Sandalwood oil

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A glass vial containing pure Sandalwood Essential Oil

Sandalwood oil is an essential oil obtained from the steam distillation of chips and billets cut from the heartwood of various species of sandalwood trees (e.g. Santalum album[1] and Santalum spicatum).[2]

Sandalwood oil is used in perfumes, cosmetics, sacred unguents, and as a mild food flavoring.[1]

Main constituents[edit]

Sandalwood oil contains more than 90% sesquiterpenic alcohols of which 50-60% is the tricyclic α-santalol. β-Santalol comprises 20-25%.[2][3]

The composition of the oil will depend on the species, region grown, age of tree,[2] and possibly the season of harvest and details of the extraction process used.

Current ISO standards for S. album oil, are 41-55 % α-santalol and 16-24 % β–santalol (ISO 3518: 2002E).[4]

Traditional uses[edit]

Due to its highly coveted fragrance, the essential oil produced from Sandalwood is often used in aromatherapy and is added to soaps and cosmetics. It is also used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of both somatic and mental disorders, including common colds, bronchitis, fever, urinary tract infections, and inflammation.[5] A study investigating the effects of inhalation of East Indian sandalwood oil and its main compound, α-santalol, on human physiological parameters found that the compounds elevated pulse rate, skin conductance, and systolic blood pressure.[5] There is also religious significance associated with sandalwood oil and it is used in many different religions around the world, including Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, and Zoroastrianism.

Production[edit]

The oil is distilled from the wood of the entire tree including stump and roots. (See also Sandalwood#Production, Sandalwood#Distillation)

Fragrance[edit]

Sandalwood oil is used extensively for its woody-floral scent. It pairs well with other wood or floral scents such as violet, rose, tuberose, clove, and oakmoss.[6] But since the wood is so rare and expensive, cosmetic companies are now trying to find synthetic substitutes to try to imitate the structure and scent of sandalwood. There are several synthetic odorants with odor similar to sandalwood oil, used as lower-cost alternatives for perfumes, emollients, and skin cleaning agents. Two of these, Sandalore and Brahmanol, have been found to be agonists of the cutaneous olfactory receptor OR2AT4, with potential therapeutic benefits for wound healing. Natural sandalwood oil, and other synthetic sandalwood odorants, did not have the same effect.[7][8]

Safety[edit]

  • There hasn't been extensive research conducted on the safety of sandalwood oil. But because there haven't been any significant adverse effects documented in scientific literature, it continues to be used cosmetically and in food. A few studies were found to identify sandalwood oil's potential toxic effects, but it was determined to be safe at the present levels that the oil is used in food as flavorings. In a few different patch tests, undiluted sandalwood oil was found to be slightly irritating in mice and rabbits, but not in humans.[6]
  • Nowadays, with the study & research of Dr Shalini Mohan (A Naturopath & YouTubers[9] over 2 millions followers), Therapeutic Food grade Edible Sandalwood oil [10]is generally safe for human consumption in small amounts as per approval is given by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 0.001% of sandalwood essential oil is approved by the FDA to use it in the food industry. East Indian Sandalwood Oil has a healthy inflammatory response properties in skin models and Psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease marked by hyperproliferation and aberrant differentiation of keratinocytes. Sandalwood Edible Food Grade Oil is used in the preparation of different kinds of candies and chocolates. These kinds of chocolates offer mood support and calm the mind due to a high percentage of α-santalol in the sandalwood essential oil. Therapeutic grade sandalwood essential oil is added to mineral water drop-wise to enhance the flavor of the water and to freshen the mind. Sandalwood essential oil in water supports skin toxins, petroleum residues, metals, and other foreign substances without any side effects. Edible Sandalwood Oil is widely being sold through e-commerce portal after her revelation of study.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kapoor LD (2001). Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants. Herbal Reference Library Series. 2. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. ISBN 9780849329296.
  2. ^ a b c Sandalwood Essential Oil, http://scienceofacne.com/sandalwood-essential-oil/ Has references.
  3. ^ Krotz A, Helmchen G (1994). "Total Syntheses, Optical Rotations and Fragrance Properties of Sandalwood Constituents: (−)-(Z)- and (−)-(E)-β-Santalol and Their Enantiomers, ent-β-Santalene". Liebigs Ann Chem. 1994 (6): 601–609. doi:10.1002/jlac.199419940610.
  4. ^ Preliminary oil results from a 14-year-old Indian Sandalwood (Santalum album) plantation at Kununurra, WA Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ a b Heuberger, E; Hongratanaworakit, T; Buchbauer, G (2006). "East Indian Sandalwood and alpha-santalol odor increase physiological and self-rated arousal in humans". Planta Medica. 72 (9): 792–800. doi:10.1055/s-2006-941544. PMID 16783696.
  6. ^ a b Burdock, George A; Carabin, Ioana G (Summer 2007). "Safety assessment of sandalwood oil". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 46: 421–432. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2007.09.092.
  7. ^ A Synthetic Sandalwood Odorant Induces Wound-Healing Processes in Human Keratinocytes via the Olfactory Receptor OR2AT4, Daniela Busse1, Philipp Kudella1, Nana-Maria Grüning, Günter Gisselmann1, Sonja Ständer, Thomas Luger, Frank Jacobsen, Lars Steinsträßer, Ralf Paus, Paraskevi Gkogkolou, Markus Böhm, Hanns Hatt and Heike Benecke, Journal of Investigative Dermatology (2014) 134, 2823–2832; doi:10.1038/jid.2014.273; published online 7 August 2014
  8. ^ New Scientist magazine,Skin’s ability to ‘smell’ seems to help it heal itself, 8 July 2014
  9. ^ "Recipe With Dr Shalini". YouTube. Retrieved 2018-08-12.
  10. ^ Dr Shalini Weight Loss (2018-04-17), Toothpick Magic | टूथपिक - जो चर्बी पिघलाए को मक्ख़न की तरह पिघलाएं और गोरा बनाये | डॉ शालिनी, retrieved 2018-08-12