San Juan, Metro Manila

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San Juan
San Juan del Monte
City of San Juan
Pinaglabanan Shrine 01.jpg
SantuariodeSantoCristoParishChurchjf3036 05.JPG
01624jfBarangays Pinaglabanan Government Center Streets City of San Juanfvf 11.jpg
Atlanta Center - Aerial Shot From BSA Twin Towers Ortigas (Annapolis, Greenhills, San Juan; 2015-05-26).jpg
02428jfN. Domingo Street San Juan Plaza Mayor Puregold Agora Progeso Rivera San Juan Cityfvf 18.jpg
(From top, left to right: Pinaglabanan Shrine • Sanctuario de Santo Cristo • San Juan City Hall • San Juan aerial view • Agora Public Market)
Flag of San Juan
Official seal of San Juan
Nickname(s): 
Dakilang Lungsód ng San Juan (Great City of San Juan)
Motto(s): 
Diwa ng 1896 ("Spirit of 1896")
Makabagong San Juan (Modern San Juan)
Anthem: San Juan, Sagisag ng Kalayaan (English: San Juan, Symbol of Freedom)
Map of Metro Manila with San Juan highlighted
Map of Metro Manila with San Juan highlighted
OpenStreetMap
San Juan is located in Philippines
San Juan
San Juan
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 14°36′N 121°02′E / 14.6°N 121.03°E / 14.6; 121.03Coordinates: 14°36′N 121°02′E / 14.6°N 121.03°E / 14.6; 121.03
CountryPhilippines
RegionNational Capital Region
Provincenone
District Lone district
Founded1623
Cityhood and HUC17 June 2007
Named forSt. John the Baptist
Barangays21 (see Barangays)
Government
[2]
 • TypeSangguniang Panlungsod
 • MayorFrancisco Javier M. Zamora (PDP–Laban)
 • Vice MayorJosé Warren P. Villa (PDP–Laban)
 • RepresentativeRonaldo B. Zamora (PDP–Laban)
 • Councilors
List[1]
 • Electorate82,977 voters (2019)
Area
 • Total5.95 km2 (2.30 sq mi)
Area rank145th out of 145
Elevation
24 m (79 ft)
Highest elevation
136 m (446 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 (2020 census) [4]
 • Total126,347
 • Density21,000/km2 (55,000/sq mi)
 • Households
26,768
Demonym(s)San Juaneño (Male)
San Juaneña (Female)
Economy
 • Income class1st city income class
 • Poverty incidence0.76% (2018)[5]
 • Revenue₱2,338,045,258.00 (2020)
 • Assets₱6,327,062,569.00 (2020)
 • Expenditure₱1,823,480,615.00 (2020)
 • Liabilities₱2,398,017,526.00 (2020)
Service provider
 • ElectricityManila Electric Company (Meralco)
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
1500–1504
PSGC
IDD:area code+63 (0)02
Native languagesTagalog
Patron saintNone
Websitewww.sanjuancity.gov.ph

San Juan, officially the City of San Juan (Tagalog: Lungsod ng San Juan), is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the National Capital Region of the Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 126,347 people. [4] It is geographically located at Metro Manila's approximate center and is also the country's smallest city in terms of land area.

The city is known historically for the site of the first battle of the Katipunan, the organization which led the 1896 Philippine Revolution against the Spanish Empire. Notable landmarks today such as Pinaglabanan Shrine and heritage homes are located in the city. Other locations include Greenhills and Santolan Town Plaza, making the city a major shopping hub with a range of upscale, boutique and bargain retail.[6]

Etymology[edit]

"San Juan" is a contraction of the city's traditional name of "San Juan del Monte" (lit.'Saint John of the Mountain'). As with numerous other places in the Philippines, the name combines a patron saint and a toponym; in this case Saint John the Baptist with the locale's hilly terrain and relatively higher elevation compared to surrounding areas.

The city's official name is "Dakilang Lungsód ng San Juan" (lit.'Great City of San Juan').

History[edit]

Precolonial and early Spanish colonial periods[edit]

During the pre-Hispanic period, the area of what is now San Juan was a part of the Kingdom of Namayan, whose last recorded rulers were King Lacantagean and his consort, Bouan. After the kingdom and other polities in the islands were absorbed into the Spanish Crown in the late 16th century, the realm of Namayan was christened Santa Ana de Sapa. The present area of San Juan was meanwhile re-classified as a barrio, becoming a small encomienda by 1590.

In 1602, the Dominicans built a retreat house in the vicinity for their immediate use, where ageing or convalescing friars stayed. Later, the Order constructed a convent and stone church dedicated to the Holy Cross. To this day, the thrice-rebuilt Santuario del Santo Cristo stands on the same site, adjacent to Aquinas School and Dominican College.

During the Philippine Revolution[edit]

In 1783, San Juan was partitioned from Santa Ana but was still a barrio within the Province of Manila. The El Deposito reservoir was historically known as the site where the onset of the Philippine Revolution through the Battle of San Juan del Monte took place in 1896.[7] The opening salvo against Spain took place in San Juan in 1897 when the Katipunan attacked the alamacén (armoury) or polvorín (gunpowder magazine) of the Spanish East Indies colonial government. The town was later incorporated into the Province of Rizal in 1901 under American military rule.

Martial law era[edit]

San Juan, especially its exclusive subdivisions in Greenhills, was home to many prominent personalities during the Philippines' Martial Law era. This included several Armed Forces of the Philippines Generals, including Romeo Espino, Alfredo Montoya, and Romeo Gatan,[8] who would later be tagged as members of the "Rolex 12";[9] Imelda Marcos’ secretary Fe Jimenez Roa;[8] Presidential Assistant on Legal Affairs Ronaldo Zamora, who would later become a Congressman for the lone congressional district of San Juan;[8] San Juan Mayor Joseph Estrada, who would later become President of the Philippines;[8] and prominent journalist Maximo Soliven, who was imprisoned when President Ferdinand Marcos first declared Martial Law in September 1972.[8]

Incorporation into Metro Manila[edit]

When Presidential Decree No. 824 establishing the National Capital Region was signed on 7 November 1975, San Juan was among the towns excised from Rizal Province.

People Power Revolution[edit]

Club Filipino, which had relocated to San Juan in 1970 from its original location in Santa Mesa, became an important part of the establishment of the Fifth Philippine Republic when President Corazon Aquino was inaugurated there on 25 February 1986, the last day of the civilian-led 1986 People Power Revolution.[10]

Cityhood[edit]

Residents ratified the conversion of the municipality into a highly urbanised city on 17 June 2007, pursuant to Republic Act No. 9388 ("An Act Converting the Municipality of San Juan into a Highly Urbanized City to be known as the City of San Juan"). Then Representative Ronaldo B. Zamora sponsored the Cityhood Bill in the House of Representatives and worked for its approval.[11]

Presidential ties[edit]

Although not officially designated as such, San Juan is noted to be the "City of Philippine Presidents." Four presidents since the Third Republic were official residents of San Juan when they assumed office. They were the Macapagal père et fille, Diosdado Sr. (1961–1965) and Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (2001–2010); Ferdinand Marcos (1965–1986); and Joseph Estrada (1998–2001), who also served as Mayor when San Juan was still a municipality.

Geography[edit]

San Juan is the least-extensive city in the Philippines with a total area of just 595 hectares (2.30 sq mi).

San Juan is bounded by Quezon City on the north and east, Mandaluyong on the south, and the City of Manila in the west.

The territory of San Juan was once much larger than it is now, extending all the way to what is now Caloocan. Parts of the present-day Districts 1, 4 and 6 of Quezon City as well as areas of Mandaluyong were originally within the town's colonial-era borders. This also explains why San Juan Reservoir is in nearby Horseshoe Village, a subdivision now part of Quezon City.

Climate[edit]

Climate data for San Juan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29
(84)
30
(86)
32
(90)
34
(93)
33
(91)
31
(88)
30
(86)
29
(84)
29
(84)
30
(86)
30
(86)
29
(84)
31
(87)
Average low °C (°F) 20
(68)
20
(68)
21
(70)
23
(73)
24
(75)
25
(77)
24
(75)
25
(77)
24
(75)
23
(73)
22
(72)
21
(70)
23
(73)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 7
(0.3)
7
(0.3)
9
(0.4)
21
(0.8)
101
(4.0)
152
(6.0)
188
(7.4)
170
(6.7)
159
(6.3)
115
(4.5)
47
(1.9)
29
(1.1)
1,005
(39.7)
Average rainy days 3.3 3.5 11.1 8.1 18.9 23.5 26.4 25.5 24.5 19.6 10.4 6.4 181.2
Source: Meteoblue [12]

Barangays[edit]

San Juan is politically subdivided into 21 barangays:

District 1 District 2

Demographics[edit]

Population census of San Juan
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 1,455—    
1918 6,172+10.11%
1939 18,870+5.47%
1948 31,493+5.86%
1960 56,861+5.05%
1970 104,559+6.27%
1975 122,492+3.23%
1980 130,088+1.21%
1990 126,854−0.25%
1995 124,187−0.40%
2000 117,680−1.15%
2007 125,338+0.87%
2010 121,430−1.15%
2015 122,180+0.12%
2020 126,347+0.66%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[13][14][15][16]

Religion[edit]

The city also has several notable places of worship. Saint John the Baptist Parish, more commonly known as "Pinaglabanan Church", is where the city's patron saint, John the Baptist, is enshrined. The Santuario del Santo Cristo is the settlement's oldest existing church, while Mary the Queen Parish in West Greenhills serves the local Filipino-Chinese community.

From 1925 to 1971, the Iglesia ni Cristo once headquartered in the town at its former Central Office Complex, now known as the Locale of F. Manalo. It features Art-Deco designed ensembles, crafted by National Artist for Architecture Juan Nakpil. The chapel is the centerpiece of the Complex, which also contains the old Central Office and Pastoral House which was the home of the church's first Executive Minister, Ka Felix Manalo, along with other Ministers and Evangelical Workers. When Manalo died in 1963, a mausoleum was constructed on the grounds of the Complex by architect Carlos Santos-Viola.

San Juan also has a number of Evangelical churches. Through the APOI ( Association of Pastors for Outreach and Intercession), they have contributed to the spiritual atmosphere of the city. Every January, the city celebrates the National Bible Week, where the reading of the Scripture happens during the flag raising ceremony in the City Hall. Through the blessing of the mayor, a bible was planted in the heart of the new city hall during its construction.

Major evangelical churches like Jesus is Lord, Victory Greenhills are also found in the city of San Juan.

Economy[edit]

The Greenhills Shopping Center is the hub of trade and commerce in San Juan. The shopping complex housed shopping malls, the Virra Mall, Shoppesville, Greenhills Theater, Greenhills Bowling Alley, and Unimart.

Transportation[edit]

The J. Ruiz station is the only rail and rapid transit station serving San Juan.

Modes of public transportation in San Juan include jeepneys and buses. Jeepney routes ply the Aurora Boulevard (R-6). The city is serviced by the Line 2. The only Line 2 station in San Juan is the J. Ruiz station. The C-3 (Araneta Avenue) also passes through San Juan. Secondary routes include Nicanor Domingo (abbreviated N. Domingo), which heads towards Cubao in Quezon City, and Pinaglabanan/Santolan Road, which leads towards Ortigas Avenue and eventually the southern reaches of Quezon City near Camp Crame, the headquarters of the Philippine National Police.

Education[edit]

The Polytechnic University of the Philippines maintains a campus in San Juan.

Notable people[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

Local[edit]

International[edit]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Councilors of San Juan, Metro Manila.
  2. ^ City of San Juan | (DILG)
  3. ^ "2015 Census of Population, Report No. 3 – Population, Land Area, and Population Density" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. Quezon City, Philippines. August 2016. ISSN 0117-1453. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 25, 2021. Retrieved July 16, 2021.
  4. ^ a b Census of Population (2020). "National Capital Region (NCR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  5. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/Table%202a.%20Updated%20Annual%20Per%20Capita%20Poverty%20Threshold%2C%20Poverty%20Incidence%20and%20Magnitude%20of%20Poor%20Population%20with%20Measures%20of%20Precision%2C%20%20by%20Region%2C%20Province%20and%20HUC_2018.xlsx; publication date: 4 June 2020; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  6. ^ "A short and sweet historical tour of San Juan City". The Manila Times. Retrieved 2018-07-26.
  7. ^ "National Historical Commission of the Philippines official website". Pinaglabanan Memorial Shrine.
  8. ^ a b c d e Soliven, Preciosa S. "North Greenhills 39 years ago". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 2021-08-21.
  9. ^ "The Final Report of the Fact-Finding Commission: II: Political Change and Military Transmition in the Philippines, 1966 – 1989: From the Barracks to the Corridors of Power". Official Gazette. October 3, 1990. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  10. ^ "FAST FACTS: Presidential inauguration traditions and rituals". Rappler. Retrieved 2021-08-21.
  11. ^ "Republic Act No. 9388 - Charter of the City of San Juan" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-10-06. Retrieved 2007-06-18.
  12. ^ "San Juan: Average Temperatures and Rainfall". Meteoblue. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  13. ^ Census of Population (2015). "National Capital Region (NCR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  14. ^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). "National Capital Region (NCR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  15. ^ Censuses of Population (1903–2007). "National Capital Region (NCR)". Table 1. Population Enumerated in Various Censuses by Province/Highly Urbanized City: 1903 to 2007. NSO.
  16. ^ "Province of Metro Manila, 2nd (Not a Province)". Municipality Population Data. Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  17. ^ "Poverty incidence (PI):". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  18. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/NSCB_LocalPovertyPhilippines_0.pdf; publication date: 29 November 2005; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  19. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/2003%20SAE%20of%20poverty%20%28Full%20Report%29_1.pdf; publication date: 23 March 2009; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  20. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/2006%20and%202009%20City%20and%20Municipal%20Level%20Poverty%20Estimates_0_1.pdf; publication date: 3 August 2012; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  21. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/2012%20Municipal%20and%20City%20Level%20Poverty%20Estima7tes%20Publication%20%281%29.pdf; publication date: 31 May 2016; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  22. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/City%20and%20Municipal-level%20Small%20Area%20Poverty%20Estimates_%202009%2C%202012%20and%202015_0.xlsx; publication date: 10 July 2019; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  23. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/Table%202a.%20Updated%20Annual%20Per%20Capita%20Poverty%20Threshold%2C%20Poverty%20Incidence%20and%20Magnitude%20of%20Poor%20Population%20with%20Measures%20of%20Precision%2C%20%20by%20Region%2C%20Province%20and%20HUC_2018.xlsx; publication date: 4 June 2020; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  24. ^ sunstar.com.ph, Davao, San Juan cities ink sisterhood pact Archived 2008-10-08 at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ Tayona, Glenda; Silubrico, Ruby (25 August 2018). "Iloilo to showcase culture to 'sister cities' tonight". Panay News. Archived from the original on 9 April 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  26. ^ "San Juan, Philippines & Maui, Hawaii". Washington, DC: Sister Cities International. Retrieved 2015-02-04.
  27. ^ "Socal Sister Cities Directory". Southern California Sister Cities Directory. SoCal Chapter Inc. Retrieved 2015-02-05.
  28. ^ "San Juan, Philippines & Santa Barbara, California". Washington, DC: Sister Cities International. Retrieved 2015-02-04.

External links[edit]