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Sancho II (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈsɐ̃ʃu]), nicknamed "the Pious" (Portuguese: o Piedoso) and "the Caped" or "the Capuched" (Portuguese: o Capelo), King of Portugal (8 September 1209 – 4 January 1248) was King of Portugal from 1223 to 1247. He was succeeded by his brother, King Afonso III, in 1247.
By the time of his accession to the throne, in 1223, Portugal was embroiled in a difficult diplomatic conflict with the Catholic Church. His father, Afonso II, had been excommunicated by Pope Honorius III, for his attempts at reducing the Church's power within the country. A treaty of 10 articles was signed between the Pope and Sancho II, but the king paid little attention to its fulfillment. His priority was the Reconquista, the reconquest of the southern Iberian Peninsula from the Moors. From 1236 onwards, Sancho II conquered several cities in the Algarve and Alentejo, securing the Portuguese position in the region.
Sancho II proved a capable commander but, with regard to equally important administrative issues, he was less competent. With his total attention focused on military campaigns, the ground was open for internal disputes. The nobility was displeased by the king's conduct and started to conspire against him. Moreover, the middle class of merchants quarrelled frequently with the clergy, without any intervention from the king. As a result, the Archbishop of Porto made a formal complaint to the Pope about this state of affairs. Since the Church was the superpower of the 13th century, Pope Innocent IV felt free to issue a bull ordering the Portuguese to choose a new king to replace the so-called heretic.
In 1246 recalcitrant nobles invited Sancho's brother Afonso, Count of Boulogne, to take the throne. Afonso immediately abdicated from his French possessions and marched into Portugal.
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