported on her blog The Beat as of October 7, 2009, Preview Night for the 2010 show had already sold out. Glazner explained the early sell-out:
For 2010 the decision was made to offer an option (of whether they wanted to attend Preview Night) to those who pre-registered for four-day badges. We limited the number of badges for Preview Night to the number of those who attended in 2008.
Mark Evanier on his blog News from ME noted as of November 9, 2009, that all 4-day passes for the 2010 show had already been sold out. On February 23, 2010, The Orange County Register reported that the larger Anaheim Convention Center in Anaheim would be making a bid to become the new home of Comic-Con starting in 2013. On September 30, 2010, Comic Con announced that they had extended their stay up to 2015. The North County Times reported on July 26, 2010, that 4-day passes with access to Preview night for the 2011 Convention had sold out two hours before the 2010 convention closed. Comic-Con International announced that 4-day passes for the 2014 convention (July 24–27) would no longer be available and only single days would be sold. Due to overcrowding, organizers of the event capped attendance; this cap has been in place since 2007.
As of October 2013, a $520 million proposed expansion to the San Diego Convention Center received approval from the California Coastal Commission. The proposed expansion would increase the available space within the convention center and had a target completion date of early 2016. The expansion would add approximately 225,000 square feet of exhibit space, an additional 35%; and a brand-new 80,000 square foot ballroom, 20% larger than Hall H. The plan would also add a second tower to the Hilton Bayfront hotel, adding 500 rooms adjacent to the Convention Center. Due to the proposed expansion of the convention center, Comic Con extended its contract for San Diego to 2016. In 2014, convention center expansion was halted due to a lawsuit. As of July 2015, convention center expansion is effectively frozen, partly because the city no longer has financing lined up for it (any financing plan would involve taxpayer money and would have to be approved by a public vote), and partly because the city lost the rights to the only contiguous parcel of land where expansion could occur. Other cities, including Los Angeles, began to seek to have Comic-Con move out of San Diego; In 2015, Comic-Con entered into negotiations with San Diego. As a result of these negotiations, Comic-Con entered into a contract to stay in San Diego through 2018. In 2017 the commitment to San Diego was extended to 2021.
Accidents and incidents
In 2012, a 53-year-old woman crossing against a red light was hit by a car and killed in the days leading up to the convention.
In 2013, a young woman attempted to jump off the balcony of a local high-rise, but nearby stuntmen prevented it.
In 2014, multiple pedestrians marching in an off-site ZombieWalk were struck by a car forcing its way through an intersection. A 64-year-old woman sustained serious injuries to her arm; two others had minor injuries.
The same year, a teenage cosplayer was initially thought to have been sexually assaulted early Sunday morning, and a suspect was arrested on Sunday at the San Diego Marriott Hotel and Marina. Police later stated that the teenage girl was injured in a fall; the arrested individual was released without any charges.
In 2014, San Diego Comic-Con sent a cease and desist order to the organizers Salt Lake Comic Con, asserting that "Comic-Con" and "Comic-Con International" were registered trademarks of the convention, and that use of the term "comic con" in any form was trademark infringement as it implies an unauthorized association with San Diego Comic-Con. A U.S. court ruled in favor of San Diego Comic-Con and awarded $20,000 in damages (albeit not considering the infringement to be willful). Phoenix Comiccon changed its name to Phoenix Comic Fest as a proactive move to avoid possible legal issues in the wake of this ruling. They then filed a motion in an Arizona Federal Court to strike down San Diego Comic Convention's trademark In 2017, the Salt Lake Comic Con changed its name to FanX Salt Lake Comic Convention (or just FanX). On January 16, 2018, Salt Lake Comic Con filed a motion for a new trial.
- Comic book convention
- Comic Art Convention
- San Diego, California
- Science fiction convention
- Valenzuela, Beatriz (July 16, 2016). "How the security team at Comic-Con works to keep fans safe". Los Angeles Daily News. San Bernardino Sun. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
- "About Comic-Con International". Comic-Con International: San Diego. May 28, 2012. Retrieved April 18, 2019.
- "Patent and Trademark Office Petition for Cancellation for Comic-Con".
- Whitehurst, Lindsay (June 27, 2017). "Judge to decide who gets comic con naming rights". The Associated Press. Retrieved July 15, 2017.
- "Comic-Con co-creator Ken Krueger dies". BBC News. November 25, 2009. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2012.
- Rowe, Peter (January 5, 2012). "Richard Alf, 59, one of Comic-Con's founders". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2012.
- "Shel Dorf Tribute — A tribute to Shel Dorf, founder of San Diego's Comic-Con International".
- "Ken Krueger Tribute — A Tribute to Ken Krueger, Chairman of Comic-Con International #1, member of First Fandom, beloved friend and mentor".
- "COMIC-CON BEGINS". comic-con-begins.simplecast.com. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
- Weisberg, Lori (November 22, 2010). "Comic-Con registration crashes for second time". San Diego Union-Tribune. San Diego, California. Retrieved November 24, 2010.
- Glenday, Craig (July 18, 2013). "San Diego Comic-Con – a geeky hotbed of record breaking". London, England: Guinness World Records. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
- Polo, Susano (April 17, 2020). "San Diego Comic-Con 2020 canceled due to coronavirus concerns". Polygon. Retrieved April 17, 2020.
- Gelman, Vlada (March 1, 2021). "Comic-Con 2021 Cancelled; Organizers Eye Smaller, In-Person November Event". TVLine. Retrieved March 1, 2021.
- "Column: San Diego Comic-Con gets the superhero treatment in a new SiriusXM podcast". San Diego Union-Tribune. June 25, 2021. Retrieved June 26, 2021.
- "Founder of Comic-Con Dies at 76" Archived October 4, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, City News Service via Fox5SanDiego.com, November 4, 2009
- Evanier, Mark (November 3, 2009). "Shel Dorf, R.I.P." POV Online. Archived from the original on November 6, 2009. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
- Comic-Con Souvenir Book No. 40 p.61 (2009)
- Rowe, Peter. "Obituary: Sheldon Dorf; Comic-Con co-founder". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Sign On San Diego. November 4, 2009
- Malloy, Elizabeth (April 18, 2008). "Charting Comic-Con's Hulk-like growth". The Daily Transcript. Retrieved April 19, 2008.
- "Comic Con Memories The 70s". Comic-Con Souvenir Book No. 40 p.75 (2009)
- Chafin, Chris (July 19, 2017). "San Diego Comic-Con: The Untold History". Rolling Stone. Jann Wenner. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
- "Comic Con Memories The 80s". Comic-Con Souvenir Book No. 40 p.90 (2009)
- David Scroggy entry, Who's Who of American Comic Books: 1928–1999. Accessed December 6, 2019.
- David M. Ewalt if you come you will never leave and die (July 25, 2011). "The Coolest Costumes Of Comic-Con". Forbes. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- MacDonald, Heidi (June 19, 2013). "What are the biggest comic-cons in North America?". Publisher Weekly. PWxyz, LLC. Archived from the original on August 7, 2014. Retrieved September 5, 2014.
- Peter Rowe (July 16, 2009). "Invasion of the comic fanatics". San Diego Union Tribune. Archived from the original on November 11, 2011. Retrieved October 4, 2009.
While the Con's impact is global, it's San Diego's single largest convention, drawing more than 100,000 people who will rent hotel rooms, order meals and buy bagfuls of whatnots, all to the tune of $32 million.
- Tobias, Andrea (July 25, 2018). "Economic impact of Comic-Con International San Diego". KUSI. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
- Bruvold, Erik (July 16, 2009). "Economics: Comic-Con's Impact More Cultural Than Financial". San Diego News Network. Retrieved September 5, 2018 – via National University System Institute for Policy Research.
- Peter Rowe (April 22, 2013). "Beer is big, bubbly business in SD, new study confirms". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
That same year, the direct economic impact of Comic-Con — a five-day pop culture celebration that is the county's largest convention — was pegged at $180 million.[permanent dead link]
- Woerner, Meredith (July 2, 2015). "Comic-Con will stay in San Diego until 2018". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
- David, Javier E. (July 23, 2016). "Comic Con gives a big boost to San Diego each year, data shows". CNBC. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
- MacDonald, Heidi (July 6, 2018). "In a World of Too Many Cons, San Diego Is Still King". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
- Weisberg, Lori (April 9, 2015). "Comic-Con to get online video channel". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
McNary, Dave (April 9, 2015). "Lionsgate Launching Comic-Con Channel". Variety. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- McDonald, Jeff (August 29, 2016). "Comic-Con buys properties in San Diego's Barrio Logan — but is mum on plans for them". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
Little, Joe (August 29, 2016). "Comic-Con organizers purchase three buildings in Barrio Logan". KGTV. San Diego: Scripps TV Station Group. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
- Jensen, Nels (September 3, 2018). "SDBJ INSIDER: Comic-Con Plants More Local Roots, And Wins Suit". San Diego Business Journal. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
- Showley, Roger (March 16, 2017). "Comic-Con Museum to open in Balboa Park". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
- Steele, Jeanette (October 17, 2017). "Comic-Con museum in Balboa Park hires its 1st director". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
Dubb, Steve (March 8, 2018). "Comic-Con Nonprofit Reveals its Plans for New Museum in San Diego". Nonprofit Quarterly. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
- Banks, Megan (July 20, 2018). "Comic-Con Museum Makes Its Debut With Call For Ideas". KPBS. San Diego. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
- Phillips, Jevon (July 18, 2018). "A year-round Comic-Con? Get an early look at the San Diego museum currently in the works". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
- Haring, Bruce (May 9, 2020). "San Diego Comic-Con@Home Announced, Touting No Lines, Badges For All, And Personalized Snacks". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved May 9, 2020.
- Graser, Marc; Maxwell, Erin (July 13, 2011). "TV shows loom at Comic-Con". Variety, Reed Business Information. Retrieved January 3, 2012.
- Goldberg, Lesley (July 3, 2011). "Comic-Con 2011: The TV Lineup". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 3, 2012.
- Gelman, Vlada. "Comic-Con 2011: ABC Bringing Castle and Once Upon a Time, and Other Updates". TVLine Media. Retrieved January 3, 2012.
- "Infographics: How SDCC Compares To Other Conventions". The San Diego Comic-Con Unofficial Blog. Retrieved November 4, 2013.
- "Dancing With The Stars: A Guide To Comic-Con's Ballroom 20". The San Diego Comic-Con Unofficial Blog. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- "I Am Hall H: A Guide To The Biggest Stage At Comic-Con". The San Diego Comic-Con Unofficial Blog. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
- "Comin-Con Programming Information". Comic-Con.org. Archived from the original on January 2, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2012.
- "Meeting Room Capacity Chart". Hilton Worldwide. Retrieved January 3, 2012.
- "TNI's 2007 San Diego Comic-Con Exclusives Checklist", Toy News International Archived July 13, 2017, at the Wayback Machine 2007
- "Companies with Exclusives"  2017
- Archer, Neil (2015). Studying Hot Fuzz. Columbia University Press. p. 98. ISBN 978-0993238413.
- Kelly Green: The Complete Collection
- Comics that take place at Comic Conventions
- San Diego Comic Con Comics
- Carla Day (April 27, 2012). "The Big Bang Theory Review: Howard, Raj and Sailor Moon". TVFanatic. Mediavine Inc. Retrieved August 27, 2012.
- "Chuck Versus the Sandworm". Tv.com. CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved August 27, 2012.
- Summary page for The Real World: San Diego (2011 season) Episode 7 ("It's My Party and I'll Bang If I Want To"). MTV.com. November 9, 2011
- "It's My Party and I'll Bang If I Want To". The Real World: San Diego. Season 26. Episode 7. November 9, 2011. MTV.
- The Exclusive with Pop Culture Business Guru Rob Salkowitz
- Team Coco (June 22, 2017), Conan Is Returning To Comic-Con® July 19–23 - CONAN on TBS, retrieved July 20, 2017
Adams, Andie (April 8, 2014). "Conan O'Brien to Host from San Diego for Comic-Con 2015". KNSD. San Diego. Retrieved March 21, 2018.
- "Fantastic Four Cake". Foodnetwork.com. Television Food Network. 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- "Column: San Diego Comic-Con gets the superhero treatment in a new SiriusXM podcast". San Diego Union-Tribune. June 25, 2021.
- Comic Con Souvenir Book No. 40. San Diego Comic-Com International. 2009. p. 60.
- San Diego Comic Con Guidebook. 1995. pp. 8–26.
- Comic-Con Chronicles 2006 (internet video). IFC News. 2006. Archived from the original on April 26, 2008.
- "Comic-Con 2006 Special Guest List". Archived from the original on August 12, 2009. Retrieved October 11, 2009.
- "Comic-Con: Where 'nerd has become normal'" USA Today (July 29, 2007), by Scott Bowles
- "Comic-Con 2007 Special Guest List". Archived from the original on July 25, 2009. Retrieved October 11, 2009.
- Lori Weisberg (May 25, 2010). "Comic-Con seeks bids from hotels". The San Diego Union-Tribune.
- "Comic-Con 2008 Special Guest List". August 16, 2008. Archived from the original on July 24, 2009. Retrieved October 11, 2009.
- "Comic-Con 2009 Special Guest List". September 14, 2009. Archived from the original on July 1, 2013. Retrieved October 11, 2009.
- Michael Cieply (July 8, 2009). "Japan's Master Animator to Be Honored in U.S. Visit". The New York Times. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
Carvna, Michael (August 14, 2009). "Lasseter Celebrates 'Ponyo' Creator Hayao Miyazaki". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
Grossman, Lev (July 25, 2009). "San Diego Comic-Con: Meeting Miyazaki". Time. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- "SD Comic-Con '10: A Note About This Week's Massive Coverage". BloodyDisgusting.com.
- "Two new Venues of Comic-Con Events". Comic-Con International. 2010. Archived from the original on November 2, 2011. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- "Comic-Con 2010 Special Guest List". Archived from the original on December 13, 2009. Retrieved December 18, 2009.
- Lori Weisberg (July 22, 2011). "Lines and pre-registration the Comic-Con way". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- "Fourth and final day for Comic-Con and over 126,000 attendees". KFMB-TV. July 24, 2011. Retrieved February 16, 2012.
Cavanaugh, Maureen; Lucas, Paulina (July 21, 2011). "How Does Comic-Con Affect San Diego's Economy?". KPBS. San Diego. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
- "Comic-Con International 2011 Special Guests". Comic-Con 2011. Comic-Con International. October 16, 2011. Archived from the original on March 9, 2012. Retrieved February 16, 2012.
- Joshua L. Weinstein (July 13, 2011). "Steven Spielberg to Make First Comic-Con Appearance". Reuters. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
Rebecca Keegan (July 22, 2011). "Comic-Con 2011: Steven Spielberg says 'Jurassic Park 4' is on". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
- Sarah Parvini (July 14, 2012). "Comic-Con attendees reflect on the convention's changing atmosphere". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
- Sandy Cohen (July 16, 2012). "Comic-Con wraps after 4 days of pop-art indulgence". Associated Press. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
The event has become so popular that organizers have capped attendance at around 130,000 and implemented the digital-registration system to reduce long lines onsite (there are enough of those already) and to prevent ticket brokers from buying blocks of admission badges for resale.
- "Comic-Con International 2012 Special Guests". Comic-Con International 2012 Programming Schedule. Comic-Con International. July 11, 2012. Archived from the original on November 6, 2012. Retrieved September 1, 2012.
- Downey, Ryan J. (July 13, 2012). "Anthony Bourdain Gets 'Jiro' at Comic-Con". MTV.com. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
Sagers, Aaron (June 28, 2012). "Anthony Bourdain swears he's a nerdy fanboy". CNN. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
Karlin, Susan (July 20, 2012). "Get A Taste Of Anthony Bourdain's First Graphic Novel". Fast Company. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
Berger, Karen; Reisman, Abraham (June 9, 2018). "Before He Wanted to Be a Chef, Anthony Bourdain Wanted to Draw Comic Books". Vulture. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- Lori Weisberg (July 22, 2011). "Lines and pre-registration the Comic-Con way". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved July 14, 2013.
- Salisbury, Peter C. (July 26, 2011). "Will Sleep on Floor for Comic-Con 2012 Tickets". San Diego Reader. Retrieved July 14, 2013.
- "About Comic-Con International". Comic-Con International: San Diego.
- "Special Guests, Page 1". Comic-Con International: San Diego. 2013. Retrieved July 13, 2013.
- "Special Guests, Page 2". Comic-Con.org. Comic-Con International: San Diego. 2013. Retrieved July 13, 2013.
- "Special Guests, Page 3". Comic-Con International: San Diego. 2013. Retrieved July 13, 2013.
- "Special Guests, Page 4". Comic-Con International: San Diego. 2013. Retrieved July 13, 2013.
- "Special Guests, Page 5". Comic-Con International: San Diego. 2013. Retrieved July 13, 2013.
- Hill, Kyle (July 21, 2014). "San Diego Comic-Con: By The Numbers". Nerdist. Archived from the original on June 26, 2015. Retrieved June 25, 2015.
- "Comic-Con International: San Diego 2014 Information". Fancons.
- Weisberg, Lori (February 21, 2015). "Comic-Con badges sell out in record time". San Diego Union Tribune. Archived from the original on August 19, 2016. Retrieved February 26, 2015.
- "Comic-Con International: San Diego 2015 Information". Fancons.
- "Anime at Comic-Con 2015". Comic-con.org. San Diego Comic Convention. 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
The Anime rooms move back to the Convention Center for 2015! Now located on the Mezzanine level in rooms 16AB, 17A, and 17B, Comic-Con once again offers 3 big rooms devoted to Anime screenings all weekend long!
- D'Zurilla, Christie (July 21, 2016). "By the numbers: San Diego Comic-Con International 2016". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 21, 2018.
- Lujan, Adam (July 19, 2016). "Comic-Con 2016 TV panels schedule". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- "Comic-Con International: San Diego 2016 Information". Fancons.
- Madriaga, Mike (July 22, 2017). "Comic-Con scanning scamming". San Diego Reader. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
Comic-Con 2016 was the first year that they implemented the Intellitix scanner and RFID system on the million-plus sq./ft. venue.
"San Diego Comic-Con 2016: All Our Coverage". Publishers Weekly. July 20, 2016. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- "New Location for the Anime Rooms!". Comic-con.org. San Diego Comic Convention. 2016. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
Anime moves out of the Convention Center and gains an additional room!
- Rowe, Peter (July 15, 2017). "Comic-Con by the numbers". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved March 21, 2018.
- Gonzalez, Tara; Pixley, Tara (July 28, 2017). "Mike Daniels' Alternate Universe". ESPN. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- "Comic-Con International: San Diego 2017 Information". Fancons.
- Radin, Danielle (July 22, 2017). "The 2017 Must-Have Comic-Con Collector's Items". KNSD. San Diego. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- Rowe, Peter (July 18, 2018). "Comic-Con 2018: How the San Diego pop culture festival became a commercial juggernaut". The Independent. Retrieved July 15, 2019.
- Graham, Erin (2018). "SDCC 2018: Duff Goldman and the Flavor of Fandom". Emertainment Monthly. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- "Comic-Con International: San Diego 2018 Information". Fancons.
- MacDonald, Heidi (July 5, 2018). "SDCC '18: Good-bye sleeping bags – Exclusives and Autographs are now lotteries too". The Beat. WordPress. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
- Nakano, Rina (July 15, 2018). "Comic-Con San Diego: Road closures and traffic information". KGTV. San Diego. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
- "Is there a 2019 San Diego Comic Con - Google Search attendance 130,000+". Google. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
- Rogers, John (July 2005). "Inside: Celebrating a Legend" (PDF). Update. San Diego, California: San Diego Comic-Con International. 1 (1): Cover. OCLC 50503872. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 5, 2009.
- Rogers, John (July 2008). "Exclusive World Premiere at WonderCon!: Justice League: The New Frontier" (PDF). Update. San Diego, California: San Diego Comic-Con International. 3 (1): Cover. OCLC 50503872. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 5, 2009.
- "FREE magazine gives you valuable information". San Diego Comic-Con International. Archived from the original (SHTML) on February 26, 2008. Retrieved July 25, 2016.
... the new official publication of the San Diego Comic-Con International, WonderCon, and APE, the Alternative Press Expo ... Comic-Con Magazine will still contain the elements that made the Update the official preview of all the Comic-Con events ... We will continue showcasing exclusive interviews with special guests from all three of our shows ...
- Miller, Neil (March 2, 2008). "Officially Cool: Comic-Con Magazine Premiere Issue" (PHP). Film School Rejects. Retrieved February 3, 2009.
... produced by the folks who run the San Diego Comic-Con, its little sister show WonderCon and APE, the Alternative Press Expo. This new publication, Comic-Con Magazine, is the evolved version of Update ... there is a pretty in-depth preview of this year's San Diego Comic-Con ... a Comic-Con A to Z Guide and Interviews with actual Comic-Con attendees.
- "2009 Comic‑Con Souvenir Book!". San Diego Comic-Con International. Archived from the original (SHTML) on February 9, 2009. Retrieved February 3, 2009.
... Alex Ross' cover for our 2008 Souvenir Book ... The big news this year is that the Souvenir Book is switching to FULL COLOR ...
- Carr, Stephanie (July 23, 2018). "Get an inside look at some of Comic-Con's lesser-known activities". KSHB. Kansas City. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
Alvarez, Elizabeth (July 21, 2018). "Comic-Con Day 3: A look at the fans and events outside the convention center". KUSI. San Diego. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
- Batcha, Sarah (July 17, 2018). "18 San Diego Comic-Con 2018 events you can enjoy without buying a badge". Orange County Register. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
- "No Badge Required Comic-Con Events and Specials in the Gaslmap Quarter!". Gaslamp.org. Gaslamp Quarter Association. July 2018. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
Scheinbaum, Chase (July 14, 2018). "4 Fun Things to Do at Comic-Con 2018, No Badge Required". San Diego Magazine. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- Yamato, Jen (July 20, 2017). "Are you a replicant? Go inside the immersive, insanely real 'Blade Runner 2049' experience at Comic-Con". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- Petrakovitz, Caitlin (July 20, 2018). "Taco Bell's Comic-Con pop-up was delicious and all thanks to Demolition Man!". CNET. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
- Sherman, Elisabeth (July 17, 2018). "Shake Shack Will Bring 'Bob's Burgers' to Life for Comic Con". Food & Wine. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
- "#22: Outside the Convention Center at Comic-Con 2018!". Comic-Con.org. San Diego Comic Convention. 2018. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- Albert, Cliff (September 5, 2018). "How San Diego's Comic-Con Became So Big". KOGO. San Diego. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
- San Diego Union Tribune (June 30, 2017): "Comic-Con International has agreed to a new three-year contract that will keep the always sold-out pop culture gathering in San Diego through 2021.".
- Comic-COn 2008 registration Archived October 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- McLean, Tom (June 25, 2008). "Buyers beware scalped Comic-Con tickets". Variety.com. Archived from the original on July 20, 2008. Retrieved July 20, 2008.
- More on the SDCC Preview Night sellout — correction
- You Were Warned! Archived October 21, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- Eric, Carpenter (February 23, 2010). "Could Comic-Con move to Anaheim?". The Orange County Register.
- Eric Wolff. "REGION: Comic-Con sells out 2011 Preview Night before Con ends". North County Times. Archived from the original on September 2, 2010.
- Noelene Clark (January 10, 2014). "San Diego Comic-Con International: No more four-day badges for 2014". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 26, 2014.
People who want to attend Thursday, Friday, Saturday and Sunday will have to purchase a badge for each day
- Lori Weisberg (March 1, 2012). "Comic-Con badges go on sale Saturday". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved March 5, 2012.
"As you know because of limited space at the San Diego Convention Center we have had to cap attendance for the last few years," organizers said in their e-mail.
- Geoff Boucher (September 30, 2010). "Comic-Con will stay in San Diego". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 5, 2012.
Comic-Con reached a self-imposed attendance limit at the San Diego Convention Center (SDCC) in 2007 and has had to cap attendance at approximately 125,000 people each year since.
- Lori Weisberg (October 10, 2013). "Commission OKs convention expansion". U-T San Diego.
- "Expansion". Community. San Diego Convention Center Corporation. 2012. Archived from the original on March 9, 2013. Retrieved December 27, 2012.
- "CA Coastal Committee Okays San Diego Convention Center Expansion, Completion Targeted for 2018". The San Diego Comic-Con Unofficial Blog. Retrieved October 11, 2013.
- "Comic-Con International to remain in San Diego through 2016". Los Angeles Times. October 29, 2012. Retrieved December 27, 2012.
- Sloss, Jason (August 7, 2014). "City Council ponders next move for San Diego Convention Center expansion". KSWB. San Diego. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
Weisberg, Lori (August 1, 2014). "Ruling threatens convention center expansion". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
Lewis, Scott (August 26, 2014). "Six Years and $10 Million Gone, the Convention Center Expansion Is Dead". Retrieved June 27, 2015.
Weisberg, Lori (May 9, 2015). "Is contiguous center expansion dead?". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
Sauer, Mark; Trageser, Claire (August 1, 2014). "Court Rejects San Diego Convention Center Expansion Tax". KPBS. San Diego. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
- "Everything You Need to Know About Where the Convention Center Expansion Stands".
- Hugo, Martin; Perry, Tony (January 21, 2015). "Will Comic-Con leave San Diego? Other cities are making pitches". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
- Weisberg, Lori (June 25, 2015). "Comic-Con deal near". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
- "Comic-Con International decides to stay in San Diego through 2018". USA Today. July 2, 2015. Retrieved July 2, 2015.
- De Crescenzo, Sarah (July 2, 2017). "Comic-Con to Stay in San Diego Through 2021". San Diego Business Journal. Retrieved July 3, 2017.
- Kristina Davis; Pauline Repard; Oliver Ortega (July 10, 2010). "Twilight fan hit by car and killed at Comic-Con". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved July 14, 2012.
The woman was in a crosswalk and had a red light when she tried to run across Harbor Drive toward the convention center about 9:20 a.m., said police Sgt. Ron Glass.
- "Stuntmen saves woman hanging from balcony". KGTV. August 1, 2013. Archived from the original on July 22, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2013.
- "ZombieWalk Driver Found Guilty In Comic-Con 2014 Accident Trial". Deadline Hollywood. December 11, 2015.
- "Passersby Struck by Car Amid Comic-Con Zombie Walk". NBCSanDiego.com. July 28, 2014. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
- Ash, Allison; Bianco, Rachel (July 29, 2014). "New cellphone videos of 'Zombie Walk' hit-and-run surface". KGTV. The E.W. Scripps Co. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- *Emma G. Gallegos (July 29, 2014). "Man Arrested After Teen Cosplayer Discovered 'Unconscious And Bloody' On The Side Of The Road At Comic-Con". LAist. Gothamist LLC. Archived from the original on August 2, 2014. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- "Comic-Con 2014: Police investigating attack on Riverside County teen cosplayer". Los Angeles Daily News. LA Daily News. July 30, 2014. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- Arturo Garcia (July 29, 2014). "SD Comic-Con cosplaying teen hospitalized in bloody attack, man arrested". Raw Story. Raw Story Media, Inc. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- Nguyen, Candice; R., Strickney (July 30, 2014). "Family: Riverside Co. Teen Beaten While Attending Comic-Con 2014". NBC San Diego. NBCUniversal Media, LLC. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- Cox, Carolyn (July 31, 2014). "What We Know About The Comic-Con Cosplay Assault, And How To Help". The Mary Sue. Retrieved July 31, 2014.
- Du Pre, Jon (July 31, 2014). "Comic-Con assault leaves female minor in critical condition". KUSI. McKinnon Broadcasting Company. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
- McVicker, Laura (August 1, 2014). "Comic-Con Cosplayer Not Assaulted: Police". NBCSanDiego.com. NBCUniversal Media, LLC. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
- Weisberg, Lori. "Battle of the Cons: SD vs. Salt Lake City". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
- Terror, Jude. "Phoenix Comic Fest is Asking a Federal Court to Strike Down SDCC's Comic-Con Trademark". Bleeding Cool. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
- Cullins, Ashley. "San Diego Comic-Con Trademark Fight Rages On After Jury Verdict". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
- "Salt Lake Comic Con files for new trial in trademark case". The Associated Press. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
- Bill Schelly. "The Comic-Con of Destiny". Comic-Con Souvenir Book 2019. pp.14-32.
- The "Secret Origin" of San Diego's Comic-Con International
- San Diego Comic-Con – Frequently Asked Questions
- Comic-Con Begins oral history
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Comic-Con International.|
- Official website
- 1985-1989 Eisner Award winners, Comic-Con International San Diego. Archived from the original on July 3, 2013.
- 1991-1999 Eisner Award winners, Comic-Con International San Diego. Archived from the original on February 1, 2014
- 2000-2009 Eisner Award winners, Comic-Con International San Diego. Archived from the original on February 1, 2015.
- 2010-2020 Eisner Award winners, Comic-Con International San Diego. Archived from the original on October 30, 2020.
- Hahn, Joel, ed. "Will Eisner Awards [1988-2007]". Comic Book Awards Almanac. Archived from the original on November 14, 2010. Retrieved November 18, 2015.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)