San Leandro, California
|San Leandro, California|
San Leandro Marina
Location within Alameda County
|Incorporated||March 21, 1872|
|• Mayor||Pauline Russo Cutter (D)|
|• City Manager||Chris Zapata|
|• State Senate||Nancy Skinner (D)|
|• State Assembly||Rob Bonta (D)|
|• U. S. Congress||Barbara Lee (D)|
|• Total||15.663 sq mi (40.565 km2)|
|• Land||13.343 sq mi (34.557 km2)|
|• Water||2.320 sq mi (6.008 km2) 14.81%|
|Elevation||56 ft (15 m)|
|• Estimate (January 1, 2016)||87,700|
|• Density||6,366.6/sq mi (2,458.6/km2)|
|Time zone||Pacific Standard Time Zone (UTC-8)|
|• Summer (DST)||Pacific Daylight Time (UTC-7)|
|GNIS feature IDs||232427, 1659582, 2411794|
The first inhabitants of the geographic region which would eventually become San Leandro were the ancestors of the Ohlone people, who arrived sometime between 3500 and 2500 BC.
The Spanish settlers called these natives Costeños or "coast people" and the English-speaking settlers called them Costanoans. San Leandro was first visited by Europeans on March 20, 1772 by Spanish soldier Captain Pedro Fages and the Spanish Catholic priest Father Crespi.
The smaller, Rancho San Leandro, approximately 9,000 acres (3,600 ha), was given to José Joaquín Estudillo in 1842. The larger, Rancho San Antonio, approximately 44,000 acres (18,000 ha) was given to another Spanish soldier Don Luis Maria Peralta in 1820. Beginning in 1855, two of Estudillo's sons-in-law, John B. Ward and William Heath Davis, laid out the town site that would become San Leandro, bounded by the San Leandro Creek on the north, Watkins Street on the east, Castro Street on the south, & on the west by the longitude lying a block west of Alvarado Street. The city has a historic Portuguese population dating from when immigrants from the Azores and laborers from Hawaii began settling in the city in the 1880s and established farms and businesses. By the 1910 census, they had accounted for nearly two-thirds of the San Leandro's population.
In 1856 San Leandro became the county seat of Alameda county, but the county courthouse was destroyed there by the devastating 1868 quake on the Hayward Fault. The county seat was then re-established in the town of Brooklyn (now part of Oakland), California in 1872.
San Leandro was one of a number of suburban cities built in the post-World War II era of California that had restrictive covenants, which barred property owners in the city from selling properties to African Americans and other minorities. As a result of the covenant, In 1960, the city was almost entirely white (99.3%), while its neighbor city of Oakland had a large African American population. The United States Supreme Court, in Shelley v. Kraemer, later declared such covenants unenforceable by the state. San Leandro was an 86.4% white-non Hispanic community according in the 1970 census. The city's demographics began to diversify in the 1980s. By 2010, Asian Americans had become a plurality population in San Leandro, with approximately one third of the population, with non-Hispanic Whites accounting for 27.1% of the population.
Geography and geology
The San Leandro Hills run above the city to the northeast. In the lower elevations of the city, an upper regionally contained aquifer is located 50 to 100 feet (15 to 30 m) below the surface. At least one deeper aquifer exists approximately 250 feet (75 m) below the surface. Some salt water intrusion has taken place in the San Leandro Cone. Shallow groundwater generally flows to the west, from the foothills toward San Francisco Bay. Shallow groundwater is contaminated in many of the locales of the lower elevation of the city. Contamination by gasoline, volatile organic compounds and some heavy metals has been recorded in a number of these lower elevation areas.
The 2010 United States Census reported that San Leandro had a population of 84,950. The population density was 5,423.8 people per square mile (2,094.1/km²). The racial makeup of San Leandro was 31,946 (37.6%) White, 10,437 (12.3%) African American, 669 (0.8%) Native American, 25,206 (29.7%) Asian, 642 (0.8%) Pacific Islander, 11,295 (13.3%) from other races, and 4,755 (5.6%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 23,237 persons (27.4%). Non-Hispanic Whites numbered 20,004 (23.5%).
The Census reported that 84,300 people (99.2% of the population) lived in households, 282 (0.3%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 368 (0.4%) were institutionalized.
There were 30,717 households, out of which 10,503 (34.2%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 14,142 (46.0%) were married couples, 4,509 (14.7%) had a female householder with no husband present, 1,863 (6.1%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,706 (5.6%) unmarried couples, and just 326 (1.1%) same-sex couples. 8,228 households (26.8%) were made up of individuals and 3,128 (10.2%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74. There were 20,514 families (66.8% of all households); the average family size was 3.36.
The population was spread out with 18,975 people (22.3%) under the age of 18, 7,044 people (8.3%) aged 18 to 24, 23,469 people (27.6%) aged 25 to 44, 23,779 people (28.0%) aged 45 to 64, and 11,683 people (13.8%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.3 years. For every 100 females there were 92.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.5 males.
There were 32,419 housing units at an average density of 2,069.9 per square mile (799.2/km²), of which 17,667 (57.5%) were owner-occupied, and 13,050 (42.5%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.4%; the rental vacancy rate was 5.8%. 50,669 people (59.6% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 33,631 people (39.6%) lived in rental housing units.
According to the 2000 census, there were 30,642 households out of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.1% were married couples living together, 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.3% were non-families. 28.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average
In the city the population was spread out with 22.2% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 32.0% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, and 16.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 93.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.4 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $51,081, and the median income for a family was $60,266. Males had a median income of $41,157 versus $33,486 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,895. About 4.5% of families and 6.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.3% of those under age 18 and 6.5% of those age 65 or over.
San Leandro has long been home to many food processing operations, and is home to many corporate businesses such as JanSport, The North Face, Ghirardelli, OSIsoft, Otis Spunkmeyer, and a Coca-Cola plant. Maxwell House operates a coffee roasting plant, where the Yuban brand is produced. The factory is scheduled to close as of 2015, as part of a cost cutting plan instituted by parent company Kraft Foods. The city has five major shopping centers, the Bayfair Center, Westgate Center, Greenhouse Shopping Center, Marina Square Center, and Pelton Plaza. Lucky's flagship store opened in San Leandro.
The Zero Net Energy Center, scheduled to open in 2013, is a 46,000 square foot electrician training facility created by the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers Local 595 and the Northern California chapter of the National Electrical Contractors Association. Training will include energy efficient construction methods, while the facility will operate as a zero-energy building.
According to the San Leandro's 2015 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|1||San Leandro Unified School District||1,380|
|2||Kaiser Permanente Medical Group||1,032|
|3||City of San Leandro||582|
|4||Ghirardelli Chocolate Company||487|
|5||San Leandro Hospital||460|
|8||BCI Coca-Cola Bottling Co.||325|
|9||Wal-Mart Store 2648||323|
|10||Paramedics Plus LLC||295|
San Leandro is home to two school districts: The San Lorenzo Unified School District includes parts of Washington Manor and the San Leandro Unified School District includes most of San Leandro plus a small part of Oakland. The board of the San Leandro Unified School District is composed of Monique Tate (Area 1), Lance James (Area 2), Vacant (Area 3), Mike Katz-Lacabe (Area 4), Diana J. Prola (Area 5), Ron Carey (Area 6), and Evelyn Gonzalez (At-Large).
In the latter part of the 20th century, San Leandro was home to three high schools: San Leandro High School, Pacific High School (in the San Leandro Unified School District) and Marina High School (located within the San Leandro city limits but coming under the authority of the neighboring San Lorenzo Unified School District). San Leandro High School was established in 1926. As the city's population grew, so did the need for a second high school. Pacific High School was built across town nearer the industrial area adjacent to State Route 17 (now Interstate 880) and opened in 1960. It featured a round main building and more traditional outbuildings, as well as a lighted football field. (The football field at San Leandro High School did not have, and still does not have, lights. All night games for both high schools were played at the Pacific football field, named C. Burrell Field after a former San Leandro Unified School District superintendent. San Leandro High School's night football games are still played there.)
Student enrollment declined in San Leandro and statewide in the late 1970s through the mid 1980s. In California, public schools receive their financing from the state based on the number of students. As a result of declining enrollment and corresponding decreases in state funds, both the San Leandro and San Lorenzo school districts were forced to close schools in the 1980s.
The San Leandro school district could not afford to operate two comprehensive high schools given the decline in enrollment. Amid much controversy, the school board voted to close Pacific High School, which graduated its last class in 1983. Those who wished to keep Pacific High School open cited the fact that it was a much newer facility and handicap accessible, with a more modern football field. Those who were in favor of retaining San Leandro High School maintained that it was a larger campus and therefore had more room to house both school populations; but planned on using Marina High School as a buffer. Through failed dealings and negotiations with the San Lorenzo Unified School District, Marina closed its doors shortly after leaving the City of San Leandro with only 1 high school instead of 3.
In 1989, the San Leandro school district sold the property on which Pacific High School was located and the site was developed into the Marina Square Shopping Center. The school's adjacent football field, Burrell Field, and baseball fields were retained. In 2012, the voters of San Leandro approved the Measure M $50 million construction bond for the renovation of Burrell Field and the baseball fields.
In 1990's and post 2000, student enrollment in the San Leandro school district increased. A new science wing was built at San Leandro High School followed by an Arts Education Center with a performing arts theater. In 2010, a separate campus one block from the main campus at San Leandro High School was opened for 9th grade students and is named after the civil rights leader Fred T. Korematsu, who had many connections to San Leandro and lived close to the city.
San Leandro High School is home to such academic programs as the Business Academy, Social Justice Academy, and San Leandro Academy of Multimedia (SLAM). One of the award-winning national programs located in San Leandro is Distributed Education Clubs of America (DECA), an association for marketing students. In 2007, six students from San Leandro High School won in their competitive events and won a slot to compete in Orlando, Florida on April 27, 2007. In 2005, San Leandro High School had ranking of 4 compared to all other schools in California and 2 when compared to other similar schools (Scale of 1-10).
A number of students residing in San Leandro attend San Lorenzo Unified School District schools, including Arroyo High School, Washington Manor Middle School and Corvallis Elementary School, due to proximity to the San Leandro/San Lorenzo border.
The rest of San Leandro is served by San Leandro Unified School District.
San Leandro is a charter city. Under section 125 of the city's charter, the city has a Mayor-Council-Manager form of government. Mayor Pauline Russo Cutter was elected in November 2014, and serves on the City Council with six Council members. Council members are elected by all voters in the city. However, the Council members must reside within the district they represent. The San Leandro City Council members are Deborah Cox (District 1), Ursula Reed (District 2), Lee Thomas (District 3), Benny Lee (District 4), Corina Lopez (District 5), and Jim Prola (District 6). Council member Reed also serves as the City's Vice Mayor for 2016.
San Leandro is served by the Interstate 880, 580 and 238 freeways connecting to other parts of the Bay Area. East 14th Street is a major thoroughfare in downtown and continues towards East Oakland and Hayward. Davis Street is also another major street that intersects East 14th Street in downtown before heading towards the San Francisco Bay. Public transportation is provided by the Bay Area Rapid Transit BART District with the San Leandro and Bayfair stations servicing the city. San Leandro LINKS provides free bus shuttle service for the western part of the city to the San Leandro BART station and AC Transit is the local bus provider for the city. A senior-oriented local bus service, Flex Shuttle, also operates within the city, as does East Bay Paratransit, which provides shuttle type transportation to residents with disabilities.
The Alameda County Medical Center's psychiatric hospital, the John George Psychiatric Pavilion, is located in unincorporated San Leandro. Fairmont Hospital, located close by, is an Acute Rehabilitation, Neuro-Respiratoy and HIV care center. San Leandro Hospital is the city's full service hospital. Also present within the city are Kindred Hospital San Francisco Bay Area, a long-term acute care facility, and the sub-acute unit of the nursing home care facility, Providence Group, Inc's All Saint's Subacute. A Kaiser Permanente Medical Center opened in June 2014, providing Emergency Medical Services.
The San Leandro Marina, which contains group picnic areas and trails, as well as docking facilities, is part of the San Leandro Shoreline Recreation Area. In addition to Marina Park, the City of San Leandro maintains and services 16 other parks throughout the city, all of which are available for use by residents and visitors alike. The Department of Recreation and Human Services for the City of San Leandro also staffs and maintains the Marina Community Center, the San Leandro Senior Community Center and the San Leandro Family Aquatic Center. Adjacent Lake Chabot Regional Park is popular for its scenic hiking trails, camping, and fishing. At the Fairmont Ridge Staging Area of the park is the Children's Memorial Grove, which consists of an Oak grove and a stone circle, with annual plaques listing the names of all children who have died as a result of violence in Alameda County.
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- Stuart Alexander, sausage maker and mass murderer.
- Joe Alves, film production designer, perhaps best known for his work on three of the Jaws films, born in San Leandro.
- Richard Aoki, activist, charter member of the Black Panther Party, born in San Leandro in 1938.
- Lloyd Bridges, actor, born in San Leandro on January 15, 1913.
- Carolyn Badding, creator of the Badding Rug
- Brian Copeland, comedian, writer, moved to San Leandro in 1972. Author of "Not a Genuine Black Man," about growing up black in then all-white San Leandro.
- Ellen Corbett, California State Senator (later moved to Hayward, California)
- Andrew McGuire, consumer advocate, led 30-year campaign to mandate fire-safe cigarettes worldwide, MacArthur Fellow, attended Pacific High class of 1963, John Muir Junior High, Monroe and Cleveland Elementary Schools.
- Dennis Dixon, quarterback for the University of Oregon Ducks and the Philadelphia Eagles. He went to San Leandro High School.
- Carl Friden, a Swedish American who started the business Friden, Inc. in San Leandro in 1934.
- Kathy Garver, actress, best known for TV series Family Affair, was raised in San Leandro, where she attended school.
- Chuck Hayes, NBA basketball player for the Houston Rockets, born in San Leandro on June 11, 1983, former college basketball star for the Kentucky Wildcats.
- Pat Hurst, professional golfer, born in San Leandro on May 23, 1969.
- Derrick Jasper, college basketball player for the UNLV Runnin' Rebels and the Kentucky Wildcats. Born in San Leandro on April 13, 1988.
- Charlton Jimerson, MLB outfielder, designated for assignment by the Seattle Mariners to make room for Greg Norton, also from San Leandro.
- Fred Korematsu, see Korematsu v. United States, resident of, and arrested in, San Leandro.
- Art Larsen, professional tennis player, graduated from San Leandro High School, ranked number one in the U.S. in 1950, and lived in San Leandro until his death on December 7, 2012.
- Tony Lema, professional golfer, moved to San Leandro in 1940 at the age of six. In June 1983, the Tony Lema Golf Course was dedicated in San Leandro.
- Bill Lockyer, State Treasurer, former California Attorney General and President pro Tempore of the California State Senate, graduated from San Leandro High School and served on the San Leandro School Board from 1968 to 1973.
- Todd Marinovich, former NFL quarterback for the Oakland Raiders, born in San Leandro in 1969.
- Dave McCloughan, NFL defensive back. Born in San Leandro on November 20, 1966.
- Russell Means, is an Oglala Sioux activist for the rights of Native American people, moved to San Leandro in 1942.
- Russ Meyer, film director, born in San Leandro on March 21, 1922.
- Natali Morris, technology news journalist and online media personality, born in San Leandro.
- Arlen Ness, custom motorcycle designer.
- Greg Norton, Major League Baseball player, hitting coach for Auburn University. Born in San Leandro on July 6, 1972.
- Jarrad Page, starting safety for the Kansas City Chiefs; lettered three years at San Leandro High School.
- Harold Peary, actor, comedian and singer in radio, film, television and animation. Born In San Leandro.
- Tony Robello, Major League Baseball second baseman for the Cincinnati Reds. Born in San Leandro in 1914.
- David Silveria, musician (drummer for Korn), born in San Leandro on September 21, 1972.
- Jim Sorensen, track and field athlete, known primarily for running middle distance races. He is the Masters M40 world record holder at 800 meters and former Masters M40 world record holder at 1500 meters.
- Dorothy Warenskjold, lyric soprano. Born in San Leandro in 1921.
- In The Princess Diaries, the cable car conductor, Bruce Macintosh, proclaims that he is from San Leandro.
- In Heart and Souls, Robert Downey Jr. finds out that one of the people he is searching for died in San Leandro.
- In the alternative punk/ska band Camper Van Beethoven's song "Tania", San Leandro is (incorrectly) named as the city in which Patty Hearst's photo was taken during a bank robbery.
- The music video for the song "High and Dry" by alternative rock band Radiohead is set in the long-standing San Leandro establishment, Dick's Restaurant and Satellite Sports Lounge.
- "California Cities by Incorporation Date" (Word). California Association of Local Agency Formation Commissions. Retrieved March 27, 2013.
- "City Council". City of San Leandro. Retrieved March 18, 2013.
- "City Manager". City of San Leandro. Retrieved March 18, 2013.
- "Senators". State of California. Retrieved March 18, 2013.
- "Members Assembly". State of California. Retrieved March 18, 2013.
- "California's 13th Congressional District - Representatives & District Map". Civic Impulse, LLC. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
- "2010 Census U.S. Gazetteer Files – Places – California". United States Census Bureau.
- "San Leandro". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
- Kyle, Douglas E.; Hoover, Mildred Brooke (2002). Historic Spots in California. Stanford University Press. p. 14. ISBN 0-8047-4483-1.
- Rogers, Meg (2008). The Portuguese in San Leandro. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-5833-2.
- Suburban Wall, documentary, 1971; Invisible Wall, documentary, 1981; "Not a Genuine Black Man: Or How I Claimed My Piece of Ground in the Lily-White Suburbs" Brian Copeland, 2006
- Simons, Cynthia Vrilakas (2008). San Leandro. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-5937-7.
- CH2M Hill, California Department of Health Services, Toxic Substances Control Division, Phase I Remedial Investigation Rpt, 1465 Factor Avenue, San Leandro, California (1987).
- C. Michael Hogan, Andy Kratter, Mark Weisman and Jill Buxton, Environmental Initial Study, Aladdin Avenue/Fairway Drive Overcrossing of I-880, Earth Metrics, Caltrans and city of San Leandro Rpt 9551, 1990
- HAYWARD FAULT CROSSING FOOTHILL BOULEVARD, SAN LEANDRO
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". Retrieved July 2, 2016.
- "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "2010 Census Interactive Population Search: CA - San Leandro city". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- http://www.bayareacensus.ca.gov "Demographic Profile Bay Area Census" Check
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- City of San Leandro CAFR
- "Trustees / Board of Trustees". San Leandro Unified School District. Retrieved November 6, 2014.
- John George Psychiatric Pavilion website
- Fairmont Hospital website
- San Leandro Hospital website
- Henry K. Lee (December 28, 2005). "Sausage king dies in his cell on Death Row / Cause of death not known for man who murdered 3". SFGate. Retrieved 2016-10-27.
- Puck Lo (November 12, 2009). "Film on former Panther Richard Aoki debuts". Oakland North. Retrieved 2011-05-13.
- Tom Weaver (n.d.). "Lloyd Bridges Biography". IMDb. Retrieved 2016-10-27.
- Mitch Stephens (November 29, 2002). "San Leandro quarterback wants dream finish / Dennis Dixon's goal is to beat De La Salle before he moves on". SFGate. Retrieved 2016-10-27.
- "Todd Marinovich". Retrieved May 13, 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to San Leandro, California.|
- Official website
- San Leandro Chamber of Commerce
- San Leandro High School
- San Leandro Bytes
- San Leandro Times
- San Leandro travel guide from Wikivoyage
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