Sanandaj

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For the administrative subdivision, see Sanandaj County.
Sanandaj
سنندج
سنە
Sine
City
Snah.JPG
Official seal of Sanandaj
Seal
Sanandaj is located in Iran
Sanandaj
Sanandaj
Coordinates: 35°18′52″N 46°59′32″E / 35.31444°N 46.99222°E / 35.31444; 46.99222Coordinates: 35°18′52″N 46°59′32″E / 35.31444°N 46.99222°E / 35.31444; 46.99222
Country  Iran
Province Kurdistan
County Sanandaj
Bakhsh Central
Government
 • Mayor Kamyab Shadman
Elevation 1,538 m (5,046 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 432,330
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)
 • Summer (DST) IRDT (UTC+4:30)
Area code(s) 087
Website e-sanandaj.ir

Sanandaj About this sound pronunciation  (Persian: سنندج‎‎ Kurdish: سنە, Sine). At the 2011 census, its population was 432,330.[1] Sanandaj is the capital of Kurdish culture and Kordestan province at Iran. Sanandaj is the twenty-third largest city in Iran. Until the 17th century it was only a small village, when the governor of the region, Suleyman Khan Ardalan, built (or renovated) a fortress there, known as "Sena Dezh", which gave the town its Persian name.[2] Some sources date the origin of the fortress to the period of Abbasid rule (750–1258).[3]

Society[edit]

The population of Sanandaj is mainly Kurdish. The city also had an Armenian minority who gradually immigrated from the city. Until the Iranian Revolution (1979), the city had a small Aramaic-speaking Jewish community of about 4,000 people.[4] The city boasted a sizable Assyrian community that spoke a unique dialect of Aramaic called Senaya; however, Senaya speakers left Sanandaj for Tehran sometime in the mid-twentieth century. The population of the Persian minority has increased significantly since the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979. This is mainly due to the policies of the central government that has filled the majority of the high ranked government jobs by non-locals from other parts of the country.

The economy of Sanandaj is based upon the production of carpets, processed hides and skins, milled rice, refined sugar, woodworking, cotton weaving, metalware and cutlery. People in Sanandaj, and generally in Kurdistan, suffer from a high rate of unemployment of around 16% according to official stats.[5] Insufficient investment from the central government is known to be a main underlying hurdle.[6]

Culture[edit]

Sanandaj has been known as a cultural capital for the whole Kurdistan region even beyond the Iranian borders. Kurdish music and dance are very strong elements of the Kurdish culture and have been maintained over many centuries within the society. Many Kurdish music celebrities like Ali Asghar Kurdistan, Nasser Razazi, Mazhar Khaleghi and the Kamkars are form Sanandaj. People in Sanandaj also enjoy their own variations of Kurdish dance with specific gestures which gives a unique flavour to this happy folkloric dance.

Climate[edit]

Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies it as continental Mediterranean (Dsa). Temperatures in Sanandaj range from -8.2 to 35.1 (Celsius). Rainfall varies from 6.0 to 270.0 (mm/month). The average seasonal temperature in Sanandaj is 15.20 C in spring, 25.20 C in summer, 10.40 C in autumn and 1.60 C in winter. In a study, the maximum absolute temperature was found to be 44 C, the minimum absolute -31 C, and the average annual temperature 13.10 C. The average relative humidity was 69% at 06:30 hours and 38% at 12:30 hours. The average annual rainfall was 497.3 mm and the maximum daily, 61 mm. The average number of frosty days was 111.4; and the maximum number of hours of sunshine over the entire year 2,786.2.

Climate data for Sanandaj
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 4.9
(40.8)
6.9
(44.4)
13.1
(55.6)
19.1
(66.4)
25.2
(77.4)
32.3
(90.1)
36.8
(98.2)
36.1
(97)
31.6
(88.9)
23.9
(75)
15.6
(60.1)
8.5
(47.3)
21.2
(70.1)
Average low °C (°F) −6.2
(20.8)
−4.8
(23.4)
0.1
(32.2)
4.5
(40.1)
8.2
(46.8)
12.2
(54)
17.1
(62.8)
16.4
(61.5)
10.4
(50.7)
5.8
(42.4)
1.1
(34)
−3
(27)
5.2
(41.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 71.8
(2.827)
67.7
(2.665)
86.9
(3.421)
73.1
(2.878)
42.5
(1.673)
1.8
(0.071)
0.4
(0.016)
0.7
(0.028)
0.8
(0.031)
29.2
(1.15)
57.3
(2.256)
58.4
(2.299)
490.6
(19.315)
Average precipitation days 12.4 12.0 13.3 12.0 9.0 1.0 0.3 1.0 0.8 5.8 8.2 10.9 86.7
Source: World Meteorological Organisation

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://sanandaj.gov.ir/Default.aspx?TabID=2 Sanandaj Governance
  2. ^ Geoffrey Khan, The Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Sanandaj, Piscataway NJ: Gorgias Press, p. 1.
  3. ^ Sanandaj Encyclopedia Britannica, retrieved 16 July 2014.
  4. ^ Geoffrey Khan, The Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Sanandaj, Piscataway NJ: Gorgias Press, p. 1.
  5. ^ "کردستان از نظر نرخ بیکاری در جایگاه دوم کشور قرار گرفت". www.yjc.ir. Retrieved 2016-05-14. 
  6. ^ "سرمایه‌گذاری در صنعت و معدن کردستان، 4 برابر کمتر از متوسط کشوری است". www.sanayenews.com. Retrieved 2016-05-14. 

External links[edit]