সন্দেশখালি I সমষ্টি উন্নয়ন ব্লক
|Community development block|
|District||North 24 Parganas|
|• Type||Community development block|
|• Total||181.20 km2 (69.96 sq mi)|
|Elevation||7 m (23 ft)|
|• Density||910/km2 (2,400/sq mi)|
|• Official||Bengali, English|
|• Total literates||100,978 (71.08%)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-WB|
|Vehicle registration||WB-23, WB-24, WB-25, WB-26|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Basirhat|
|Vidhan Sabha constituency||Sandeshkhali|
Sandeshkhali I is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Basirhat subdivision of North 24 Parganas district in the Indian state of West Bengal. Sandeshkhali police station serves this block. Headquarters of this block is at Najata Hatkhali. It is located 54 km from Barasat, the district headquarters.
Sandeshkhali is located at.
Sandeshkhali I CD Block is bounded by Minakhan and Hasnabad CD Blocks in the north, Hingalganj CD Block in the east, Sandeshkhali II CD Block in the south and Bhangar II and Bhangar I CD Blocks in South 24 Parganas district in the west.
Sandeshkhali I CD Block has an area of 181.20 km2.
The Sandeshkhali area is full of creeks and swamps in the deltaic region of southern Bengal. The wide Dalma and Besti rivers flow through the area.
The Sundarbans is a flat lowland susceptible to the storm surges along the 260 km shoreline of the Bay of Bengal. The total expanse of Sundarbans is about 2.05 million hectares (8,000 square miles). Of this, only 0.42 million hectares (1,629 square miles or 10,43,000 acres) are under the reserve forests including about 0.19 million hectares covered by creeks and channels. The area is prone to natural calamities such as cyclones, thunderstorms with occasional hail and floods. There are more than 63,400 km of embankments but the floods caused by high tidal bores, often wash away much of the embankments, already weakened and broken by earlier cyclonic storms.
In May 2009, the district was hit by high speed cyclone named Aila and subsequent rainfall which continued for two days. This created a disaster in 20 out of 22 blocks of the district. 10 out of 27 municipalities of the district were also severely affected.
Six CD Blocks of North 24 Parganas are included in the Sundabans area – Hingalganj, Hasnabad, Sandeskhali I and II, Minakhan and Haora.
Daud Pur is one of the most valuable and updated places in Sandeshkhali. The river Bali passes from here. Gram Panchayat Office, Bank, H.S School all are here. Daud pur H.L Sikshanikatan is a H.S School and a reputed school in this area. Nowadays solar electricityand good roads available. This village is a boundary of 24pgs(n) & 24pgs(s).
As per 2011 Census of India Sandeshkhali I CD Block had a total population of 164,465, all of which were rural. There were 83,925 (51%) males and 80,540 (49%) females. Population below 6 years was 22,394. Scheduled Castes numbered 50,812 and Scheduled Tribes numbered 42,674.
As per 2001 census, Sandeshkhali I block has a total population of 140,446 out of which 71,912 were males and 68,534 were females. Sandeshkhali I block registered a population growth of 16.51 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for the district was 22.40 per cent. Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.84 per cent.
Large villages in Sandeshkhali I CD Block were (2011 census figures in brackets): Matbari (6,748), Khassankdaha (5,890), Chunchura (6,267), Laukhali Patharghata (9,180), Agarhati (6,889), Fakirtakia (10,361), Rajbari (5,964), Natkora (5,081), Kanmari (5,898), Khariat Abad (4,819), Baunia Abad (10,028), Nayazat (4,732), Bayar Mari Abad (11,030), Dakshin Akhratala (11,376), Ghoshpur (6,606), Kalinagar (8,769), Chhota Sehara (4,742) and Nityabaria (4,759).
As per 2011 census the total number of literates in Sandeshkhali I CD Block was 100,978 (71.08% of the population over 6 years) out of which 56,501 (56%) were males and 44,477 (44%) were females.
As per 2011 census, literacy in North 24 Parganas district was 84.06 (including urban areas outside the CD Blocks). Literacy in West Bengal was 77.08% in 2011. Literacy in India in 2011 was 74.04%.
|Literacy in CD Blocks of
North 24 Parganas district
|Barasat Sadar subdivision|
|Amdanga – 80.69%|
|Deganga – 79.65%|
|Barasat I – 81.50%|
|Barasat II – 77.71%|
|Habra I – 83.15%|
|Habra II – 81.05%|
|Rajarhat – 83.13%|
|Baduria – 78.75%|
|Basirhat I – 72.10%|
|Basirhat II – 78.30%|
|Haroa – 73.13%|
|Hasnabad – 71.47%|
|Hingalganj – 76.85%|
|Minakhan – 71.33%|
|Sandeshkhali I – 71.08%|
|Sandeshkhali II – 70.96%|
|Swarupnagar – 77.57%|
|Bagdah – 75.30%|
|Bangaon – 79.71%|
|Gaighata – 82.32%|
|Barrackpore I – 85.91%|
|Barrackpore II – 84.53%|
|Source: 2011 Census: CD Block Wise
Primary Census Abstract Data
In the 2011 census Hindus numbered 113,793 and formed 69.19% of the population in Sandeshkhali I CD Block. Muslims numbered 50,029 and formed 30.42% of the population. Others numbered 643 and formed 0.39% of the population.
In 1981 Hindus numbered 76,282 and formed 81.23% of the population and Muslims numbered 17,574 and formed 18.50% of the population in Sandeshkhali I CD Block. In 1981 Hindus numbered 78,701 and formed 81.03% of the population and Muslims numbered 17,999 and formed 18.56% of the population in Sandeshkhali II CD Block. In 1991 Hindus numbered 187,572 and formed 78.34% of the population and Muslims numbered 51,862 and formed 21.66% of the population in Sandeshkhali I and Sandeshkhali II CD Blocks taken together. (In 1981 and 1991 census was conducted as per jurisdiction of the police station.)
In the 2011 census, Hindus numbered 7,352,769 and formed 73.46% of the population in North 24 Parganas district. Muslims numbered 2,584,684 and formed 25.82% of the population. In West Bengal Hindus numbered 64,385,546 and formed 70.53% of the population. Muslims numbered 24,654,825 and formed 27.01% of the population.
Human Development Report
According to Census 2001, 54% of the population of North 24 Parganas district live in the urban areas. The district has 1,571 inhabited villages spread over 22 community development blocks. In the urban area there are 27 municipalities, 20 census towns, 7 urban outgrowths and one town under Cantonment Board. The North 24 Parganas district Human Development Report opines that in spite of agricultural productivity in North 24 Parganas district being rather impressive 81.84% of rural population suffer from shortage of food. The number of families living below the poverty line vary widely from block to block. Even in some municipal areas, such as Baduria, Gobardanga, Taki, Basirhat, Bangaon and Habra surveys have revealed large percentage of people living in poverty. Several poverty alleviation schemes are under implementation mostly at the block level. North 24 Parganas district with a population density of 2,192 persons per square km, is third densest in West Bengal, after Kolkata and Howrah. The high density of population in the district is largely because of large scale migration of refugees from erstwhile East Pakistan, particularly in the period 1947 to 1955. In 2004, life expectancy at birth of a female was 71 years and that of a male was 66 years. With a literacy rate of 68.74% in 2001, the district was second only to Kolkata in the state in literacy. There are 6,139 habitations in the rural areas of North 24 Parganas. Out of these 2,331 habitations have primary schools within the villages and another 3,334 habitations have primary schools within 1 km. There are 474 habitations with primary schools beyond 1 km from the village. There were 258 high schools in the rural areas of the district.
Sandeshkhali I CD Block had a population density of 771 persons per km2. It was ranked 20 amongst the 22 CD Blocks for density of population in 2001. It had a literacy rate of 58.45%, ranking of 22. Male literacy rate was 70.10% and female literacy rate was 46.15%. It was one of the three CD Blocks in which more than half the women were illiterate in 2001. Percentage distribution of main workers in Sandeshkhali CD Block was cultivators 18.64, agricultural labourer 34.74, household industry worker 2.22 and other workers 44.41 (non-agricultural, non-household). 58.29% of households in this CD Block lived below poverty line.
In Sandeshkhali I CD Block 71 villages had primary school in the village, 38 villages had primary school within 1 km and 56 villages had primary schools more than 1 km away, 16 villages had upper primary schools in the village, 85 villages had upper primary schools within 1 km and 64 villages more than 1 km away.
In the Sandeshkhali I CD Block none of the villages had secondary schools and for 93.33% villages a college was more than 5 km away. Sandeshkhali I had 5 high schools with 3,501 students and 180 teachers. It had 6 higher secondary schools with 5,698 students and 192 teachers.
In Sandeshkhali I, one of the six CD Blocks in the Sundarban area, 43.33% of the villages had electricity for domestic use, 63.33% villages had paved approach roads, none of the villages had maternity and child welfare centres, and 100% villages had drinking water. The tube well is the source of drinking water in 1,244 out of 1,572 villages in the district. In Sandeshkhali I CD Block, 27 villages had tube wells for drinking water, 2 villages had tap water and one village used tank water. Sandeshkhali I CD Block had 207 km surfaced roads and 68 km unsurfaced roads.
North 24 Parganas is one of the leading districts in the formation and development of self-help groups. In Sandeshkhali I there were 556 groups. The major activities done by these groups were fishery and prawn culture, animal husbandry and poultry. Sandeshkhali CD Block had 3 health centres and 35 sub-centres.
in CD Blocks of
North 24 Parganas district
|Barasat Sadar subdivision|
|Amdanga – 33.05%|
|Deganga – 14.29%|
|Barasat I – 18.46%|
|Barasat II – 23.12%|
|Habra I – 34.81%|
|Habra II – 31.75%|
|Rajarhat – 22.60%|
|Baduria – 40.74%|
|Basirhat I – 34.78%|
|Basirhat II – 17.61%|
|Haroa – 33.73%|
|Hasnabad – 28.69%|
|Hingalganj – 44.50%|
|Minakhan – 38.42%|
|Sandeshkhali I – 58.29%|
|Sandeshkhali II – 59.70%|
|Swarupnagar – 27.21%|
|Bagdah – 14.56%|
|Bangaon – 27.70%|
|Gaighata – 22.71%|
|Barrackpore I – 8.63%|
|Barrackpore II – 30.12%|
District Human Development Report:
North 24 Parganas, 2010, page 259
Sandeshkhali and its surrounding areas are known for “notorious activities and incidents of common people being attacked and robbed by pirates frequently”. Some localities close to Sundarbans have been found vulnerable to women trafficking. More than 100 women from this region get trafficked to red-light areas in Mumbai and Pune each year. Over the period 2002 – 2007, Sandeshkhali has reported hundreds of missing boys and girls. Most affected families have not registered cases, as they feel the police will not be of much help. Many keep on hoping that their children will return someday.
The remote villages and hamlets situated in the area suffer from chronic shortage of energy due to non-availability of grid power. It is extremely difficult to extend high voltage transmission lines because of technical limitations in an area with inhospitable terrain and prohibitive cost. A scheme is being formulated to cover about 750,000 people in the difficult areas of Sundarbans with non-conventional energy power within the year 2012. The scheme covers Gosaba, Sagar, Pathar Pratima, Namkhana, Kultali, Hingalganj and Sandeshkhali.
Micro credit is serving as an effective tool of economic emancipation of women, empowering them to fight against many social evils and the age-old atrocities in the villages. JYDC an NGO, in collaboration with National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) has established 1047 self-help groups with 12000 members spread over 24 villages (mouza). SHG members of Sandeshkhali raised Rs.40,000/-loan from Bank of Baroda to start a poultry farm.(31 March 2008, BDO, SDK-II)
Although in North 24 Parganas district groundwater is affected by arsenic contamination, tubewells in Sandeshkhali II block are arsenic safe according to Indian standard (50 µg/L) and in Sandeshkhali I block only 0.6% tubewells exceed 50 µg/L.(study conducted by JYDC an NGO). A lab was set up by JYDC in collaboration with UNICEF and govt. of West Bengal to monitor drinking water in the area. The probable reason may be, in Sandeshkhali, most of the tubewells are deep tubewells. A study of iodine deficiency disorder amongst children found that prevalence of goitre amongst school children was very high at Sandeshkhali.
Four launches with doctors carrying medicines, sophisticated portable X-ray and echo-cardiograph machines, provided by the French author Dominique Lapierre move along the waterways of the Sundarbans to its furthest corners.
- Ghosh, Amitav, The Hungry Tide, p. 51, Harper Collins/India Today group
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