San Pedro, Laguna

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San Pedro
City of San Pedro
(From top: Left to right) Manok ni San Pedro, Gateway Park, Santuario de Jesús En el Santo Sepulcro, San Pedro Apostol Church (inside), Alaska Milk Corporation, City Hall, City Plaza, Pacita Complex, and South Peak Village
(From top: Left to right)
Manok ni San Pedro, Gateway Park, Santuario de Jesús En el Santo Sepulcro, San Pedro Apostol Church (inside), Alaska Milk Corporation, City Hall, City Plaza, Pacita Complex, and South Peak Village
Official seal of San Pedro
Seal
Nickname(s): 
Sampaguita Capital of the Philippines and the Shrine city of the South
Laguna's Gateway to Metro Manila[1]
Motto(s): 
Sipag at Pananampalataya sa Diyos tungo sa Kaunlaran ng San Pedro (Hard work and Faith in God towards San Pedro's progress);
Magandang San Pedro Po
Map of Laguna with San Pedro highlighted
Map of Laguna with San Pedro highlighted
San Pedro is located in Philippines
San Pedro
San Pedro
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 14°21′30″N 121°03′30″E / 14.3583°N 121.0583°E / 14.3583; 121.0583Coordinates: 14°21′30″N 121°03′30″E / 14.3583°N 121.0583°E / 14.3583; 121.0583
Country Philippines
RegionCalabarzon (Region IV-A)
ProvinceLaguna
District1st District
FoundedJanuary 18, 1725
CityhoodDecember 28, 2013[2][3]
Barangays27 (see Barangays)
Government
[4]
 • TypeSangguniang Panlungsod
 • MayorLourdes S. Catáquiz
 • Vice MayorIryne V. Vierneza
 • Electorate165,073 voters (2016)
Area
[5]
 • Total24.05 km2 (9.29 sq mi)
Highest elevation
117.348 m (385.000 ft)
Population
(2015 census)[6]
 • Total325,809
 • Rank4 out of 30 (in Laguna)[7][better source needed]
 • Density14,000/km2 (35,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
4023
PSGC
IDD:area code+63 (0)02
Climate typeTropical monsoon climate
Income class1st city income class
Revenue (₱)979,746,719.97 (2016)
Native languagesTagalog
Taglish
Swardspeak
Websitecityofsanpedrolaguna.gov.ph

San Pedro, officially the City of San Pedro, (Tagalog: Lungsod ng San Pedro), or simply San Pedro City, is a 1st class city in the province of Laguna, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 325,809 people.[6]

It is named after its patron saint, Peter the Apostle.[8]

Despite being the third smallest in the entire province, with a total land surface area of only 24.05 km2, San Pedro is the fourth largest city in terms of population after the cities of Calamba, Biñan, and Santa Rosa. The city also has the highest population density in the province of Laguna and in the whole Calabarzon region, having 14,000 people/km2.[8]

San Pedro City eyed as 18th member of Metro Manila. Former Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA) Chairman Francis Tolentino is pushing for the inclusion of San Pedro City in the National Capital Region, and eventually become its 18th member city. Tolentino said that in the first meeting of the MMDA Council of mayors in January 2015, he will push for the inclusion of the city to the MMDA[9].

Senator Aquilino "Koko" Pimentel III is seeking the separation of the City of San Pedro from the first legislative district of Laguna province to constitute a lone congressional district.

In 2015, Pimentel filed Senate Bill No. 3029 for the creation of the San Pedro City as a separate district to commence in the next national and local elections.[10]

History[edit]

San Pedro de Tunasán became a town on January 18, 1725, when King Charles II of Spain decreed that the town formerly known as "Tabuko" be a separate town from "Kabullaw" (now known as the city of Cabuyao).[8]

By virtue of the last will of Philip V of Spain, Rodriguez de Figueroa or "Don Esteban", a group of Augustinian Fathers gained the ownership of the Tunasán Estate. Later on, San Pedro became an hacienda of Colegio de San José, a group of Jesuits friars who took over the property which now is known as "San Pedro Tunasán". Tunasán literally means "a place where there is Tunás" (Nymphaea nouchali[11]), a medicinal plant abundant on shoreline area.[8]

During that period, agriculture, fishing, duck raising, fruit trees, and sampaguita were the main source of income of its residents. This period was highlighted by the growing tenant/landlord dispute. The tenants of Hacienda San Pedro Tunasán fought for their birthrights over their ancestral lands. This struggle took almost 423 years of unsuccessful resistance to Colegio de San José, and in 1938, the government bought the home sites of the San Pedro Tunasán Hacienda from the Colegio for re-sale to its tenants. This event laid to rest the tenants/landlord problem in the town.

In the year 1902, the name San Pedro de Tunasán was simplified to San Pedro.

From the Spanish time until after the Japanese occupation of the Philippines, the scenario did change a bit, when on August 30, 1954, beginning to the Philippine Commonwealth forces against the Japanese, President Ramón Magsaysay signed at the historic town plaza the Land Tenancy Act. By virtue of this law, farm lots of the hacienda were bought by the Philippine government to be sold at cost to the tenants or occupants of the farm lots in Bayan-Bayanan under the Narra Settlement Project of the Magsaysay Administration.

Cityhood[edit]

San Pedro City Hall

On March 27, 2013, President Benigno Aquino signed the 64-page Republic Act No. 10420[12] converting the municipality into a new component city of the province of Laguna. The cityhood of San Pedro was ratified through a plebiscite scheduled by the Commission on Elections (COMELEC). The date for the ratification is December 28, 2013 after the National Barangay Elections. It became the sixth city of Laguna after the cities of Biñan, Cabuyao, Calamba, San Pablo and Santa Rosa, and also the third to be a city in the 1st congressional district of Laguna - making it the first city district in the province.

COMELEC officially proclaimed the first-class municipality of San Pedro as a component city of Laguna on December 29, 2013. Juanito Icarro, regional director of Calabarzon and Mimaropa, and Marianne Marfori, provincial election supervisor, made the proclamation at the municipal hall after San Pedro residents voted for the cityhood in a plebiscite held on December 28, 2013. "Yes" votes for cityhood totaled 16,996 (which is an additional 50 votes added in some precincts mostly in the San Vicente area to win the "yes" vote), and "no" votes, only 869, in 501 clustered precincts in San Pedro. Only 11% of 165,777 registered voters in San Pedro's 20 barangays took part in the plebiscite.

Support groups from the local government and non-government organizations are striving to incorporate San Pedro into Metro Manila.[13][14]

Geography[edit]

San Pedro is located in Region 4A or Calabarzon. San Pedro is the boundary between Laguna and Metro Manila, so San Pedro is known as "Laguna's Gateway to Metro Manila". San Pedro shares boundaries with Metro Manila's southernmost city, Muntinlupa (north) bounded with Tunasan River, Biñan (east), Carmona and Gen. Mariano Alvarez (southeast) bound with San Isidro River. Its position makes San Pedro a popular suburban residential community, where many residents commute daily to Metro Manila for work.[8]

Barangays[edit]

San Pedro is politically subdivided into 27 barangays. Brgy. San Antonio is the largest barangay, which has a total of 780 hectares, while Brgy. San Vicente is the most populous with a total population of 92,092.[15]

  • Bagong Silang
  • Calendola
  • Chrysanthemum1
  • Cuyab
  • Estrella
  • Fatima2
  • G.S.I.S.
  • Landayan
  • Langgam
  • Laram
  • Maharlika3
  • Magsaysay
  • Narra
  • Nueva
  • Pacita 14
  • Pacita 25
  • Poblacion
  • Riverside
  • Rosario6
  • Sampaguita Village(literally known part of Calendola)
  • San Antonio
  • San Roque
  • San Vicente
  • San Lorenzo Ruiz7
  • Sto. Niño
  • United Bayanihan
  • United Better Living

1 2 3 4 5 6 7^Seven new barangays created as separate and distinct from its mother Brgy. San Vicente after it was ratified and approved through a plebiscite held on July 11, 2015 under COMELEC Resolution No. 9969.[16]

Climate[edit]

Climate data for San Pedro City, Philippines
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30
(86)
31
(88)
32
(90)
34
(93)
34
(93)
33
(91)
32
(90)
31
(88)
32
(90)
32
(90)
31
(88)
30
(86)
32
(89)
Average low °C (°F) 24
(75)
24
(75)
25
(77)
27
(81)
27
(81)
26
(79)
26
(79)
25
(77)
26
(79)
26
(79)
26
(79)
25
(77)
26
(78)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 32.9
(1.295)
31.7
(1.248)
28.2
(1.11)
26.9
(1.059)
188.9
(7.437)
225.7
(8.886)
420.0
(16.535)
377.9
(14.878)
332.4
(13.087)
145.1
(5.713)
128.8
(5.071)
76.3
(3.004)
2,014.8
(79.323)
Average rainy days 6 6 4 4 12 18 21 23 21 17 14 10 156
Source: World Weather Online[17]

Demographics[edit]

Population census of San Pedro
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 3,678—    
1918 4,184+0.86%
1939 6,300+1.97%
1948 9,063+4.12%
1960 14,082+3.74%
1970 32,991+8.88%
1975 43,439+5.67%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1980 74,556+11.40%
1990 156,486+7.70%
1995 189,333+3.63%
2000 231,403+4.40%
2007 281,808+2.76%
2010 294,310+1.59%
2015 325,809+1.95%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[6][18][19][20]

The City of San Pedro is the 37th most populous city and youngest city in the Philippines. As of 2015, the population is 325,809, up from 294,310 in 2010, or an increase of almost 11%. Its area is 24.05 square kilometres (9.29 sq mi) with a density of 13,547/km2 (35,087/sq mi).

Religion[edit]

San Pedro Apostol Parish

San Pedro is home for the Famous Krus ng San Pedro Tunasán. Majority of the people are Roman Catholics. Other religious groups include are the Members Church of God International (MCGI), Jesus Miracle Crusade International Ministry (JMCIM), United Church of Christ in the Philippines (UCCP), Jesus Is Lord Church (JIL), Jesus Christ the Lifegiver Ministries (JCLM), Iglesia Ni Cristo (INC), The United Methodist Church, Presbyterian Churches, Christian Bible Baptist Church, other Baptist and Bible Fundamental churches. Islam is also practiced within the community. There are 15 Catholic parishes in the city, and one mosque.

Economy[edit]

San Pedro city proper from the city plaza

The largest barangay with industry, manufacturing, supermarkets, and stores in San Pedro is San Antonio. This barangay has the largest area in San Pedro. The city center and city proper or Poblacion (San Pedro) is where most inhabitants go to buy their goods. San Pedro also has a large number of factories surrounding it. Most of the factories are located at Magsaysay Road in San Antonio.

Agriculture[edit]

Agricultural lands now account for only thirteen hectares of the total land area due to residential, commercial and industrial conversions. There are lands with slope ranging from 8% - 15% of the total land area located in parts of Barangay San Antonio and San Vicente planted with mangoes and siniguelas trees. Livestock and poultry businesses operate in the area.

Commerce and industry[edit]

There are 4,705 total business establishments, 40 commercial, savings and rural banks, 117 restaurant, cafeteria, and other refreshment parlor, and two public and five private markets and supermarkets. There are 40 banks, 62 pawnshops, 36 lending institutions and 11 insurance companies operating in the city. Commercial and Business establishments are mostly located at Pacita Complex and Rosario Complex. A large percentage of industrial and manufacturing establishments of San Pedro is located on the adjacent barangays of San Vicente and San Antonio; E&E Industrial Complex is located in San Antonio where some of the city's factories are situated.

Tourism[edit]

San Pedro has a 20 km tourism belt[citation needed] which caters to tourists of the city.

Sampaguita Festival[edit]

Laguna Northwestern College performance at Sampaguita Festival 2017
Sampaguita Festival Grand Champion represents the city at Laguna's Anilag Festival 2017.

The annual City Festival is celebrated in the second week of February. This week-long festival includes various activities ranging from cultural to sports, trade fairs, amateur singing contests, parades, historical exhibits, social and religious gatherings, tribal dances, street dances, cheering and sport exhibitions. The highlight of the festival is the coronation night of the "Hiyas ng San Pedro". The festival aims to promote tourism in San Pedro and to revitalize Sampaguita industry in the community.The celebration was formerly known as "Manok ni San Pedro Festival", which started in 1999 and was renamed to "Sampaguita Festival" in 2002. The celebration kicked off with a grand parade.

San Pedro City holds the record of laying the longest sampaguita (flower lei) line, spanning 3.6 km (2 mi), from Biñan City-San Pedro City boundary to San Pedro City-Muntinlupa City boundary on the National Highway; this was listed in the Guinness World Records in 2009.

Christmas Festival[edit]

Paskuhan Sa San Pedro is an annually celebrated festival in San Pedro City. It starts at the beginning of December and runs to the end of the month. The opening is a grand parade which is participated in by public and private schools in the city, local government and other socio-civic organizations. The main event of the opening is the lighting of the whole plaza, fireworks display, and various school performances. Every night a variety of shows are performed by the participants, which last up to midnight. On 29 December of every year the cityhood anniversary of San Pedro is celebrated.

Infrastructure[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Old National Highway bounding Muntinlupa and San Pedro

Public transport[edit]

Buses with lines from Metro Manila serve the city. Grab taxi service is available in the city. Uv Express and FX with lines from Metro Manila and provinces provide service in the city. Jeepneys provide service between the city and nearby areas and the city's barangays. Tricycles and pedicabs serves the barangays and subdivisions (gated communities).

Road Network[edit]

Major roads[edit]

  • Manila South Road (Old National Highway)
  • South Luzon Expressway (Southbound Exit)
  • South Luzon Expressway (Northbound Exit) Construction

Nagsagawa ng groundbreaking ceremony ng SLEX San Pedro Northbound exit si Mayor Lourdes Cataquiz kasama si Cong. Arlene Arcillas, Gov. Ramil Hernandez at ang DPWH Region 4A Director Samson Hebra. [21]

  • A Mabini Street

Inner roads[edit]

  • Pacita Ave (Pacita Complex) - F. Balagtas Street(Chrysanthemum Village) - Rosario Ave (Rosario Complex)

This road serves as main road from Pacita Complex to Southwoods city in Binan City, Laguna.

  • San Vicente Rd (San Pedro Bayan - Calendola Village)- R. Magsaysay Ave (Calendola Village -> Brgy. Langgam)

This road serves as Main road from San Pedro Bayan to Brgy. Langgam

  • SHORTCUT ROAD FROM PACITA COMPLEX TO ELVINDA VILLAGE:

This road eliminates Traffic Congestion at Manila South Road in preparation for the opening of Robinsons Galleria South. It will reduce your travel time from Pacita Complex to San Pedro Highway and Bayan. It serves as an alternate route aside from Manila South Road.

  • (Road begins at Pacita Ave. intersection)(Pacita 1 area) 3rd street(Sta Elena street) going to Casa Del Nino Science HS -> Fe Medalla Ave -> (Pacita 2 area) Orange Drive -> Lavender Lane -> (Elvinda Village Area) Magnolia st. -> Escarlata St. -> Champaca St. (Road ends at Crismor ave. intersection)

Railway[edit]

PNR Pacita MG station

Philippine National Railway Metro Commuter Line serves the city with two railroad stations:

Healthcare[edit]

Throughout the city, healthcare is primarily provided at the Barangay Health Centers in every barangay. Also, several medical missions are operated and provided by local and international organizations. The major hospitals in the city are:

  • Jose L. Amante Emergency Hospital (Brgy. Sto. Nino)
  • Gavino Alvarez Lying-In Center (Brgy. Narra)
  • San Pedro Doctors Hospital (Manila South Road-Landayan)
  • Divine Mercy Hospital (Guevarra Subd.)
  • Westlake Medical Center (Manila South Road-Pacita Complex)
  • Evangelista Medical Specialty Hospital (Macaria Ave.-Pacita Complex)
  • Family Care Hospital (Macaria Ave.-Pacita Complex)

Housing[edit]

Most people in San Pedro live in over 59 subdivisions, that are either gated communities or open residential areas. The city is also a location of several government-led relocation projects. Squatters, or informal settlers, are scattered over the city.

Education[edit]

The Department of Education Region IV-A - Division of San Pedro supervises the operation of over 12 public elementary schools and 7 public high schools and provides permits to over 35 private schools, including Catholic schools. Private schools are scattered throughout the city, especially on the subdivisions. With the implementation of the K-12 program, some private schools added senior high schools, and many public high schools still have limited facilities for the senior high school.

Tertiary education and technical education are provided by several institutions scattered on the city. The Laguna Northwestern College has two campuses in San Pedro, one being a branch on Pacita Complex. Polytechnic University of the Philippines has one campus in the city. San Pedro College of Business Administration in Barangay Nueva provides courses related to business administration, and provides

City Seal[edit]

CityOfSanPedro.jpg

The City of San Pedro logo represents San Pedro’s identity – a Gateway City:

  • Being the first city of Laguna from Metro Manila, San Pedro is gateway to the Province and likewise to the Calabarzon Region, the country’s premier growth area.
  • Being a pilgrimage tourism destination on account of the miraculous Lolo Uweng Shrine, San Pedro is a place for holiness and religious devotion that can lead the Christian believer to eternal life in God’s Kingdom, thus, it is Gateway to Heaven.
  • San Pedro is named after Saint Peter to whom Christ entrusted the keys to the gates of heaven. Matthew 16:19: ”I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.”

Shapes and colors[edit]

CIRCLES have no beginning nor end. They protect, they endure, they restrict. They confine what’s within and keep things out. They offer safety and connection. They suggest community, integrity, and perfection.

White is color at its most complete and pure, the color of perfection. It means purity, innocence, wholeness and completion. White is the base color of the logo.

The Red Circle suggests excitement, energy, passion, love, desire, speed, strength, power, thus contributing to the success of all things intense and passionate.

The Black Circle suggests power, sophistication, formality, and elegance.

The Green Circle suggests balance, growth and self-reliance.

Gold is the color of success, achievement and triumph. It is also associated with abundance and prosperity, luxury and quality, prestige and sophistication, value and elegance. Its color psychology implies affluence, material wealth and extravagance.

Blue stands for peace, tranquility, calm, stability, harmony, unity, trust, truth, confidence, conservatism, security, cleanliness, order, loyalty, sky, water, and technology. It is the color of trust and peace. It can suggest loyalty and integrity.

San Pedro Arch[edit]

This is the main element of the logo. It signifies a period of transition: a passage from where one moves to another place. Transition signifies change, and the arch represents the passageways or doorways of that process of change. The change can be internal, where something ( like character, values, vision or perspective) within a person or the community could be changing. The change could be external, which is change in the outer aspect of life (like physical appearance). Or, the process can be happening on both levels. An arch symbolizes a gate or a doorway. An arch is a gateway - a door to something beyond it. A passageway to something more to follow.

Roosters[edit]

These represent the incident where Peter denied Jesus, followed by the crowing of the roosters. The Christian world calls this the Incident of Repentance. For the crowing of the rooster was followed by Saint Peter’s bitter cry and plea for forgiveness.

Today, the Rooster would signify the repentance of the saint and religious vigilance as well as resurrection. To this day the Rooster seen on a weather vane is steeped in symbolic meanings that deal with watchful vigilance against evil, as weather vanes are commonly seen atop churches.

The ancient Greeks believed the Rooster rose to attention every morning and salutes the sun with a hearty cry, symbolizing victory over night. As such, the Rooster was considered a solar emblem to the Greeks, and was adopted as a sacred sign to the god Apollo as well as Zeus, Persephone and Attis.

The Rooster is also one of the twelve signs of the Chinese zodiac symbolizing honesty, as well as physical and moral fortitude. It also symbolizes fortune, luck, fidelity and protection. In Japan, Roosters are permitted to run free amongst the Shinto temples. This is partially due to the Rooster calling Shinto followers to prayer with its morning crow at dawn.

To many people, the Rooster may be a symbol of a Call to Action. It awakens people to a new day to do great things for themselves and their fellowmen.

Keys[edit]

The keys symbolize the power to enter the kingdom of heaven, and Saint Peter holding the keys tightly means he holds the most important thing that leads to heaven, that is Knowledge of God.

The Gold Ancient Keys in the Arch also represent greatness and power, among others.

Keys open doors. It symbolizes our never-ending quest for opportunities that will contribute to our city’s growth and progress.

Sampaguita garland[edit]

This symbolizes San Pedro’s distinction as the Sampaguita Capital of the Philippines. Some would question this title due to the absence now of a tangible heritage, which are the vast tracks of Sampaguita farms that gave rise to the Sampaguita industry in San Pedro during the olden times. But the claim to this title is justified by the fact that the city still owns the intangible heritage of having the most skillful and most creative makers of Sampaguita products in the country. Moreover, the Sampaguita Festival which is being celebrated annually by San Pedro is the only festival in the country which gives honor and recognition to the national flower.

The twenty Sampaguita buds forming a lei represent the 20 barangays of San Pedro. It also symbolizes unity and harmony among the city constituents. The number of buds may be increased through time should new barangays are created in the future.

Sun[edit]

This Star is our logo’s connection to the Philippine National Flag. Its 8 rays symbolize the 8 provinces (including Laguna) which first revolted against Spanish colonization during the 19th centtury.

Our ancestors have long considered the sun as the center of humankind's existence. It symbolizes life, power, strength, energy, force and clarity. In Christianity the sun is the house of Archangel Michael (Gabriel lives within the moon), and is also a symbol of the Christ, or Christ-like attributes.

In ancient Egypt the sun is associated with the Horus, Ra and Osiris. Horus represents the rising sun, Osiris the setting sun, and Ra, the sun's zenith. The sun as symbol of eyes or vision is the eye of the sun which is the eye of Zeus in Greek mythology.

Words and date[edit]

City of San Pedro identifies the owner of the logo. Laguna suggests that San Pedro is a component city of the Province of Laguna. Philippines is the country where our city is located, the inclusion of which will help distinguish our city from all other existing or future cities with similar name in other countries around the world. 2013 is the year when the City of San Pedro acquired its corporate existence as a Component City of Laguna.

NOTE: Approved by the Sangguniang Panlungsod on February 17, 2014 under Resolution 2014-26 and City Ordinance 2014-10.

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ San Pedro City, Laguna, Philippines - Welcome Message
  2. ^ San Pedro now a component city of Laguna - Philstar.com
  3. ^ http://www.comelec.gov.ph/?r=Archives/Plebiscites/PlebiscitesSanPedroLaguna
  4. ^ "City". Quezon City, Philippines: Department of the Interior and Local Government. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
  5. ^ "Province: Laguna". PSGC Interactive. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  6. ^ a b c Census of Population (2015). "Region IV-A (Calabarzon)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  7. ^ Laguna (province)#Administrative divisions
  8. ^ a b c d e San Pedro, Laguna Official Website - History
  9. ^ "San Pedro City eyed as 18th member of MMDA | Manila Bulletin | Latest Breaking News | News Philippines". 2014-12-31. Retrieved 2018-09-07.
  10. ^ "Press Release - Koko seeks the creation of San Pedro City as a separate congressional district". www.senate.gov.ph. Senate of the Philippines. Retrieved 2018-09-07.
  11. ^ Nymphaea nouchali
  12. ^ http://www.gov.ph/2013/03/27/republic-act-no-10420/
  13. ^ http://www.pna.gov.ph/index.php?&sid=10++.&pfn=720424&arch=1&go=Go&search_arch&andor&mdte_arch=12&ddte_arch=30&ydte_arch=2014
  14. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-12-31. Retrieved 2015-03-08.
  15. ^ "MUNICIPALITY/CITY:City of San Pedro". Philippine Statistics Authority (National Statistical Coordination Board).
  16. ^ "PLEBISCITE TO RATIFY THE CREATION OF SEVEN (7) NEW BARANGAYS SEPARATE AND DISTINCT FROM ITS MOTHER BARANGAY OF SAN VICENTE, SAN PEDRO CITY, LAGUNA". Philippines: Commission of Elections. June 11, 2015. Archived from the original on July 20, 2015.
  17. ^ "San Pedro Average Temperatures and Rainfall". World Weather Online. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
  18. ^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Region IV-A (Calabarzon)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  19. ^ Censuses of Population (1903–2007). "Region IV-A (Calabarzon)". Table 1. Population Enumerated in Various Censuses by Province/Highly Urbanized City: 1903 to 2007. NSO.
  20. ^ "Province of Laguna". Municipality Population Data. Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  21. ^ http://lourdescataquiz.com/groundbreaking-ng-slex-northbound-exit-isinagawa/

External links[edit]