Sandleford

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Sandleford
Sandleford is located in Berkshire
Sandleford
Sandleford
 Sandleford shown within Berkshire
OS grid reference SU474643
Metropolitan borough West Berkshire
Metropolitan county Berkshire
Region South East
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town NEWBURY
Postcode district RG20
Dialling code 01635
Police Thames Valley
Fire Royal Berkshire
Ambulance South Central
EU Parliament South East England
UK Parliament Newbury
List of places
UK
England
Berkshire

Coordinates: 51°22′41″N 1°18′58″W / 51.378°N 1.316°W / 51.378; -1.316

UK Ordnance Survey map, detail of Sandleford, 1939.

Sandleford is a hamlet and former parish in the English county of Berkshire. The settlement is now within the civil parish of Greenham, and is located approximately 1.5 miles (2.4 km) south of the town of Newbury. It measures about 520 acres, most of which is taken up with the fields and copses to the west of the Priory. A census taken in 1801 showed Sandleford to have three houses, three families and 18 people.[1] At the same time Newbury comprised 931 houses, 34 empty houses, 971 families and 4275 people. John Marius Wilson in his Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales, 1870–72, gave Sandleford as having Real property £775; of which £10 are in fisheries, and a population of 49 in nine houses, but in 1881 the population of Sandleford had shrunk to 34.[2] In 1615 it was separated from the manor and parish of Newbury, and the adjacent Wash Common and became extra-parochial, as described by Sir Francis More, Kt, of Fawley, it was to be: no part of the Parish of Newbury, nor to be so reputed. At some point after 1924 it was subsumed into the parish of Greenham.

On 23 August 1759 the Rector of Newbury, Rev. Thomas Penrose (died 1769), father of the poet Thomas Penrose, in answer to some set questions about Newbury, and to question number five in particular which concerned 'seats of gentry' in the town, wrote this: [Newbury has] No seat of gentry; if you except Sandleford, which is an estate held of the church of Windsor, and which is often considered as extra-parochial, but which pays a composition in lieu of tithes to the rector of Newbury. It is situated to the south of Newbury. The present lessee is Edward Montagu, Esq.; Member of Parliament for the town of Huntingdon.[3]

Notable buildings[edit]

Sandleford Priory[edit]

The remains of Sandleford Priory (1200–1478) are incorporated into St Gabriel's School.

Sandleford was a priory of Austin canons, founded between 1193 and 1202 by Geoffrey, 4th count of Perch, and Richenza-Matilda his wife. A confirmation charter from Archbishop Stephen indicates the priory was dedicated to St John the Baptist and endowed with all the lands of Sandleford.. The appropriation of the priory to the Dean and Canons of Windsor was mainly owing to Bishop Beauchamp of Salisbury, who was dean of Windsor from 1478 to 1481. By this time it appears the religious had forsaken the priory.

On 9 March 1478, Richard Beauchamp, Bishop of Salisbury and Dean of Windsor, surrendered to the Dean and Canons of Windsor, all the lands, tenements, manors, etc, in Berkshire, formerly belonging to the Prior and Convent of St John the Baptist, Sandleford.

The priory had been richly endowed with properties over a number of years and those which came into the possession of the Dean and Canons included the following: Lands in Bramley, Chiddingfold, and Hambledon, Surrey; the manor of East Enborne, Berkshire; lands in Freefolk, Whitchurch, Hampshire; lands in Kingsclere, Hampshire; lands in Newbury, Berkshire; lands in Newtown, Hampshire; lands in Pamber, Hampshire; the manor of Roke, Odiham, Hampshire; and the rectory of West Ilsley, Berkshire.[4]

The original rhomboid shaped endowment for the Augustinian priory of Sandleford read something like:

with the church and all the lands at Sandelford [Sandleford], as it is bounded by hedges and ditches [i.e. enclosed] and all its appurtenances, And the whole of the wood which is called Brademore [Broadmore], And the whole of the land on each side of the wood, as it is bounded on one side by the watercourse which is called the Aleburne [River Enborne] from the Bridge of Sandleford up to the Aleburne-gate,[5] and on the other-side as far as it is bounded by the road which reaches from Aleburne-gate towards Newbury as far as the croft of William the Hunter, and on the third side so far as the road is carried, thence to the croft of Robert the son of Renbaldi, [Robert fitz Rembaldand], – that is the road that leads to Newbury, and on the fourth side as it is bounded by the same road [A339] as far as the bridge of Sandleford.[6]

An extract of the original Latin foundation description:

... ecclesiam et totam terram de Sandelford, sicuti sepibus vel fossatis circumsepta est, cum omnibus pertinentiis suis, et totum boscum qui vocatur Brademore, et totam terram ex utraque parte jusdem bosci, sicut cingitur ex una parte acqua quae vocatur Aleburne, a ponte de Sandelford usque ad Alburnegate, et in alia parte sicut cingitur via quae extenditur de Alburnegate versus Nyweburie, usque ad croftam Willielmi Venatoris: ...[7]

Sandleford Cottage/Lodge/Place[edit]

On the southern boundary, by the River Enborne, on the Berkshire and Hampshire, and Sandleford and Newtown border.

Literature[edit]

The original home of the rabbits in Richard Adams' novel Watership Down was at Sandleford.

Mrs. Elizabeth Montagu, the distinguished blue-stocking, who lived at Sandleford from 1742 until her death in 1800 writes from and mentions Sandleford in dozens of her of letters.[8]

Sandleford Fair and Festival[edit]

On 1235 the Prior of Sandleford obtained from King Henry III the right to hold a charter fair of four days during the Feast of Saint Matthew the Apostle (21 September), and perhaps another two days around 20–23 September.[9] Suitably enough, 780 years later, the present day Newbury Show, aka Royal County of Berkshire Show, is held over those days. Perhaps one is the successor of the other, afteral the first annual Newbury and District Agricultural Show was held in 1909 on land included in the Priory's original 1190s endowment at Enborne Gate Farm, aka Alburnegate.[10]

Information from some Henry III Fine Rolls[edit]

  • A Henry III fine roll.:[11][12] 5 January 1236. Sandleford. 'For the Master of the Hospital of Newbury. Order to the sheriff of Berkshire to place in respite, until the king orders otherwise, the demand that he makes from Brother William, Master of the Hospital of St. Bartholomew, Newbury, for Walter of Wantage, Nigel Gaudy [Gandi], Richard Richeman, Os[e]bert [the] Forester, David of Thatcham [the Reeve?] and Ralph son of Peter [Aseline] for five tuns of wine, priced 7 m. [ marks ], which were sold at Newbury in the time of King John, father of the king, because the aforesaid Brother William was then a clerk of the men of Newbury, and to cause their livestock that he took from them for this reason to be delivered to him in the meantime.'[13]
Joan of England, Queen of Scotland.
  • A fine roll:[14] 18 March 1238. Sandleford. 'The king has granted to Joan of England, Queen of Scotland while she lives that if she happens to die, her executors may hold in their hands the manors of Driffield and Fenstanton for two years from Michaelmas in the twenty-second year, in order to make execution of [the testament] of the aforesaid queen as would seem best for the king, so that they would hold those manors in their hand, as has been agreed between the king and the aforesaid executors, by a certain price. Order to Robert of Crepping to take the manor of Driffield into the king's hand and keep it safely until the king orders otherwise, saving to the aforesaid executors the corn in the land, rent of assise and all stock found in the same manor up to Michaelmas in the twenty-second year.'
  • A fine roll,[15] 2 November 1248. 'For the prior of Sandleford. The king has pardoned to the prior of Sandleford the 40s. at which he was amerced before the justices last itinerant in Berkshire for several amercements. Order to the barons of the Exchequer to cause the prior to be quit from the aforesaid 40s.'
  • A fine roll,[16] dated 16 October 1250. 'For the prior of Sandleford. The king has pardoned to the prior of Sandleford the 40s. which he owed him for wines sold to him by Robert [de] Dacre [clerk, buyer and seller of the king's wine]. Order to the sheriff of Berkshire not to distrain him henceforth on account of this.'
  • A fine roll,[17] dated 1 November 1251. Woodstock. 'For the prior of Sandleford. The king has granted to the prior of Sandleford that, of the 5 m. at which he was amerced before Henry of Bratton and his associates, assigned to be the king's justices at Winchester, for disseisin made against Josceus de Brichull',[18] he may pay one moiety at the Exchequer of Easter in the thirty-sixth year and the other moiety at the Exchequer of Michaelmas next following. Order to the barons of the Exchequer to cause the same prior to have the same terms and to cause this to be done and enrolled thus. By the king.'

Free Warren[edit]

In 1293, King Edward I granted the priory free warren on all its demesne lands at Sandleford and Enborne; so long as nevertheless those lands are not within the bounds of our forest. (Note that forest does not mean woods).[19][20]

Notable owners, residents, and people associated with Sandleford[edit]

From secluded holy women (inclusae), naughty priors (Simon Dam) with illicit mistresses (Thomasina), via the Blue-stocking pioneer (Elizabeth Montagu) to the present day where one of the co-absentee-landowners is husband of a Russian princess and father a star of Made in Chelsea, the rulers Sandleford have been a illustrious bunch.[21][22]

  • At time of the Domesday survey in 1086 Sandleford seems to have been a part of or belonged with Ulvitrone, aka Newbury, to Arnulf or Ernulf de Hesdin (1038-killed Antioch, 1097/98), son of Gerard IV of Hesdin by his wife Nesta ferch Gruffydd, a daughter of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn by Ealdgyth, daughter of Earl Ælfgar. Newbury was assesed to have had pannage for 50 hogs, much of this woodland will have been the wood called Brademore (Broadmoor) at Sandleford.
  • Inclusa of Sandraford, as mentioned in a pipe roll of 26 Henry II, 1179–80. Otherwise known as an anchoress, a female Anchorite, a withdrawn holy person;[23]

Geoffrey and Matilda[edit]

Family tree of Rotrou de Perche.
Family tree, Ernulf de Hesdin to Geoffrey de Perche.
Shield of Perche. An heraldic device similar to that used by the De Clare family.
A 13th-century depiction of the Second Battle of Lincoln, which occurred at Lincoln Castle on 20 May 1217 during the First Barons' War between the forces of the future Louis VIII of France and those of King Henry III of England. Louis' forces were attacked by a relief force under the command of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke. Thomas du Perche, the Comte de la Perche, who was commanding the French troops, was killed; the illustration depicts his death. Perche had come to England to try and recover the honour of Perche which had been lost in 1204 by his mother (a niece of John, King of England) – this included Newbury and Shrivenham in Berkshire, Toddington in Buckinghamshire, and Haughley in Suffolk. This heavy defeat led to Louis being expelled from his base in the southeast of England.
Thomas du Perche, son and heir of Geoffrey & Matilda, killed 1217.
Matilda and Geoffrey III, fourth Count of Perche, founded Sandleford Priory between 1193 and 1200. In addition to the freehold of the site and 600 or so acres, all the lands at Sandleford, as it is bound by hedges and ditches, with all its appurtenances, an annuity of 13 marks from the mills of Newbury was allocated for the support of the house.[25]
Geoffrey's grandfather the great Rotrou III, Count of Perche (1084-killed 1143/44) married (1136) Hawise (Harwise or Hedwig) d'Evereux (1118–1152), daughter of Walter (d'Evereux) of Salisbury by Sibyl de Chaworth (de Chaources, alias Mundublel, alias de Cadurcis). Sibyl's parents who married in 1118 were Maud/Matilda de Hesdin and Patrick de Chaources. Sibyl was thus a granddaughter of the modern era founder of Newbury the Lord of Ulvritone, Ernulf de Hesdin (died Antioch, 1097). Hawise was an elder sister of Patrick of Salisbury, 1st Earl of Salisbury (c. 1122 – 1168) and of Sibyl Marshal.
Hawise and Rotrou III's son, Count Geoffrey's father, Rotrou IV, count of Perche and Mortagne,[26] was slain during the Third Crusade the at Siege of Acre, having married Matilda (died 1184) daughter of Theobald IV.
Hawise's younger sister Sibyl (1120-) married John Marshal, and their sons John the Marshall, William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and Henry Marshall (bishop of Exeter) (died 1206) were thus Geoffrey's first cousins-once-removed. After Count Thomas Perche's death, at the Battle of Lincoln leading the forces of the Capetain Prince Louis against King John and his noble cousin William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke (died 1219) in 1217, his noble kinswoman, a second cousin once removed, Ella or Ela of Salisbury, 3rd Countess of Salisbury, daughter of William of Salisbury, 2nd Earl of Salisbury, and wife of William Longespée (Longspey), 3rd Earl of Salisbury claimed some of his property, including Newbury. William Longspey, Lord Salisbury, was uncle of Henry III.[27]
The connection of John le Marshal (died 1194) and his younger brother William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke (died 1219), of Newbury Castle, Hamstead Marshall to Sandleford also shown by the former's mistress Alice de Colville (died before 1220?) of Maidencourt, East Garston giving six-quarters of wheat (28 pounds x 6 = 168 pounds = 12 stone) from Maidencourt to the Priory of Sandleford for praying for their souls.[28]
In 1195 Geoffrey was described by the chronicler as a man whose soul was naturally grand and magnanimous [whose] sole happiness was to consecrate his fortune in fostering religion and relieving suffering humanity [in conjunction with] his noble and pious wife Matilda.[30]
  • Archbishop (and Cardinal) Stephen (Langton) (c.1150–1228) (Archbishop of Canterbury, 1207–1228), in its confirmation charter stated that the house was dedicated to the honour of St. John Baptist (and the Blessed Virgin Mary and all the Saints). The original seals on the charter featured those of the Archbishop of Canterbury Hubert Walter, the Bishop of Sarum Herbert le Poer (Poore), William of Perche (died 1226) bishop of Châlons, and Stephen of Perche (killed in 1205);[31]
  • Despite the royal status of the widow Countess Matilda, her uncle King John, around 1204, soon after death of the Count Geoffrey Rotrou of Perche in 1202 (Geoffrey had he not died would have taken part in the Fourth Crusade,[32] started to repossess and reassign the lands of the Perche in England. Dr. Kathleen Thompson says (2013): However, the king went to some lengths to preserve the Rotrou family association with the lands. He guaranteed two pensions which Count Geoffrey had granted from the revenues of Newbury, ordering that Simon of Pattishall was to be reimbursed for their continued payment, and instructed Simon to honour Count Geoffrey's grant of a rent from the mill at Newbury to the canons of Sandleford.[33]
  • Canons Regular;
Eliz. de Clare, Lady de Burgh, by John Faber Senior, after Unknown artist, mezzotint, 1714.

Other typical donors to the priory[edit]

  • Between 1217–1223, a grant of money was made by Edelina de Broch (d.1220),[35] widow,[36] to the Canons of the Church of Saint John the Baptist, Sandleford of 40s. and 8d. from her inheritance in Frollebire [Frobury] for the maintenance of a Canon Chantry Priest, for the souls of herself, her father, Randulf de Broch [Broc] (died 1179 or 1187),[37] and Damietta de Gorron (d.1204), the lady of Chetton, Eudon and Berwick (co. Salop), her mother, who brought lands at Frollebury (Frobury, Kingsclere) in Hampshire, and Stephen de Turneham (d.1214), her husband. Such money to be received from Henry de Wudecote, Walter de Clera, Hugh de Swantun, Joceus de Brikeull, William Furmentin of Spenes, Symon Cath, Wulfric de Marisco, Nicholas de Wullavintun, John Trull. Witnesses: Peter [de Rupibus], Bishop of Winchester, William Prior of Syreburn [Sherbourne], Dan Roger de Leburna, William de Stanes and William de Sorewull, Sheriff of the County of Southampton, Henry de Wudecott, Henry de Fernlehd, Thomas Croc, Roger Lanceleue, John de Hamtun, John de Wultun, Walter de Clera, William de Edmundesdrop, William Toli seneschel of the donor, Master Walter de Syreburne, Robert Fitzbernard of Hamtun, Richard, Clerk of Clera, Henry Blakemy, Wlater Clerk of the donor, Hugh de Swantun, Master Walter, Joceus de Brikeull, Bartholomew Crok, Richard Fitzruald, John his brother, Thomas the clerk.[38]
    • This was confirmed by her daughter Beatrice de Fay (died before 1245),[39] widow of Ralph de Fay, (she married secondly Hugh de Neville (died 1234) was the Chief Forester under the kings Richard I, John, and Henry III of England), to the Church of Saint John the Baptist, Sandleford, and the Canons, of rents etc, in Frollebire [Frobury], which Edelina de Broc, her mother gave them. Witnesses: William Prior of Sireburn [Sherbourne], Henry de Wodecot, Thomas Croc, Wlater de Clera, William de Edmundesthrop, John de Wltun, Richard de Quercu, John Lanceleuee, Bartholomew Croc, Richard Serviens, Auger Nepos of donor, John de Wodecot, Stephen de Hamtun. Her third husband Hugh de Plessetis (de Playz) had Beatrice excommunicated circa 1241 because she would not divorce him.[40][41][42][43]
  • Grant [1216–1272] of corn by Thomas Croc [Croch] [dead by 1230] to the Canons of the Church of Saint John the Baptist, Sandelford [Sandleford] of three-quarters de meliori frumento [the better corn] annually in his town and manor of Estun [Crux Easton].[44] Witnesses: Sir Henry de Wodecote [ Woodcott ], John Lanceleuee, Robert Lord de Vrleston, William de Edmundestrop, Richard de Quercu, Bartholomew Croc, Vrlestun, son of Ranuld de Vndecote and Richard Croc.[45]

West Ilsley[edit]

  • Grant [1150 or 1260] by William de Fiscampo [ Fécamp or Fecamp ] to the Church of Saint John the Baptist of Sandleford, of land in Wideheia [Woodhay or West Isley]-(one acre of corn for obleys at the alter, and for flour for the brethren serving God in the said Church). Witnesses: Dame Purnella his wife, Filip Croc, John the Chaplain, Geoffrey the Priest, William Bellet, Ralf Piione, Clement Riulfus, Richard Mainesac, Gilbert the Priest and Ralf the Priest.[46][47][48]
  • Patent Roll, 8 September, Windsor, 1313: Confirmation of the grant and release which Agnes daughter of Henry de Pontaudemer [Pont-Audemer] (a Royal bailiff, of the House of Beaumont) (died circa 1229),[49] sometime the wife of Richard [de] Neirnut, made to the church of St. John the Baptist, Sandelford, and to the prior and canons of that place, of all her lands, rents, and tenements in the town of Westhildeslye (West Ilsley) and of all her right in the advowson of the church of that place, and of a third part of the entire meadow which her father formerly held in the meadow of Sutton in Wolesham (Worsham?), and of a third part of her entire rent in the town of Wallingford; of the grant and release which Matilda de Abyndon, sometime the wife of Bartholomew de Thornton, made to that house of her entire right to the advowson of the church of All Saints, "Westhildesleye; of the grant and release which Miles de Bello Campo (Beauchamp), knight, made to them of his right in the advowson of the said church of Westhildeslye; and of a grant and confirmation which William son of Warin de Cherlton made to them of all his land and tenements in Westhildeslye, and which he held from them. By fine of 5 marks.[50][51][52]

Further described in an Inspeximus, dated 1251–1256.

  • Peniton. Inspeximus of grant. [1250–1256]: Inspeximus by Agnes Nernut [Neyrnoit or Nervett], Dame de Peniton [Pennington], widow, of the grant by Henry de Pontaudemer, her father, to the Prior and Canons of Sandelford [Sandleford] of a wychwurth of salt to be annually received in his town of Peniton. Witnesses to the confirmation: Sir Nicholas de Henreth, Sheriff of Berks, Sir Alan de Fernham, Sir Walter de Ripariis, Sir Peter de Etingedene, Sir William de Brutenoles, Kts, John Belet of Eneburne, Elias de Bagenore. Witnesses to the original grant are noted as being: Nigel de Boklonde, Ralf Fucher, Adam de Wereborn, Henry de Wodecote, Robert de Treget, Thomas Croc, John Launceleue.[53]
  • Inspeximus by Roger de Quency [Quincy], Earl of Winchester, Constable of Scotland, of the grant by Agnes Neyrnut, Dame of Penitune [Peniton], daughter of Henry de Ponte Audemer, widow of Sir Richard Neyrnut, to the Prior and Canons of the Church of Saint John the Baptist of Sandelford [Sandleford], of lands, rents etc, in Westhildesleg [West Ilsley], and also of the advowson of the Church of the same place; and also of lands in Sutton, in Wolesham, and in Walingeford [Wallingford] for the maintenance of a Canon for the souls of herself, her husband, her father, and Matilda, her mother, and of William, her son, at a rental of one penny to herself. Witnesses to the original grant: Sir Nicholas de Henreth, Sheriff of Bercsyre [Berkshire], Sir Alan de Fernham, Sir Walter de Ripariis, Sir Peter de Etingedene, Sir William de Brutenoles, Kts, John Belet of Eneburne, Elias de Bagenore. Witnesses to inspeximus and confirmation: Sir Robert de Quency his brother, Ernaldus de Bosco, William de Bosco, Saher de St Andrews, Peter le Poter, Vrienus de St Peter, Alan de Farnham, Walter de Ripariis, Peter de Hetingdno, Richard de Henreth, Knights, Elias de Bagenore, Geoffrey de Wancy, John de Bruer, Robert de Turberuile, Henry de la Beche.[54]

Priory's main holdings in 1291[edit]

The taxation roll of Pope Nicholas IV in 1291 names temporalities (secular properties and possessions) that the prior of Sandleford held, which were worth (per annum):

  • £2 8s. 8d. at Newbury;[55]
  • £1 15s. at Enborne;
  • £1 6s. at West Ilsley; and
  • 10s. at Aldworth.[56]

Kingsclere Woodlands[edit]

In 1312 Prior Thomas de Sandleford obtained a licence for alienation in mortmain to this convent of a messuage, 20 acres of land, and 2 acres of meadow in 'Clere Wodelond,' by Kingsclere, Hampshire.[57]

Priors of Sandleford[edit]

  • Stephen, c. 1260;
  • Robert de Wynton, elected 1301;
  • Thomas de Sandleford, occurs 1311, 1330;
  • William de Wynton, resigned 1334;
  • Robert Gilbert, elected 1334;
  • John, elected 1383;
  • Richard Stanford, elected 1403;
  • Hugh Warham, elected 1406, a kinsman of William Warham (c.1450–1532);
  • Symon Dam, deposed 1439/1440;
  • William Costyn, elected 1448, formerly a canon of Bisham Abbey;
  • William Westbury, occurs 1457.[58] First headmaster of Eton College 1442–1447, and then its fourth Provost 1447–1477. Provost Westbury saved Eton from amalgamation with St. George's Chapel, Windsor.[59][60]

Robin Hood[edit]

  • Robin Hood, William Robehod, and or aka Robert le Fevre,[61] from Enborne in Berkshire. Hood was indicted for various things, 1261–62, took flight, outlawed, and his chattels taken without warrant by the prior of Sandleford. Easter 1262 the prior was excused a fine by the king for having confiscated Hood's chattels.

One of the Henry III rolls of Easter 1262, reads:

Rex mandavit baronibus de scaccario per breve quod perdonavit priori de Sandelford' j marcam as quam amerciatus fuit coram Gilbert de Preston' et sociis suis justicariis ultimo itinerantibus in Comitatu Berk' pro eo quod idem prior seisivit sine waranto catalla Willelmi Robehod' fugitivi, et ideo quod ipsum inde quietus esse faciant.[62]

Richard Beauchamp[edit]

Tomb of Richard Beauchamp.

Dean and Canons of Windsor[edit]

A canon of Windsor, Roger Lupton (died 1540). (Monumental brass at Eton College).
  • Dean and Canons of Windsor, aka, the Dean and Canons of the King's free chapel of St. George the Martyr within his castle at Windsor. Freeholders of Sandleford from 1478–1875;

Dr. John Burgess[edit]

A draft lease of the site of Sandleford Priory dated 30 September 1543 reads: Draft for a lease from William Frankeleyn, Dean, and the Canons of Windsor, to John Burges, of London, Doctor in Physick, of their place of Sandylford [Sandleford], in the County of Berks, for forty years at a rental of £10.[64] A later muniment, 'Estimate of farm' was entitled: View or estimate of the farm of the priory of Sandylford [Sandleford], and of the free Chapel and Chantry there, with a declaration of the grant of the Dean and Canons of the King's free Chapel of Windsor lately made to John Burges, doctor in phisic, etc.[65] Burgess who died in 1550, had an AM Oxon (1530–1), MB (1533–4), MD,[66] and was admitted a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians (FRCP) in 1536, was elected Censor and Elect, 1543; Consiliarius, 1544, 1545, 1546; and President, 1547. William Munk says that 'Dr. Burgess was dead on 30 March 1550, when his place of Elect was filled by the appointment of Dr. Caius' .[67]

Thomas Hide or Hyde[edit]

A lease dated 11 October 1560 of the site of Sandleford Priory was named: Lease to Thomas Hide of Hurst, in the County of Barks, gentleman, for 6 years for £15, all the scite of the pryarye of Sandylforde [Sandleford] near unto Newberye [Newbury], in the County of Barks., signed Thomas Hyde.[68] A later Thomas Hide (Hyde) of Hurst, Berkshire (died 1652), was son of William Hyde (c.1517–67), MP, and grandson of William Hyde (high sheriff) of the family Hide of Dentchworth.

Sir Francis Moore[edit]

Sir Francis Moore (1599–1621), line engraving by William Faithorne, published in 1663.
  • Sir Francis Moore, (1559–1621), Kt., of South Fawley, the barrister (see above, the man who secured Sandleford's independence from Newbury in 1615), MP (for Reading), JP, High Steward of Newbury 1619, and solicitor (1585-c.1608) to the Wizard Earl Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland,[69][70] JP, High Steward of Newbury 1619-death, took the leases of Sandleford, dated 3 November 1610,[71] dated 20 April 1612,[72] and 24 May 1615,[73]
  • A 1622 lease named William Moore, son of Sir Francis, as the tenant;
  • Lease dated, 15 March 1624: Sir Henry Moore, of South Fawley, Bt., bought a baronetcy in 1626; son of Sir Francis;

Commonwealth and Protectorate[edit]

In October 1642, Colonel John Venn and twelve companies of foot soldiers took possession of Windsor Castle on behalf of Parliament, and soon after 23 May 1643 the Dean (Dr. Christopher Wren) and Canons left. On 17 October 1650 Sandleford and the estates that had come to the Dean and Canons of Windsor via Sandleford would have been included in an Act for sale of the Manors of Rectories and Glebelands late belonging to the late Archbishops, bishops, Deans, Deans and Chapters was passed, and in an Additional Act for more speedy effecting the sale of the Manors of Rectories and Glebe-lands late belonging to Archbishops, Bishops, Deans, Deans and Chapters, and other Officers and Titles which late were of or belonging to any Cathedral or Collegiate Church or Chapel in England or Wales; and for the encouragement of lenders upon the security thereof; and of other Lands and Hereditaments of the said Deans, Deans and Chapters, etc. which was added on 22 October 1650.[74]

Alexander and Thomas Staples[edit]

A quitclaim dated 20 May 1662 states: Alexander Staples of the Middle Temple and Thomas Staples of the same for £200 paid by the Dean and Canons renounce and give a quittance of all their rights in Sandleford Priory. The scite of Sandelford Priory was by the trustees appointed by act of Parliament, 20 June 1651, sold to Thomas Bales of the Middle Temple, and he 25 February sold the same to Alexander Staples, and he settled it on Thomas Staples and his heirs.[75]

Rubbing of the Brass tomb plate of Alexander Staples of Yate Court (d. 1590), showing with his many siblings his son Alexander.

Alexander Staples, son of Alexander Staples of Yate Court, Gloucestershire, (died 1590) by his second wife Elizabeth, was Mayor of Nottingham in 1629, and heir of the bulk of his estate of his 'kinsman' Alderman Robert Staples (died 1632),[76] of Nottingham and Mapperley, cordwainer, Freeman of Nottingham, MP for Nottingham in 1615, and Lord Mayor of Nottingham in 1601, 1608, 1615 and 1622.[77][78][79] Alexander Staples' youngest brother is presumed to have been Sir Thomas Staples, 1st Baronet (died 1653), of Lissan House, admitted to Middle Temple on 27 May 1606 and who left Bristol for Ulster c.1610.

Thomas Staples of Maidenhead,[80] was named as the Steward of Windsor Court in the case of Vasper & wife v [James] East, 1685.[81] One of the judges was George Jeffreys, 1st Baron Jeffreys and at the time Henry, Earl of Arundel & Lord Mowbray was Constable of Windsor Castle.

By January 1689/90 however, Thomas Staples was proving to make the Oath to the new King. The House of Lords Journal, Volume 14, for 22 January 1689 reports that: Staples, Steward of Windsor, sent for, for refusing to give the Oaths. Upon Information given to this House, 'That Mr. Thomas Staples, Steward of Windsor Forrest, hath refused to give the Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy and the Test to Mr. Charles Cleve Master of the Hospital of Oakingham, and Mr. William Walker Vicar of Sunning: It is thereupon ORDERED, by the Lords Spiritual and Temporal assembled at Westminster, That the said Thomas Staples be, and is hereby, required to attend this House on Friday next, being the 25th Day of this Instant January, at Ten of the Clock in the Forenoon, as he will answer the contrary to this House at his Peril.'

And on 'DIE Veneris, 25 die Januarii.' Staple's Examination about refusing to tender the Oaths deferred. The House being moved, 'That Mr. Thomas Staples, Steward of Windsor Court, who, by Order of the 22th [sic] Instant, was to appear this Day, attended at the Door; but not being able to get his Witnesses ready against this Day, might have longer Time given him for that Purpose:' It is ORDERED, by the Lords Spiritual and Temporal assembled at Westm. That the said Thomas Staples be, and is hereby, required to attend this House on Friday the 8th Day of February next, at Ten of the Clock in the Forenoon.[82]

Kingsmill family[edit]

Three generations of the Kingsmill family of Sydmonton leased Sandleford between 1626 and circa 1715. Bridget Colt, Margaret Woodward (Lady Woodard [sic] seem to have been the lessee between Sir Henry Colt and Humphrey Forster), and Anne Forster, three of the seven daughters of Sir William Kingsmill, kt, (died 1618), by his wife Ann Wilkes, were followed by their nephew John, and then finally his son Henry.[83]

  • Lease dated, 20 November 1626: Sir Henry Colt (died 1635), of Colts hall or Greys in Cavendish, Suffolk; married (1614) Bridget, fifth daughter of Sir William Kingsmill (died 1618), knighted (May 1603),[84] of nearby Sydmonton Court, Hampshire, where on 18 and 19 August 1603 Sir William entertained King James and his Queen;[85]
  • By 3 October 1628, the tenant was Sir John Woodward (died 1659) of Weston-sub-Edge.[86] His wife, Lady Woodward, aka Margaret Kingsmill (baptised 30 August 1598 – died 1664), was the third daughter of Sir William Kingsmill, Kt., by Anna Wilks).
  • Before 1668, Sir Humphrey Forster (died 1663), of Aldermaston Court, sheriff of Berkshire 1619–20; created a baronet in 1620; married (circa 1615/16) Anne (died 1673), eldest daughter of Sir William Kingsmill, kt. (died 1618) of Sydmonton by Anna Wilks;[87]
  • Lease dated, 6 May 1668:[88] John Kingsmill, JP (Newbury, 1685), (died 1687), educated Trinity College, Oxford, the third son of Sir Henry Kingsmill (1587-1624/5), kt. (1610), of Sydmonton, by Bridget White (d.1672), of Southwick. They married 20 December 1610. His mother was for over a decade a close friend of the poet John Donne (1572–1631), and John thus may have been named after the poet.[89][90]
John Kingsmill was husband to Rachael Pitt (died 1690), the second daughter of Edward Pitt the eldest son of Sir William Pitt (1559–1636), MP, kt. 1618, Comptroller of the Household. Edward Pitt (1592–1643), MP (Poole), of Steepleton Iwerne, near Blandford Forum, Dorset and later of Stratfield Saye, Hampshire, which he bought for £4,800 in 1629, had married Rachael (d. 1643) daughter of Sir George Morton, Bart. in 1620.[91]
Their sons (baptised in 1668 and 1670) Robert and Henry Kingsmill died without issue in 1697 and between 9 July 1715 and 4 June 1717,[92] not before Henry Kingsmill of Sandleford was High Sheriff of Berkshire in 1706–1707.[93][94]George Pitt the brother of Rachel Pitt, Mrs John Kingsmill, married Jane, the daughter of John Savage, 2nd Earl Rivers.[95][96][97] John Kingsmill's sister Bridget (1622-c.1700) was wife to Richard Gorges (c.1619–1712), Lord Gorges of Dundalk, MP for Newton (1661), of Stetchworth, Cambridgeshire.[98]
Meanwhile, the poet and Maid of Honor to Queen Mary, Anne Finch, Countess of Winchilsea, (1661–1720), daughter of Sir William Kingsmill, kt., (1613–1661) of Sydmonton Court, was one of John Kingsmill's nieces and a first cousin of his sons Robert and Henry;
  • In the early eighteenth century the Pitt family of Strathfield-Saye were thought by the Lysons and Emily Climenson to have been lessees,[99][100] possibly during the minority of the sons of Rachel Pitt (died 1690), aka Mrs John Kingsmill.[101]

William Cradock[edit]

Montagu family and associates[edit]

Memorial to Edward and Elizabeth Montagu, and their son John (Punch), north aisle, Winchester Cathedral.
Elizabeth Montagu by Wilson Lowry (1762–1824) engraving published London, April 1787.

In a letter to one of her brothers,[112] dated Sandleford, 9 June 1777, Mrs Montagu wrote about her agricultural relationship with Sandleford.[113]

Lancelot ('Capability') Brown, by Nathaniel Dance. Brown worked on the extensive park and on a smaller scale around the priory, c. 1780.

Mary Morgan's description[edit]

Photograph of Wyatt's alteration to the chapel at Sandleford Priory, 1906, by Evelyn Elizabeth Myers (c. 1872–1909).
Photograph of the chapel at Sandleford Priory, 1906, by Evelyn Elizabeth Myers (c. 1872–1909).
Photograph of Sandleford Priory, 1906, by Evelyn Elizabeth Myers (c. 1872–1909).
  • Mary Morgan (died 11 July 1808, aged 59),[120][121] one of the two daughters of the Ipswich composer Joseph Gibbs (died 1788), and wife to Rev. Caesar Morgan, DD, (died 1812, aged 62), vicar of Wisbech and then Rector of St James' Church, Stretham, Cambridgeshire and (from 1804) a Prebendary of Ely,[122] in her A Tour to Milford Haven, in the year 1791 published in 1795, wrote (Letter V, To Miss B _ _ _ _ , Burfield [ Burghfield ], 13 July 1791):[123]

...I felt myself sufficiently gratified, that a great portion of genius is possessed by my sex; I was entirely devoid of dread or envy. After driving twenty miles through a very pleasant country, and through the pretty town of Newbury, we entered Mrs. Montagu's park, which seemed to have undergone some recent improvements, as the trees were many of them newly planted. The approach to the house is a fine lawn, with sheep feeding upon it. This gives you the idea of beauty blended with utility, which always produces agreeable sensations in the mind...[124]

...In this wing is an elegant dressing-room above stairs. This too has a large bow, on the outside of which there is a very spacious balcony, surrounded by iron balustrades. The balcony commands a distant view of the Hampshire hills, and an extensive diversified country. The small village of Newton in the Valley has an humble simplicity in it, that is agreeably contrasted with the lofty hills beyond it...

...When we withdrew to go to bed, we were ushered up stairs by the major domo, with a wax light in each hand. I found the bedroom lighted up, and a female waiting in it ready to undress me. Mrs M.-- was not conducted into my room, but into a dressing-room adjoining, by a door that opened into a passage. Reflecting on this, to me unusual ceremony, I almost began to fancy myself a bride again; or else, that I was transported into some fairy region, where I was to be waited upon by spirits, that were every where attending without being called for...

...In the dressing-room there was a collection of books; amongst them I found your friend Miss Cornelia Knight's Dinarbas. Here you may amuse yourself in the morning, if you please, till dinner calls you again to society.

The grounds are laid out with the same Attic taste, as the house. Through a great part of them Mrs. Montagu has trained a river, which was little more than a ditch; and means to extend it still further... she has likewise cut a winding path through her plantations. It is a carriage way and is a mile in length. It is also a very pleasant walk, and may serve; 'or for study, or for love' being perfectly secluded. At agreeable distances are benches under the shadow of a large tree, or the shelter of a close hedge interwoven with woodbines and honeysuckles.[125]

When walking in the grounds, I observed an extraordinary degree of cleanliness and decency in the men, who were at work in them. Upon enquiry I found they were all fed and cloathed by her hand. I perceived too that many of them had some great defect, occasioned by age, natural infirmity, or misfortune, being either blind, deaf, dumb, or lame; yet she so paired them, and fitted their employments to their several faculties, that the remaining senses of one served to supply the deficiencies of the other. By this stroke of benevolent ingenuity, though she does not get so much work done, as she would by stronger and abler men; she has the heart-felt satisfaction of making those useful and happy members of society, whom nobody else would employ, and who, but for her, must be dependent upon a parish for an idle and scanty substance. I hope it is not prophane to say, she has made the blind to see, the deaf to hear, the dumb to speak, and the lame to walk.[126] The whole of this place suggested to me the idea of a Roman villa. There is every thing for use as well as beauty. The farm and dairy are not omitted; they supply the family and table with all things necessary and delicate. In short, there is a style in every part of it, that bespeaks a superior degree of judgment. Nothing is gaudy or superfluous, yet nothing is wanting. Native genius, matured by observation upon what is simply elegant, has guided the hand of the amiable possessor of this enchanting place... Adieu.[127][128]

A few days later she continued: (To Miss B., Letter IX, Woodstock, 16 July 1791): Having before described Sandleford to you, I cannot help observing, that it is a striking contrast to Blenheim. But it is such a one, as when the eye, dazzled with gazing at the sun, falls on the soft green of a beautiful lawn, upon which it may rest for ever without satiety or weariness. At Sandleford the mind is gratified with everything that can render life rational and happy. At Blenheim it is fatigued with contemplating objects, that seem like a golden dream, too gay and too gaudy to be real.[129]

Morgan's list of subscribers shows that Elizabeth Montagu, aka Montagu, Mrs. Portman Square-10 copies., and her nephew (the son of Rev. William Robinson, rector of Burghfield), aka Robinson, Rev. Mr. Rector of Coveney, in the Isle of Ely-6 copies., evidently appreciated this ebullient description.

Matthew Montagu, William Wilberforce, and Sandleford[edit]

A view south across Newtown from Sandleford by George Arnald (1763–1841), Wood gatherers, with Highclere Castle, and Beacon and Siddon hills in the distance, 1805.
William Wilberforce, pictured at the age of 29 by John Rising, 1790.
  • Matthew Montagu (previously Robinson) (1762–1831), MP, FRS (elected 1795), 4th Baron Rokeby, in the peerage of Ireland, from 1829. He was Mrs. Montagu's favoured nephew, under whose wish he took the name of Montagu in 1776, and son of Morris Robinson of the Six Clerks' Office, Chancery Lane, London. Wraxall in his Memoir described Montagu's upbringing by his aunt: At her feet he was brought up, a school more adapted to form a man of taste and improvement than a statesman or a man of the world.[130] Educated at Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge, he married Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Francis Charlton of Kent in 1785 by whom he had six sons and seven daughters. A 'faithful follower of Pitt', he was MP for Bossiney 1786–1790, for Tregony 1790–1796, and for St. Germans 1806–1812;[131] Major commandant Newbury voluntary infantry 1803, lt.-col. commandant. 1803. In addition to holding the lease of Sandleford he bought land in the adjacent manor of Peckmore, (next to Greenham), a name a mix of Perche and moor;[132][133][134] Matthew Robinson may have been influenced by or even employed Humphrey Repton at Sandleford as a result of having seen what he had done for the father of his patron at St. Germans, Lord Eliot of Port Eliot, in 1792–93 and 1802.

Montagu was a friend and supporter of William Wilberforce, and thus favoured the abolition of the slave trade.[135] Wilberforce, stayed at Sandleford, 27–28 July 1789:

27th. Set off for Bath and reached Sandleford. The old lady [Elizabeth Montagu] wonderfully spirited, are all very kind in their reception. 28th. Almost compelled to stay with the Montagus all day. Mrs. Montagu senior has many fine, and great, and amiable qualities. Young Montagu all gratitude and respect and affection to her and of most upright and pure intentions.[136]

Wilberforce was at Sandleford one night in July 1791:

Monday 28 July. Off betimes on Sierra Leone business-reached Sandleford (M. Montagu's) in the evening. Dr. Beattie was already arrived.[137]

Chatteris and beyond[edit]

William Pollett Brown Chatteris by Simon Jacques Rochard (1788–1872), 1842.
A hand scrivened and illuminated vellum detail of the Chatteris coat of arms on the grant of arms dated 30 May 1829, to William Pollett Brown Chatteris.
Stained glass in memory of William Chatteris and his wife, circa 1890, in Newtown.
Detail of stained glass in memory of William Chatteris and his second wife, circa 1890, in Newtown.
  • William Pollet Brown Chatteris (1810–1889),[138] JP, DL (1852, Berks), educated at Eton and Brasenose college, Oxford, and son of a City of London banker, William Chatteris (died 1819) of Lombard street, who eventually bought the freehold, enfranchised the estate, from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, in 1875. The Dean and Canons of Windsor (with Westminster Abbey and the cathedrals of England and Wales) having been obliged to hand over their lands to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, now the Church Commissioners, on 26 June 1867.

At the time of the 1851 census Chatteris and his wife lived in the priory with an indoor staff of 12; butler, footman, under-butler, housekeeper, lady's maid, cook, laundry maid, three house maids, kitchen maid, and a scullery maid. One of his sisters, Eliza (died 1866),[139] had married Edmund Arbuthnot (1793–1873) of Newtown in 1824, Sandlefords's closest village, which would have been Chatteris' introduction to the area as he took on the lease of Sandleford in 1835.[140] His first wife (married 1833) was Anne (died 1848) eldest daughter of Rt Rev Alexander Arbuthnot, DD, Bishop of Killaloe (1768–1828), and his brother-law Edmund's first cousin. He planted a world-class azalea and rhododendron garden. He died at Sandleford Priory leaving £155,141, his executors were his former half-brother-in-law Sir Charles George Arbuthnot, GCB, (1824 –1899), and the Rev. Frances Charles Gosling, vicar in charge of Newtown, 1859–1900. Another half-brother-in-law Sir Alexander John Arbuthnot, KCSI CIE (1822–1907) lived at nearby Newtown house;[141]

Azaleas and rhododendrons planted near the priory by William Chatteris, as seen circa 1906.
Agatha Lillian Thynne, in The Tatler, no. 138, 17 February 1904.
  • Miss Agatha Lilian Thynne (died 1962), Alpin Mac Gregor's niece, (and descended from Thomas Thynne, 2nd Marquess of Bath), was wife of the 3rd Baron Hindlip, and is hence a great-grandmother of Kirstie Allsopp. Her mother Mary Elizabeth Murray Mac Gregor (died 1934) and father John Charles Thynne (1838–1918), sometime receiver general to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster (1865–1902), were living at Sandleford Cottage in 1907, (they had married in Westminster Abbey on Abbey on 25 April 1871).[145] Her sister Joan E. M. (1872–1945) was the mother of John Campbell, 5th Earl Cawdor.[146][147][148]
  • Mrs. Henrietta Myers (Toxteth, Liverpool,[149] 1832–1919), widow of guano and Liverpool shipping merchant Charles Myers (1827–1879), JP, of Botleigh and Swanmore, Bishops Waltham, Droxford, Hampshire, and director of Ismay Imrie & Co (White Star Line), was tenant from before 1898 until circa 1919.[150] Her daughter Evelyn Elizabeth Myers (born Woolton, circa 1872-died June 1909) wrote A History of Sandleford Priory, with plates, Newbury District Field Club, Special Publication. no. 1. She had finished it by December 1906 but it was not published until 1931.[151] She had an elder sister called Henrietta Constance (Woolton, 1866-died at Greenham Court, 1927).[152] One brother was Rev. Canon Charles Myers (1856–1948), canon of Salisbury Cathedral,[153] another was William Henry Myers (1854–1934), JP, DL, MP, of Swanmore House.[154] Evelyn Myers' first cousin Major William Joseph Myers (1858–1899, killed at Battle of Ladysmith) was a prolific collector of Egyptian antiquities and of Arab glass and wall tiles.[155]

At the time of the 1911 census Sandleford Priory was inhabited by two males and 14 females. Henrietta Myers (aged 79), her surviving daughter Henrietta Constance Myers (44), and a cook-housekeeper (66), two lady's maids (64 & 48), two laundry maids (20 & 38), three house maids (24, 24, & 22), kitchen maid (26), scullery maid (20), and two footmen (23 & 20).

  • Major Aubrey Isaac Rothwell Butler, (1878–1930), son of Isaac Butler (1839–1917), JP (Sheriff of Monmouth 1910), of Panteg House,[156] Griffithstown, Torfaen, near Newport. It is claimed that the first sheet steel in Britain was rolled in Staffordshire in 1876 from a bloom made in Panteg by Isaac Butler. Aubrey Butler was sometime manager of Baldwin's Ltd branches in Monmouth & Midlands, Baldwins having taken over the family firm, Wright, Butler and Co Ltd, in 1902.[157] Later he was Sheriff of Monmouthshire, 1924, and by the time of his early death was described as formerly of Sandleford Priory and of 13, Porchester Terrace, London.[158]
  • Lady Mary Florence Holt (1877–1957), daughter of the 12th Earl of Meath, by Lady Mary Jane Maitland, daughter of 11th Earl of Lauderdale, and wife (from 4 June 1904) to Lt.Col. Harold Edward Sherwin Holt (1862–1932), TD, CBE, MIEE, FRGS, MA; educated at Eton and Magdalen college, Oxford; a mechanical and electrical engineer and inventor; sometime director of Daimler; Lord of the manor of Farnborough; of Ogbeare Hall, North Tamerton, Devon and Hornacott Manor, Boyton, Launceston, Cornwall; and founder member of the RAC and the Society for Psychical Research; hon. lieutenant-colonel in RAF and Hants Carabiniers Yeomanry.[159] Meanwhile, Lady Mary's sister Lady Violet Constance Maitland (1886–1936) married the 4th Earl of Verulam in 1909. Lady Mary's brother, Reginald Brabazon, 13th Earl of Meath, married Lady Aileen May Wyndham-Quin (1873–1949), a daughter of Windham Wyndham-Quin, 4th Earl of Dunraven and Mount-Earl. There were two Holt sons: Adrian John Reginald (1907–1967) and Geoffrey Brabazon (1907–2008). Lady Mary sold the priory's furniture and outside effects, and presumedly the house in 1947, and St Gabriel’s School opened in 1948;[160]
  • Congregation of Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd, of St. Gabriel's School;

Sandleford Mill/Cottage/Lodge/Place[edit]

  • John Deane, from circa 1624;
  • Mrs Colman;
  • Henry Hart Millman, divine, whose wife Mary Anne was a daughter of Lt-general William Cockell (died 1831) of Sandleford Lodge;[161]
  • Robert Fellowes (1817–1915), of Shotesham, and his sister Louisa Fellowes (1817–1901), were both born at Sandleford Cottage, the seat of their father Robert (1779–1869).[162] Later she married Sir Thomas Gladstone, Bt. (and thus sister-in-law of William Gladstone the Prime Minister). Children of Robert Fellowes (1779–1869) by his second wife Jane Louisa Sheldon, daughter of the MP for Wilton (1804–1822) Colonel Ralph Sheldon (1741–1822), of Donnington Cottage, near Newbury, Berkshire,[163] and grandchildren of Robert Fellowes (1742–1829), of Shotesham, MP for Norwich. Their younger sister was Baroness Sandhurst (1827–1892), a philanthropist and suffagist. Robert Fellowes is a direct ancestor of Sir Robert Fellowes, aka Lord Fellowes.
Lady Louisa Anne Magenis (1837–1918), carte de visite, by Camille Silvy, 1861.
Viva Seton Montgomerie (1879–1959).
  • William Frederick Hicks-Beach (1841–1923), MP, was living at Sandleford lodge in 1869 and by 1871 he is recorded as having with him a wife and four children, and eight staff.[168]
  • Mrs. Wedderburn (1825–), aka Selina Mary Garth, daughter of Captain Thomas Garth, RN, of Haines Hill, Hurst, Berkshire, and widow of Frederick Lewis Scrymgeour-Wedderburn (1808–1874), de jure 8th Earl of Dundee, and her daughters Charlotte and Selina Elgiva, (1856–), were living at Sandleford Lodge, c. 1881 and 1883;[169]
  • Brigadier Wyndham Torr, CMG, DSO, MC, (1890–1963) of Sandleford Place; soldier in WW1; military attache Madrid, Lisbon, Washington, Spain, etc.;[170]
  • Hon. Seton Montolieu Montgomerie (1846–1883), and his wife Mrs. Montgomerie, aka Nina Janet Bronwen Peers Williams (daughter of Thomas Peers Williams, MP), of Sandleford cottage (later renamed place), and their daughters Viva and Alswen.

Miscellaneous[edit]

  • Alice de Colville (died before 1220?) of Maidencourt, East Garston. Gave six-quarters of wheat (28 pounds x 6 = 168 pounds = 12 stone) from Maidencourt to the Priory of Sandleford for praying for the souls of John le Marshal (died 1194) and his younger brother William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, of Newbury Castle, Hamstead Marshall, etc.[171]
  • King John, on 8 and 9 September 1204 stayed at Freemantle Park, above and south of Kingsclere and then on 22 August 1213 was at Peter des Roches the bishop of Winchester's Bishop's Clere (later Highclere);[172]
  • King Edward II, of Carnarvon, on 31 August 1320 he was at Sandleford Priory, where he apparently tarried for the night. The Itinerary lists him as spending 2 September 1320 at Rigaud of Assier, the bishop of Winchester's Bishop's Clere, on the site of the present day Highclere Castle, and 29 and 30 August he was at Crookham, Berkshire.[173]
  • Dated the feast of St. Katherine, 9 Edward III, [25 November, c. 1336], a grant was made by Hugh atte Thome and Maud his wife to Sir Nicholas atte Thorne their son, chaplain, of a burgage in Newtown (Nova Villa juxta Sandelford) between the brook called 'Aleburne' on the west and the highway to Winchester on the east;[174]
  • King James I, was leased Sandleford farm by the Dean and Canons of Windsor, January 1605.[175]
  • Anthony Child, Mayor of Newbury 1614, and sometime leasee of Sandleford;[176]
  • Prince Rupert of the Rhine, at the start of the First Battle of Newbury in September 1643 the Prince lined up his cavalry at the western end of Sandleford estate, straddling the boundary with Wash Common and looking towards Enborne.[177]
  • Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex: '... the line of march pursued by Essex to Reading, was from the Wash, by Sandleford, over Greenham Common, ...' [178]
  • Richard Pinfold, one of 30 of the freeholders of Newbury in 1655,[179] and sometime holder of the lease of the coppice named High Wood;[180]
  • John Kendrick, Warren farm which abuts the estate to the west was purchased for £250, out of the £4000 which Kendrick left Newbury in 1624. In addition the Kendrick charity had two closes on the west side of Newtown lane leased from the Dean & Canons, for 10l 10s per annum.[181]
  • Levi Smith (died 1703), Mayor of Newbury 1674 and 1693. Owned land in Greenham and along the Enborne at Peckmore in Greenham that abutted Sandleford and was later part of its demesne.[182]
  • Richard Durnford, Bishop of Chichester, his mother Louisa (born 1781) was a daughter of John Mount (1725–1786) of Wasing was born at Sandleford.[183] John Mount was also a grandfather of William Mount, (1787–1869), MP.
Rt. Rev. Richard Pococke (1704–1765), by Jean-Étienne Liotard. Sometime guest and neighbour.
Mrs. Montagu, engraved by Thomas Holloway, published by John Sewell (died 1802), 32 Cornhill, London, 1785.

Mrs Elizabeth Montagu's 1743 description of Sandleford[edit]

In 1743 Mrs Montagu wrote from Sandleford to her old friend the Duchess of Portland and described her new retreat:

'...I had a very pleasant journey to this place, where I am delighted to find everything that is capable of making retreat agreeable; the garden commands a fine prospect, the most cheerful I ever saw, and not of shirt distance which is only to gratify the pride of seeing, but such as falls within the humble reach of my eyes. We have a pretty village [ Newtown ] on a rising ground just before us.'

Where the cottage chimney smokes,

Fast between two oaks.[190]

'Poverty here is clad in its decent garb of low simplicity, but her tattered robes of misery do not here show want and wretchedness; you would rather imagine pomp was neglected than sufficiency wanted.'

'A silver stream [the Alder stream, aka river Enborne] washes the foot of the village; health, pleasure, and refreshment are the ingredients that qualify this spring; no debauch, or intoxication, arises from its source.'

'Nature has been very indulgent to this country, and has given it enough of wood and water; the first we have here in good plenty, and a power of having more of the latter, as improvements are undertaken.'

'Here are temptations to riding and walking. I go out every evening to take a view of the country; the villages are the neatest I ever saw; every cottage is tight; has a little garden, and is sheltered by fine trees...'[191]

William Cobbett's description, 1821[edit]

The Radical MP and journalist William Cobbett (1762–1835) wrote about Sandleford in his journal whilst staying with the farmer Mr. Budd at Burghclere, on 30 October 1821.[192] Appropriately 150 years later Budd's Farm was home to the writer Roger Mortimer. This is the gist of it:

'...Came through a place called "a park" belonging to a Mr. Montague, who is now abroad ;
Of all the ridiculous things I ever saw in my life this place is the most ridiculous. The house looks like a sort of church, in somewhat of a gothic style of building, with crosses on the tops of different parts of the pile. There is a sort of swamp, at the foot of a wood, at no great distance from the front of the house'.
'...Here is a fountain, the basin of which is not four feet over, and the water spout not exceeding the pour from a tea-pot. Here is a bridge over a river of which a child four years old would clear the banks at a jump...'
'...In short, such fooleries I never before beheld; but what I disliked most was the apparent impiety of a part of these works of refined taste'.
'...I wonder how long this sickly, this childish, taste is to remain?'
'..At the end of this scene of mock grandeur and mock antiquity I found something more rational; namely, some hare hounds, and, in half-an-hour after, we found, and I had the first hare-hunt that I had had since I wore a smock-frock !'

[193]

Landscape[edit]

William Chatteris era map of Sandleford, 1871.

The priory of Sandleford's foundation diploma or charter (circa 1194) describes in Latin the scope of the site and lands of the priory:

'Geoffrey count of the Perche and Countess Matilda endow the Augustinian priory of Sandleford (Berkshire) with the church and all the land at Sandleford, together with the wood known as Brademore [Broadmore] and with all the land on both sides of that wood that is, bounded by the watercourse known as Aleburn [river Enborne] from the bridge at Sandleford to the Alburnegate, then by the road which runs from Alburnegate towards Newbury up to the croft of William the huntsman [Wash Common] and on the third side from there along the road [Monks Lane] to the croft of Robert fitz Rembaldand [Robert son of Rembaldi] on the fourth side [A339] up to the bridge at Sandleford. The right to build a mill is granted together with an annual sum of thirteen marks of sterling to be taken from the mills of Newbury every four weeks. When the prior dies one of the remaining canons is to be chosen in his place, 1194–1202.'[194][195]

A typical lease, this one dated 6 May 1668, granted by the Dean and Canons of Windsor to John Kingsmill of Sandleford, scite of the Priory etc all lately in tenure of Humphrey Fo[r]ster of Aldermaston, in the County of Berks, Bart, and John Harrison of Lincoln's Inn for 21 years at £15 2s. for fishing AND Lease of Sandleford coppices, called Bradmore and Highwood, the first late held by Anthony Childe and the other by Richard Pinfold, and their coppices in the Parish of Migham, in all 68 acres, by the Dean and Canons of Windsor to John Kingsmill of Sandelford, esquire.[196]

Another later but similar lease of the estate, this one dated 31 August 1737, between Edward Montagu and the Dean and Canons of Windsor in summary read: Lease of the scite of the Priory, the farm of Sandelford [Sandleford], and Tydhams [Tydehams] and all messuages, tenements in Sandelford and Midgham, Berks, in Burrowghcleere [Burghclere] and Sidmanton [Sydmonton], in the county of Hants, the meadow called Milmead on the South side of Aborn Streame [River Enborne], (except woods and the tenement which John Dean occupies in Sandelford near Abornstream and an acre of land on its north side, and Waterleaze and a piece of Sandelford green 3 acres and certain rights of fishing in Aborn stream) – and also fishing in the river Kennett in the parishes Limborn [Lambourn], Enborne and Nubery [Newbury], by the Dean and Canons of Windsor to Edward Mountague of London, esquire.[197]

If approached and seen from the south, from the Newtown Common or Whitchurch road, the distant prospect of Sandleford, with steep, magnificent and south facing parkland and wooded slopes with the priory itself sitting atop, high, the effect would have been like that of Camelot or Shangdu. The Xandu of Samuel Purchas, as in his 1614 description based on what Marco Polo had reported: In Xandu did Cublai Can build a stately Pallace, encompassing sixteen miles of plaine ground with a wall, wherein are fertile Meddowes, pleasant Springs, delightfull streames, and all sorts of beasts of chase and game, and in the middest thereof a sumpuous house of pleasure, which may be moved from place to place.[198]

1911 Ordnance Survey map of Sandleford.
Sandleford, as seen on John Rocque's map of Berkshire, 1761.
John Willis map of Sandleford, 1768, which was based on Rocque's.
Sandleford; Newbury Wash; Enborne Wash; and East Enborne, from John Rocque's map, 1761.
Ordnance survey map, 1939, detail.
An exterior corner of Barn Copse, showing a game crop.
Water meadows, looking east-south east towards, on the left, Slockett's Copse, and Dirty Ground Copse.

The parish of Sandleford is, as mentioned above, about 500 acres, most of which is an arcadian farm and woodland that lies to the west of the priory/school. This almost square block is bounded by the River Enborne to the south; on the west by a hedge line that runs two furlongs to the east of the Andover Road (A343) which runs north-south through Wash Common; Monks (Monkey) Lane and therefore Newbury to the north (though the parish boundary runs a bit south of the road); and the Newtown road, A339 (previously A34) to the east (though clearly parish boundary and the priory/school is to the east of that).

Almost the only way into this park is from the west, from the A343, Andover road, past the Roman Catholic church at Warren Lodge, and down the remaining 200 yards of an ancient track flanked by field maple, oak, ash, hazel, ivy, elm, elder, hawthorn, and blackthorn.[199] Around here the cavalry of Prince Rupert of the Rhine lined up before the First Battle of Newbury in September 1643, and near here are the meadows which feature in the beginning of Richard Adams' semi-factual novel Watership Down. At this point the enclosed track ends at the Newbury (Wash Common)/Sandleford parish boundary, but the public footpath or former carriage track continues. In previous centuries, in Mrs. Montagu's day, this was the main route to the priory from the west, from places like Bath, Somerset.[200] Here the view quickly opens out, expansively, perspective tricks have been played with hedge and wood edge lines which add to the sense of infinity and space.

Sandleford Priory, and rainbow, and part of High Wood, from the old carriage track to the west, near Gorse Covert, 2015.

Barn copse is passed on the left or north. A hedge line connects Barn Copse to Dirty Ground Copse, and another hedge line from that forms an arrow with the northern edge of Gorse Covert. Comparison of the 1761 John Rocque map with how things now appear suggests a degree of highly clever tweeking of wood and hedge lines to maximise the effect of the landscape took place in the late eighteenth century.[201] In the far distance on the right, to the south, there is Sidown Hill with its brick folly Heaven's Gate, built in 1749 for Hon. Robert Sawyer Herbert (1693–1769), MP (for Wilton 1722–1768), of Highclere, second son of Thomas Herbert, 8th Earl of Pembroke, visible at about 60 feet high, and next to that Beacon Hill.

As the track passes through the bottle-neck formed by this hedge and the north-east end of Gorse Covert the viewer then goes through to the next instalment, a first distant prospect of Sandleford Priory itself, and the North Downs, including Watership Down.

The track continues due east passing High Wood and a distant view of Slockett's Copse and Crook's Copse beyond to the left or north. Eventually the track reaches the A339 and the main entrance to the priory/school. Through the heart of this block of 500 acres a small stream runs north south from the top of Crook's Copse, down between High Wood and Slockett's Copse and then having been joined by another smaller stream runs east parallel with the southern edge of High Wood and then turns south again towards the River Enborne.

In 1749 Elizabeth Montagu wrote to her husband from Tunbridge Wells: My Dearest, ... I flatter myself the Captain will think Berkshire not inferior to Surry [sic], especially if he bestrides his Arabian steed, and surveys the prospects from Newbury Wash, Greenham &c. When he is tired of mere cows and sheep, and would behold some of those fair creatures, Father Philip's geese,[202]...[203]

Mrs. Montagu's views on landscape, indicating that parks and gardens should be under the care of the cherub Contemplation, are somewhat revealed in a letter to Gilbert West, dated 1753, 25th:

'I suppose you have been at Stowe, where art has exhausted all her powers,[204]'

Equel, che il bello, o il caro accresce all' opre

L'arte, che tutto fa, nulla si Scopre[205]

'Such, I am told, is its present state; when I saw the gardens they brought not so much to one's imagination the scenes of paradise, as of that garden, where the sapient king with his fair spouse held dalliance;[206] it is rather a retreat for the proud and victorious, than the philosophic mind; like the poets, it was an Elysian only for heroes; ambition found examples there, and restless emulation fair incitements, but no quiet scenes hushed the passions into peace, and excluded the visions of this world's vanities; which, I take to be the great benefit of the retreat which should put the mind into the guardian care of the cherub Contemplation.[207]'

In September 1757 Mrs Montagu wrote to Dr. Messenger Monsey (1693–1788), FRS, ... I assure you we have Groves too at Sandleford, where you may meet your Amante Sposa, Dame Melancholy, as often as you please....[208]

Dear Brother, It would be with much greater pleasure I should take up my pen to tell you I am at Sandleford, if I could flatter myself with the hope of alluring you to it: you would find me in the character of a farmeress. The meagre condition of the soil forbids me to live in the state of a shepherdess-queen, which I look upon as the highest rural dignity.The plough, the harrow, and the spade remind us that the golden age is past, and subsistence depends on labour; prosperity on industrious application. A little of the clay of which you complain, would do us a great deal of good. I should be glad to take my dominions here from the goddess Ceres to give them to the god Pan, and I think you will agree with me in that taste; for wherever he presides, there Nature's republick is established... ... At Sandleford you will find us busy in the care of arable land. By two little purchases Mr. Montagu made here, my farm contains six hundred acres.[209] As I now consider it an Amazonian land, I affect to consider the women as capable of assisting in agriculture as much as the men. They weed my corn, hoe my turnips, and set my Pottatoes ; and by these means promote the prosperity of their families.

Mrs Montagu described the land and farming at Sandleford in this letter to one of her brothers,[210] dated Sandleford, June 9, 1777. (From The Monthly Magazine, volume 29, edited by Richard Phillips, London, 1810, page 558).

Mrs Montagu and Newbury job creation[edit]

Detail of Haytley's painting, with Sandleford haymakers, circa 1744.

In July 1782 Mrs Montagu mentioned the high unemployment then found in Newbury and the works going on at Sandleford: The scene is extremely animated; 20 men at work in the wood and grove, and the fields around are full of haymakers. The persons employed on the work are poor weavers who by the decay of our manufacture at Newbury are void of employment, and not having been trained to the business of agriculture are not dexterous at the rake and pitchfork, but the plain digging and driving wheel barrows they can perform and are very glad to get their daily subsistence. [211]

Tourist Attraction[edit]

In a letter dated Deal, 21 July 1786, Elizabeth Carter wrote to her friend Elizabeth Montagu: 'Your letter, my dear friend, ... The trouble which you receive from the curiosity of people to see your improvements at Sandleford, is one of the natural embarras des richesses. Nobody plagues me by besieging my doors in carriages, and upon pillions to see my cottage. After all, however, it is very strange how people can be so impertinent, one would think they might at least suspend their impatient curiosity till you were absent'.[212]

A year later Elizabeth Carter, in a letter, dated Deal, 22 June 1787, pointed to the music of the groves: ' ... By this time, my dear friend, I hope you are enjoying the music of your groves at Sandleford... '.[213]

1781 survey[edit]

A survey of the 619 acre, 2 roods and 17 perches estate made for Mrs Montagu in 1781, by John Spyers (c1720-1798) on behalf of Lancelot Brown, and used when the lease of 503 acres and 111 acres was sold to William Chatteris on 3 November 1835, shows that in 1835 111 acres were owned outright by the Lord Rokeby on the east side (mostly in the parish of Greenham), that 87 acres on the east side belonged to the Dean and Canons of Windsor (held by Lord Rokeby), and that 416 acres on the west side of the road (also leased from the Dean and Canons of Windsor by Lord Rokeby), with 5 acres belonging to Mrs Colman near the mill.[214] One question regarding this 1781 survey is whether it was a depiction of what work was to be done, as conceived by Lancelot Brown, or more likely exactly how the estate was at the time? Meanwhile, the 1871 map shows the landscape as it might have been embellished by Brown, especially regarding the ponds near Broadmoor and Waterleaze woods. It is also possible that this 1871 map was based on a lost map made by Brown as a result of works undertaken after that 1781 survey.

In November 1762 replying to a letter from her husband Mrs Montagu wrote:[215]You are very good in consulting me about the Trees..., which suggests that landscape works had been going on post the Rocque map of 1761 and preceding Capability Brown's involvement post 1781, more in a style as as seen at Studley Royal/Fountains Abbey or as painted by people like Jacob van Ruisdael, Antonie Waterloo (1609–1690), or Thomas Gainsborough (1727–1788).

87 acres of coppices on the west side (acres, roods, perches)

  • Waterleaze and Broadmoor coppice: 41 2 09
  • High Wood coppice: 18 3 10
  • Upper Moor coppice: 2 01 10 (now Gorse covert)
  • Lower Moor coppice: 3 1 01 (now Gorse covert)
  • Dirty Ground: 5 0 17
  • Orchard House coppice: 5 2 10 (now Slockett's copse)
  • Wilsons coppice: 4 0 06 (now Barn copse)
  • Parting Ground coppice: 5 2 16 (now Crook's copse)
  • Furze close border: 0 2 16 (near Orchard House coppice)
  • Hassocks above Halls mead: 0 2 12 (linear or ghost wood east of Parting Ground coppice).

60 acres of meadowland on the west side (acres, roods, perches)

  • Upper mill mead;
  • Lower mill mead;
  • Mill mead;
  • Grabbed piddle;
  • Pound meadow;
  • Over way cow leaze;
  • Upper peat mead;
  • Upper eight acres;
  • Four acres;
  • Ireland;
  • Halls mead.

227 and 40 acres of arable on the west side (acres, roods, perches)

  • Great Water leaze 12 2 19;
  • The Pond 0 3 24;
  • Middle Leaze 14 1 15;
  • Upper Moor 13 1 21;
  • Lower Moor 11 1 30;
  • Fulwars 16 0 33;
  • Picked Harts 10 3 24;
  • Round Harts 20 2 14;
  • High wood close 16 1 0;
  • Fatting Leaze 19 3 03;
  • Adams ground 20 1 6;
  • Parting ground 15 0 22;
  • High Field 23 2 28;
  • Gravel close 3 1 13;
  • Furz ground 28 3 15;

and

  • Newberry [sic] grounds, (aka Tydehams, alias Tidlaws), comprised three fields on the brow of the slope north of Monks' Lane, looking north down towards Newbury, that totalled 40 2 00. (These 40 acres were developed into Newbury's smartest cul-de-sac from March 1923 when Dr. George Alan Simmons (died 1951) bought 42 acres from Christopher Saunders, who had acquired them in 1911 from the trustees of the estate of Alpin Macgregor, late owner of the Sandleford Priory Estate. There were 10 houses by 1928; 12 by 1931; 25 by 1941; 28 in 1963; 30 by 1982; and 39 in 2010. Major-general Llewelyn Alberic Emilius Price-Davies, VC, CB, CMG, DSO, lived briefly, 1926–1929, at the house variously known as Badsworth, Mary Leen and Lustleigh).[216][217]

The 16 acres field known as Fulwars was no doubt named after Fulwar Craven, 4th Baron Craven (1704–1764), of nearby Benham Park and Hampstead Marshall, High Steward of Newbury 1739–1764,[218] and a founder of the Craven hunt.[219] The 1781 survey map also shows the Montagu purchases of coppices (such as Little Peckmore and Collin's coppices) and water-meadows at Peckmore and on the north side of the Auborn stream (alias river Enborne), and its layout before its severe disturbance by the new west-east running A339; re-routed along the river Enborne as a result of two of the old roads to Newbury that formerly crossed Greenham Common south-north being severed when the airport was made circa 1942. The map also shows a Rick yard; farm yard, with a very large barn;[220] the Green yard in front of the priory; a Wilderness walk; and a Bowling green. The map shows the stream that flows south into the river Enborne (aka Auborne stream) which also marked the border of the parishes of Greenham and Sandleford and was to provide the water that formed what is known as Brown's (extant), Woodhouse (derelict),[221] and Newtown ponds (seems to have disappeared). Collin's coppice ran just east of the priory's demesne, near where the first ponds were formed. Collin's coppice still exists at the south-western corner of Greenham Common, as does Peckmoor, an arable field now a grazed part of Bunker farm.

Midgham[edit]

The priory of Sandleford held land in nearby Midgham. In the 13th century this was assessed as one carucate (normally 120 acres).[222] There were still 37 acres of meadow there that had been leased to those who also leased Sandleford. This connection was mentioned down to the end of the eighteenth century,[223] by when the meadow land was let to members of the Hillersdon, and Poyntz families of Midgham House, viz: William Poyntz (died 1809),[224] John Spencer, 1st Earl Spencer of Althorpe (son-in-law of Stephen Poyntz), Rt. Hon. Stephen Poyntz, and John Hillersdon (died 1730). One of the younger sons of George II, Duke of Cumberland (1721–1765), was partially bought up at Midgham in the household of his governor and steward Stephen Poyntz. [225]

Recent history[edit]

Files regarding seeking planning permission at Sandleford, West Berkshire Council offices, January 2016.

On 30 September 1986, the circa 470 acre Sandleford Farm, was sold by Neate's, with help from Knight Frank & Rutley, at the Chequers Hotel, Newbury, for over two million pounds. In the meantime the 1972 writings of Richard Adams in chapter one of Watership Down regarding the borders of Wash Common and Sandleford (what Adams calls Sandleford Common) seem rather prescient concerning the ambitious and imminent housing plans that have since abounded.

Suddenly Fiver shivered and cowered down.
'Oh, Hazel! This is where it comes from! I know now –
something very bad! Some terrible thing – coming closer
and closer'.
He began to whimper with fear.
'What sort of thing-what do you mean?I thought you
said there was no danger?'
'I don't know what it is,' answered Fiver wretchedly.
'There isn't any danger here at this moment. But it's
coming – it's coming. Oh, Hazel, look! The field! It's
covered with blood!'
...
'Back to the burrow?' whimpered Fiver. 'It'll come
there – don't think it won't! I tell you, the field's full of
blood -'...
... ...
THIS IDEALLY SITUATED ESTATE, COM-
PRISING SIX ACRES OF EXCELLENT
BUILDING LAND, IS TO BE DEVELOPED
WITH HIGH CLASS MODERN RESIDENCES
BY SUTCH AND MARTIN, LIMITED, OF
NEWBURY, BERKS.[226]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Stephen Bending, Green Retreats, women, gardens and eighteenth-century culture, Cambridge University Press, 2013.
  • Evelyn Elizabeth Myers (c.1872–1909), A History of Sandleford Priory, Newbury District Field Club, Special Publication. no. 1. (finished by 1906) published 1931.
  • Elizabeth Montagu, the Queen of the Bluestockings. Her correspondence from 1720–1761, John Murray, London, by Emily J. Climenson, 1906.
  • Penelope Stokes, Enborne and Wash Common, Hamstead Marshall, 2011.
  • Walter Money, FSA, A history of the ancient town and borough of Newbury, in the county of Berkshire, Parker & Co., Oxford & London, 1887.
  • The Counts of the Perche, 1066–1217, Dr. Kathleen Hapgood Thompson, Sheffield, 1995.
  • Power and Border Lordship in Medieval France, The County of the Perche, 1000–1226, Dr. Kathleen Thompson, Boydell, 2013.
  • Kathleen Thompson, Honorary Research Fellow, University of Sheffield, Matilda, countess of the Perche (1171–1210): the expression of authority in name, style and seal, 2003.
  • Transactions of the Newbury District Field Club, volume 12, no. 6, The history of Sandleford Priory, 1980–1981, Miss C. Sheila Hay;
  • Transactions of the Newbury District Field Club, volume 13, 1983–1989, Sandleford Priory: the missing years, by Norman E. Fox, pps. 51–59;
  • Transactions of the Newbury District Field Club, volume 13, 1983–1989, The chapel at Sandleford Priory, by Roger H. Pope and R. Durham;
  • Burke's Landed Gentry of Ireland, Burke, London, 1912;
  • A genealogical and heraldic history of the commoners of Great Britain, by John Burke, volume IV, page 257, 1838;
  • The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1604–1629, edited by Andrew Thrush and John P. Ferris, 2010;
  • The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1660–1690, edited by B.D. Henning, 1983;
  • The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1690–1715, edited by D. Hayton, E. Cruickshanks, S. Handley, 2002;
  • The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1715–1754, edited by Rodney Sedgwick, 1970;
  • The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1754–1790, edited by L. Namier, J. Brooke, 1964;
  • Capability Brown by Dorothy Stroud, Faber & Faber, London, 1975;
  • The Omnipotent Magician, by Jane Brown, Pimlico, London, 2012;
  • A lady of the last century (Mrs. Elizabeth Montagu): illustrated in her unpublished letters, by Dr. John Doran, Bentley, 1873;
  • Betty Rizzo, Companions without Vows : Relationships among Eighteenth Century British Women, University of Georgia, 1994, pages 128–141;
  • A Tour to Milford Haven, in the year 1791, by Mary Morgan, London, 1795;
  • William Cobbett, Rural Rides, London, 1853.
  • Sir William Dugdale, Monasticon Anglicanum: a History of the Abbies and other Monasteries, Hospitals, Frieries, and Cathedral and Collegiate Churches, with their Dependencies, in England and Wales, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown, London, 1817–1830, volume VI, p. 565.
  • A Topographical Map of the County of Berks, by John Rocque, Topographer to His Majesty, 1761.
  • Magna Britannia: Bedfordshire, Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, by Daniel Lysons, 1813.
  • Magna Britannia: Being a Concise Topographical Account of the several counties of Great Britain, Volume 1, by Daniel and Samuel Lysons, 1806.
  • A History of the County of Berkshire, Volume four, edited by William Page and P H Ditchfield, Victoria County History, London, 1924.
  • The life of William Wilberforce, by Robert Isaac and Samuel Wilberforce, 1839.
  • The History and Antiquities of Newbury and its environs, by Edward William Gray, Speenhamland, 1839.
  • F. Nigel Hepper, in Arboricultural Journal: The International Journal of Urban Forestry, Volume 25, Issue 3, 2001 : The cultivation of the cedar of Lebanon in western European parks and gardens from the 17th to the 19th century.
  • The Letters of Mrs. Elizabeth Montagu, edited by her nephew Matthew Montagu, MP, London, 1809.
  • The Letters of Mrs. Elizabeth Montagu, published by Matthew Montagu, Esq., her nephew & executor, volume III, London, 1813.
  • The Letters of Mrs. Elizabeth Montagu, edited by Matthew Montagu, volume IV, Cambridge University Press, 2015.
  • Letters of Elizabeth Carter to Elizabeth Montagu, London, 1817.
  • Watership Down, Richard Adams, Puffin, London, 1972, chapter one, pages 19–20.
  • Capability Brown & Belvoir: Discovering a Lost Landscape, by Emma, Duchess of Rutland, & Jane Pruden, published by Nick McCann, 2015.

References[edit]

  1. ^ From Daniel Lysons' Berkshire.
  2. ^ Kelly's directory of Berkshire, 1881.
  3. ^ Bibliotheca Topographica Britanica, no. xvi, containing collections towards a history of Berkshire, 1783
  4. ^ VCH Berks, volume II, (1907), pages 86–8, and as described by the library of St. George's Chapel, Windsor.
  5. ^ This Alburnegate could be the present day Enborne Gate Farm, on the western edge of Newbury, thus making it the north-westerly boundary of the priory's lands, (see Penelope Stokes, Enborne and Wash Common, Hamstead Marshall, 2011, page 33-34.)
  6. ^ Taking Alburnegate as the present day Enborne Gate Farm, on the western edge of Newbury, the north-westerly boundary of the priory's lands, (see Penelope Stokes, Enborne and Wash Common, Hamstead Marshall, 2011, page 33-34.)
  7. ^ Somehow from this, (i.e. not this edition): Monasticon Anglicanum, or, The History Of the Ancient Abbies, and other Monasteries, Hospitals, Cathedral and Collegiate Churches in England and Wales. With divers French, Irish, and Scotch monasteries formerly relating to England, by William Dugdale, three volumes, London, 1693.
  8. ^ many of which edited by Emily Climenson and Matthew Montagu
  9. ^ Harley MSS, 18, Henry III, 1235, via E.E. Myers (died 1909), 1906/1931.
  10. ^ Penelope Stokes, Enborne and Wash Common, Hamstead Marshall, 2011, page 34.
  11. ^ See Provisions of Oxford
  12. ^ 20/94
  13. ^ Compare with Rotuli Normanniae, No. 35, 1205, which details Newbury.
  14. ^ 22/10
  15. ^ 33/6
  16. ^ /770
  17. ^ 36/9
  18. ^ Also associated with the Priory regarding Frobury (Frollebir), Kingsclere, An Account of the Most Important Public Records of Great Britain, volume one, by Charles Purton Cooper, page 418, 1832.
  19. ^ Edw. I, charter 21, 1293, via Miss E. E. Myers, A History of Sandleford Priory, with plates, Newbury District Field Club, Special Publication. no. 1, Newbury, 1931.
  20. ^ Dr. Oiver Rackham
  21. ^ Nicholas Alexander Grant Laing, of Skilldraw Ltd, of One Central Park, Western Avenue, Bridgend, Mid Glamorgan, CF31 3TZ, Newbury Weekly News, and the Section 106, Agreement (for owners of Sandleford), and news reports in Daily Mail for re. Jamie Laing.
  22. ^ Another present day co-absentee landowner, Peter Noel Houldsworth Gibbs, is a descendant of William Gibbs of Tyntesfield.
  23. ^ A History of the County of Berkshire, volume IV, Victoria County History, London, 1924.
  24. ^ Walter Money, FSA, A history of the ancient town and borough of Newbury, in the county of Berkshire, Parker & Co., Oxford & London, 1887, page 62.
  25. ^ A History of the County of Berkshire: Volume 4, Victoria County History, London, 1924.
  26. ^ sometimes written Montague: perhaps a fanciful connection that drew Edward Montagu to lease Sandleford over 500 years later? In addition by 1700 the Earldom of Salisbury had been revived for a branch Montagu family.
  27. ^ The Counts of the Perche, 1066–1217, Dr. Kathleen Hapgood Thompson, Sheffield, 1995.
  28. ^ VCH, Berks, vol. 4, East Garston. The VCH assertion of son changed to brother by work of David Crouch in "William Marshal, knighthood, war and chivalry 1147–1219", 2nd edition, 2002, pages 89–90, and by Douglas Richardson.
  29. ^ Walter Money, FSA, A history of the ancient town and borough of Newbury, in the county of Berkshire, Parker & Co., Oxford & London, 1887, page 62.
  30. ^ Walter Money, FSA, A history of the ancient town and borough of Newbury, in the county of Berkshire, Parker & Co., Oxford & London, 1887, page 63.
  31. ^ Walter Money, FSA, A history of the ancient town and borough of Newbury, in the county of Berkshire, Parker & Co., Oxford & London, 1887, page 60.
  32. ^ Thompson, 2013
  33. ^ Power and Border Lordship in Medieval France, The County of the Perche, 1000–1226, Dr. Kathleen Thompson, Boydell, 2013, page 183
  34. ^ From VCH, Berks.: It appears, however, that Maud de Clare, Countess of Gloucester and Hertford, learning that the house was occupied by three Augustinian canons without abbot or prior, conceived the project of founding a convent for forty inclosed nuns under the rule of St. Augustine and, in a place apart, for ten priests of the order of Fontevraud, at Sandleford in the diocese of Salisbury. She was prepared to increase the endowment from £100 to £200, directing that one of the priests should act as prior with the assent of the abbots (sic) and nuns. A papal mandate of 1274 directed the fulfilment of her intentions.
  35. ^ Edelina of Frobury was returned by the Testa de Nevill as holding £6 worth of land in the vill of Frobury of the king in chief by the serjeanty of guarding the king's door.
  36. ^ Edelina left by her husband five daughters and co-heirs, Maud or Mabel the wife of Thomas de Bavelingham, Alice the wife of Adam de Bending, Eleanor who married Roger de Leyburn, Eleanor who married Ralph Fitz Bernard and Beatrice the wife of Ralph de Fay.
  37. ^ Ranulf de Broc, usher and chief marshal of the household to Henry II.
  38. ^ muniments of St George's Chapel, Windsor: SGC XV.54.5
  39. ^ SGC XV.54.8
  40. ^ Fine Rolls of King Henry III, essay by Stephen Church, Fine of the Month: February 2011: The Excommunication of Beatrice de Faye: http://www.finerollshenry3.org.uk/content/month/fm-02-2011.html
  41. ^ muniments of St George's Chapel, Windsor: SGC.
  42. ^ Frobury fell as her share to Beatrice, probably the eldest daughter, and passed from her to her daughter Philippa the wife of William de Nevill, who in the middle of the 13th century was stated to be holding half a hide in Frobury of the old enfeoffment by the serjeanty of guarding the door of the queen's chamber. In 1249 Philippa de Nevill granted it in free marriage to William de Wintershull, who had married her daughter Beatrice, and from this date Frobury continued in the Wintershull family for about two centuries. William de Wintershull obtained licence to impark his wood of Frobury, which covered an area of 10 acres, in 1260, and died seised of the manor of Frobury in 1287.
  43. ^ A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 4, Victoria County History, London, 1911.
  44. ^ A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 4, Victoria County History, London, 1911.
  45. ^ SGC XV.54.19, (assumed by them there in error to be Aston Rowant, Oxfordshire).
  46. ^ SGC XV.54.1
  47. ^ A William de Fiscampo was Henry III's physician, 1263.
  48. ^ Reginald L. Poole in Report on manuscripts in various collections by Great Britain, Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts; Macray, William Dunn, 1826–1916, 1901, page 43.
  49. ^ Henry de Pont Audemer: Royal official of King John and Henry III, by Niall C.E.J. O’Brien, December 2013. http://celtic2realms-medievalnews.blogspot.co.uk/2013/12/henry-de-pont-audemer-royal-official-of.html
  50. ^ Calendar of Patent Rolls, Windsor, 8 September 1313
  51. ^ SGC XV.54.26: Surrender by William, son of Waryn de Cherlton to brother Thomas Prior and to the Canons of Sandelford [Sandleford] of land in Westhildesly [West Ilsley] held by lease from the Prior for which surrender the Prior gave 12 marks. Witnesses: Sir Richard Fokerham, Knight, (also lord of the manor of Colthrop, Thatcham), John Reynaud, Richard de Ripariis, Richard de Westwode, Geoffrey thye clerk, William le Taylor, Richard the clerk of Hysthildesly.
  52. ^ SGC XV.54.12, grant by Dame Agnes de Penitune, daughter of Sir Henry de Pontaudemer, widow of Sir Richard Nernut, to the Prior and Convent of the Church of Saint John the Baptist, Sandelford, of lands etc in Westhildslye [West Ilsley] and the advowson of the Church, and lands in Wolesham and rent in Walingeford [Wallingford], for the maintenance of a Canon to celebrate for my soul, for that of my father and Matilda, my mother, my husband and William, my son, at a rental of one penny to me and my heirs at feast of St Mary Magdalene. Witnesses: Sir Nicholas de Henreth, Sheriff of Berks, Sir Alan de Fernham, Sir Walter de Ripariis, Sir Peter de Etingedene, Sir William de Brutenoles, Kts, (of Sandon, Hungerford), John Belet of Eneburne, Elias de Bagenore.
  53. ^ SGC XV.54.13
  54. ^ SGC XV.54.14
  55. ^ worth in real 2015 terms either: £2,0000 / £35,000 / £113,000 / £850,000. (From: www.measuringworth.com)
  56. ^ VCH
  57. ^ VCH
  58. ^ VCH
  59. ^ A History of Eton college, by Lionel Cust (1859–1929), Duckworth, London, 1899, page 20.
  60. ^ The Life of William Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester,, etc, by Richard Chandler, D.D., London, 1811.
  61. ^ ODNB
  62. ^ E159/36, M.7d, KB Memorandum Roll 45–46 Henry III, Easter communia.
  63. ^ son of Sir Walter Beauchamp, MP, (died 1430), of Bromham and Steeple Lavington, Wiltshire. Sometime Speaker of the House of Commons.
  64. ^ SGC XV.54.73
  65. ^ SGC XV.61.97
  66. ^ Boase's Register of the University of Oxford, Vol 1. 800.
  67. ^ William Munk, Volume I, page 32.
  68. ^ SGC XV.36.5
  69. ^ The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1558–1603, edited by P.W. Hasler, 1981
  70. ^ The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1604–1629, edited by Andrew Thrush and John P. Ferris, 2010
  71. ^ Lease of the site of the Priory of Sandleford, the churchyard and the priest's lodgings, by the Dean and Canons of Windsor to Francis Moore of Southfalley, esquire. Counterpart.
  72. ^ Lease of the site of the Priory of Sandleford, the churchyard and the priest's lodgings, by the Dean and Canons of Windsor to Francis Moore of Southfalley, esquire. Counterpart.
  73. ^ Lease by the Dean and Canons of Windsor to Francis More of South Falley, in the County of Berks, sergeant at law; all premises late held by Richard Ockham, citizen and skinner of London.
  74. ^ From HOUSE OF COMMONS JOURNAL:
    • Die Veneris, 18 Octobris, 1650.
    Prayers. Sale of Manors, &c. 'A PAPER of Particulars, necessary to be explained in the Act for Sale of the Manors of Rectories, and Glebe Lands, late belonging to the late Archbishops, Bishops, Deans, Deans and Chapters, was this Day read. Ordered, That it be referred to a Committee, to consider of these Particulars; and to bring in a Bill on Tuesday next, for Removing of Obstructions, in the Sale of the said Manors, &c. in those Particulars, or any others; and to facilitate the Sale, and speedy bringing in the Money thereupon: Viz. Sir Henry Vane junior, Major Salwey, Mr. Miles Corbet, Mr. Lechmere, Colonel Harvey, Mr. Holland, Mr. Nevill; or any Two of them: And Mr. Salwey is to take care thereof: And that the Act, already passed, be forborn to be published in the mean time, and till the House take further Order.'
    • Die Martis, 22 Octobris, 1650.
    Prayers. Sale of Manors, &c. 'AN Act, intituled, An additional Act for more speedy effecting of the Sale of the Manors of the Rectories, and Glebe Lands, late belonging to Archbishops, Bishops, Deans, Deans and Chapters, and other Offices and Titles, which late were of or belonging to, any Cathedral, or Collegiate Church or Chapel, within England or Wales; and for the better Encouragement of Lenders upon the Security thereof; and of other Lands and Hereditaments of the said Deans, Deans and Chapters, &c.; was this Day read the First and Second time. And, after some Amendments at the Table, the Question being put, That the said Bill be ingrossed; It passed with the Negative. And the said Bill, so amended, being put to the Question, passed. And It is Ordered, That the said Act, together with the former Act, for Sale of the Manors of Rectories, &c. be forthwith printed and published.'
  75. ^ SGC XV.36.6, and John Neale Dalton, The Manuscripts of St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, Windsor, 1957, page 309.
  76. ^ Second son of Robert Staples (d.1573) of Nottingham.
  77. ^ He was also Nottingham's sheriff 1588-9, common councilman 1591–1600, bridge-warden 1599–1600, alderman 1600–29.
  78. ^ George Yerby / Ben Coates in The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1604–1629, edited by Andrew Thrush and John P. Ferris, 2010.
  79. ^ Robert Thoroton, 'Maperley', in Thoroton's History of Nottinghamshire: Volume 2, Republished With Large Additions By John Throsby, Nottingham, 1790, pages 230–231. Thoroton also records that: Robert Staples, and Maud [Cartwright] his [second] wife [died 1620], 1612, settled, in consideration of marriage, Cornerswong, or Mapurly Closes [ Maperley ], containing sixty acres, with one cottage, &c. on Alexander Staples, and Joane his wife, and the heirs of their two bodies; and in default thereof on Alexander and his heirs.
  80. ^ Britannia, Or, a Geographical Description of the Kingdoms of England,by Richard Blome, 1673.
  81. ^ Easter term, 36 Car. II, case 348 (1685) King's Bench, described in Reports of Cases Adjudged in the Court of King's Bench: During the Reigns..., by Sir Bartholomew Shower, London, 1794/1836.
  82. ^ House of Lords journal.
  83. ^ Burke's Landed Gentry of Ireland, 1912, page 370..
  84. ^ Sheriff of Hampshire, 1602 & 1613.
  85. ^ Burke's Irish Family Records, 1912, page 370.
  86. ^ Rental of the rents of the farm of Sandelford [Sandleford] made and delivered to Sir Jo. Woodward.
  87. ^ G.E.C. Complete baronetage, volume I, Exeter, 1900.
  88. ^ 6 May 1668: Lease by the Dean and Canons of Windsor to John Kingsmill of Sandleford, scite of the Priory etc all lately in tenure of Humphrey Fo[r]ster of Aldermaston, in the County of Berks, Bart, and John Harrison of Lincoln's Inn for 21 years at £15 2s. for fishing. Counterpart. AND, 6 May 1668: Lease of Sandleford coppices, called Bradmore and Highwood, the first late held by Anthony Childe and the other by Richard Pinfold, and their coppices in the Parish of Migham, in all 68 acres, by the Dean and Canons of Windsor to John Kingsmill of Sandelford, esquire. Counterpart.
  89. ^ Dr. Donne's letter of consolation to Lady Kingsmill following the death of her husband in 1624, was sold at Christie's, London, King Street, sale 7411 – The Albin Schram Collection of Autograph Letters, 3 July 2007, lot 54, for £114,000 (including premium and VAT).
  90. ^ Burke's Landed Gentry of Ireland, 1912, page 370..
  91. ^ The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1604–1629, edited by Andrew Thrush and John P. Ferris, 2010.
  92. ^ 20 December 1710: Lease of the scite of the Priory, the farm of Sandelford [Sandleford], and Tyd[e]hams and all messuages, tenements in Sandelford and Midgham, Berks, in Burrowghcleere [Burghclere] and Sidmanton [Sydmonton], in the county of Hants, the meadow called Milmead on the South side of Aborn Streame, (except woods and the tenement which John Dean occupies in Sandelford near Abornstream and an acre of land on its north side, and Waterleaze and a piece of Sandelford green 3 acres and certain rights of fishing in Aborn stream) – and also fishing in the river Kennett in the parishes Limborn [Lambourn], Enborne and Nubery [Newbury], by the Dean and Canons of Windsor to Henry Kingsmill of Sandelford. Counterpart.
  93. ^ from 14 November 1706
  94. ^ William Kingsmill of Bristol (died 1717) mentions his first cousin Henry Kingsmill as being already dead in his own will dated 1717 December 5: 'William Kingsmylle of St. James, Bristol. Gent. All my goods between my daughters Bridget and Elisabeth Kingsmylle. My eldest daughter Ann Kingsmylle an annuity bequeathed to her by her cousin Henry Kingsmill of Sandleford, Berks. Esq.. Proved 22 Jan 1717/8 by his two daughters'. (from Bristol Wills, collated by Mary Mason)
  95. ^ Anecdotes of the life of William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, vol. iii, London, 1810.
  96. ^ A History of the County of Berkshire, Volume four, edited by William Page and P H Ditchfield, Victoria County History, London, 1924, pages 84–87.
  97. ^ A treatise enumerating the most illustrious families of England, who have been raised to honour and wealth by the profession of law together with the ... court, and barons of the Exchequer, Fleet Street, London, 1686.
  98. ^ Irene Cassidy in The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1660–1690, edited by B.D. Henning, 1983
  99. ^ Emily Climenson, Elizabeth Montagu, page 278.
  100. ^ Magna Britannia: Being a Concise Topographical Account of the several counties of Great Britain, Volume 1, by Daniel and Samuel Lysons, page 353, 1806.
  101. ^ See too, Thomas Pitt (1653–1726), who bought the quite close Swallowfield Park in 1717.
  102. ^ 27 November 1717: Lease of the scite of the Priory, the farm of Sandelford [Sandleford], and Tyd[e]hams and all messuages, tenements in Sandelford and Midgham, Berks, in Burrowghcleere and Sidmanton, in the county of Hants, the meadow called Milmead on the South side of Aborn Streame, (except woods and the tenement which John Dean occupies in Sandelford near Abornstream and an acre of land on its north side, and Waterleaze and a piece of Sandelford green 3 acres and certain rights of fishing in Aborn stream) – and also fishing in the river Kennett in the parishes Limborn, Enborne and Nubery [Newbury], by the Dean and Canons of Windsor to William Craddock of Gainford, in the County Palatine of Durham. Counterpart.
  103. ^ A genealogical and heraldic history of the commoners of Great Britain, by John Burke, volume IV, page 257, 1838.
  104. ^ 31 August 1737: Lease of the scite of the Priory, the farm of Sandelford [Sandleford], and Tyd[e]hams and all messuages, tenements in Sandelford and Midgham, Berks, in Burrowghcleere [Burghclere] and Sidmanton [Sydmonton], in the county of Hants, the meadow called Milmead on the South side of Aborn Streame, (except woods and the tenement which John Dean occupies in Sandelford near Abornstream and an acre of land on its north side, and Waterleaze and a piece of Sandelford green 3 acres and certain rights of fishing in Aborn stream) – and also fishing in the river Kennett in the parishes Limborn [Lambourn], Enborne and Nubery [Newbury], by the Dean and Canons of Windsor to Edward Mountague of London, esquire.
  105. ^ 'His father owed this advancement to the patronage of his uncle Nathaniel Crew, bishop of Durham, and it was Crew's continued favour in the 1690s that led to Montagu's involvement in the north-east coal industry', as described by Eveline Cruickshanks in The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1690–1715, edited by D. Hayton, E. Cruickshanks, S. Handley, 2002
  106. ^ Emily Climenson, page 144
  107. ^ Eveline Cruickshanks in The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1715–1754, edited by Rodney Sedgwick, 1970.
  108. ^ The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1754–1790, edited by L. Namier, J. Brooke, 1964.
  109. ^ Clergy Database. Rev. Matthew Robinson was also rector of Coveney (Rev. Conyers Middleton's parish) 1791–1804.
  110. ^ Elizabeth Montagu, the Queen of the Bluestockings, Emily J. Climenson, 1906
  111. ^ A History of the County of Berkshire, Volume four, edited by William Page and P H Ditchfield, Victoria County History, London, 1924, pages 84–87.
  112. ^ William or Lord Rokeby
  113. ^ Richard Phillips, ed. (1810). The Monthly Magazine. 29: 558. Dear Brother, [William or more likely Matthew, 2nd Lord Rokeby] It would be with much greater pleasure I should take up my pen to tell you I am at Sandleford, if I could flatter myself with the hope of alluring you to it: you would find me in the character of a farmeress. [One transcription has housewife] The meagre condition of the soil forbids me to live in the state of a shepherdess-queen, which I look upon as the highest rural dignity.The plough, the harrow, and the spade remind us that the golden age is past, and subsistence depends on labour; prosperity on industrious application. A little of the clay of which you complain, would do us a great deal of good. I should be glad to take my dominions here from the goddess Ceres to give them to the god Pan, and I think you will agree with me in that taste; for wherever he presides, there Nature's republick is established. The ox in his pasture is as free and as much at his ease as the proprietor of the soil, and the days of the first are not more shorten 'd to feed the intemperance of others, than the rich landlord's by the indulgence of his own. I look upon the goddess Ceres as a much less impartial and universally kind deity. The ancients thought they did her honour by ascribing to her the invention of laws. We must consider her also as the mother of lawsuits and all the divisions, dissentions, and distinctions among mankind. Naturalists tell us all the oaks that have ever been, were contain' d in the first acorn. I believe we may affirm, by the same mode of reasoning, that all arts and sciences were contain'd in the first ear of corn. To possess lasting treasure and exclusive prosperity, has been the great business and aim of man. At Sandleford you will find us busy in the care of arable land. By two little purchases Mr. Montagu made here, my farm contains six hundred acres. As I now consider it an Amazonian land, I affect to consider the women as capable of assisting in agriculture as much as the men. They weed my corn, hoe my turnips, and set my Pottatoes ; and by these means promote the prosperity of their families. A landlord, where the 'droit du seigneur' prevailed, would not expose the complexions of his female vassals to the sun. I must confess my Amazons hardly deserve to be accounted of the fair sex; and they have not the resources of pearl-powder and rouge when the natural lilies and roses have faded. You are very polite in supposing my looks not so homely as I described them; but though my health is good, the faded roses do not revive, and I assure you I am always of the colour of 'la feuille-morte'. My complexion has long fallen into the sere and yellow leaf; and I assure you one is as much warned against using art, by seeing the ladies of Paris, as the Spartan youths by observing the effects of intoxicating liquors on the Helots. The vast quantity of rouge worn there by the fine ladies makes them hideous. As I always imagine one is less looked at by wearing the uniform of the society one lives in, I allowed my frizeur to put on whatever rouge was normally worn... (from The Monthly Magazine, volume 29, edited by Richard Phillips, London, 1810, page 558.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  114. ^ Mary Morgan, 1795, page 45
  115. ^ Capability Brown by Dorothy Stroud, Faber & Faber, London, 1975.
  116. ^ Green Retreats, by Stephen Bending, page 165, CUP, 2015.
  117. ^ Green Retreats, by Stephen Bending, page 165, CUP, 2013.
  118. ^ A lady of the last century (Mrs. Elizabeth Montagu): illustrated in her unpublished letters, by Dr. John Doran, Bentley, 1873, page 315-317.
  119. ^ Companions Without Vows: Relationships Among Eighteenth-Century British Women, by Betty Rizzo, University of Georgia, 1994, pages 128–141.
  120. ^ See File:Memorial to Mary Morgan in Ely Cathedral.jpg.
  121. ^ Elizabeth Montagu's grandmother Sarah, having inherited a life interest in the manor and advowson of Coveney with Manea from her first husband Robert Drake of Cambridge, had married Dr. Conyers Middleton (1683–1750), Woodwardian Professor of Geology at Cambridge, who she then presented as Rector of Coveney with Manea 1726-8. Mary Morgan's husband was rector of Wisbech a mere 15 miles north of Coveney, near Ely.
  122. ^ The Gentleman's Magazine, November 1818, page 473.
  123. ^ She was staying with Mrs Montagu's brother Rev. William Robinson (died 1803) who was rector of Burghfield. Robinson's son was then rector of Coveney, near Ely; a friend and neighbour of Mrs Morgan.
  124. ^ page 33
  125. ^ Mary Morgan, 1795, page 33.
  126. ^ Morgan, 1795, page 39
  127. ^ A Tour to Milford Haven, in the year 1791, London, 1795, pages 32–45; also quoted by Stephen Bending in Green Retreats, women, gardens and eighteenth-century culture, Cambridge University Press, 2013, page 171.
  128. ^ A Tour to Milford Haven, in the year 1791, London, 1795, pages 32–45; also quoted by Stephen Bending in Green Retreats, women, gardens and eighteenth-century culture, Cambridge University Press, 2013, page 171.
  129. ^ Mary Morgan, 1795, page 76.
  130. ^ Wraxall's Memoirs, edited by Wheatley, iv. 377-9 (via: The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1790–1820, ed. R. Thorne, 1986).
  131. ^ The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1754–1790, edited by Lewis Namier, John Brooke, 1964.
  132. ^ Magna Britannia: Bedfordshire, Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, by Daniel Lysons, 1813
  133. ^ A History of the County of Berkshire, Volume four, edited by William Page and P H Ditchfield, Victoria County History, London, 1924, pages 84–87.
  134. ^ The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1790–1820, edited by R. Thorne, 1986
  135. ^ R. G. Thorne in The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1790–1820, edited by R. G. Thorne, 1986
  136. ^ The life of William Wilberforce, by Robert Isaac and Samuel Wilberforce, 1839, page 236.
  137. ^ The life of William Wilberforce, by Robert Isaac and Samuel Wilberforce, 1839, page 306.
  138. ^ He died in 1889 leaving personal effects valued for probate at £155,141.
  139. ^ Elizabeth Pollett Brown Arbuthnot died leaving effects valued at under £70,000.
  140. ^ Indenture dated 2 November 1835, he paid £22,000 for the remaining c. seven years of Matthew Montagu's 21-year lease on the priory and c. 500 acres, with 111 acres bought directly from Edward Montagu, 5th Lord Rokeby, etal.
  141. ^ A History of the County of Berkshire, Volume four, edited by William Page and P H Ditchfield, Victoria County History, London, 1924, pages 84–87. Newtown House was bequeathed by Edmund Arbuthnot to his brother-in-law William Chatteris, who in turn left it on his own death to one of his former half-brothers-in-law.
  142. ^ Effects valued at £48,519.
  143. ^ A History of the County of Berkshire, Volume four, edited by William Page and P H Ditchfield, Victoria County History, London, 1924, pages 84–87.
  144. ^ Will proved by her nephew, Evan Mac Gregor (Fernie Castle, Fife, 1842–1926), of Hampton Court and of the Admiralty Whitehall, CB (later GCB, ISO)
  145. ^ http://www.westminster-abbey.org/our-history/people/lord-john-thynne
  146. ^ Burke's Peerage
  147. ^ Kelly's Directory of Berkshire.
  148. ^ Ditchfield, P.H.; Page, William, eds. (1924). A History of the County of Berkshire: Vol. 4. Courtest of British History Online. pp. 84–87. 
  149. ^ At the time of the 1871 census they were living at Camp Hill, Much Woolton, Lancashire. And in 1891 they were at Benham House, Marsh Benham.
  150. ^ Kelly's. She died leaving £35,357.
  151. ^ E.E. Myers died leaving £25,927.
  152. ^ She left £71.784.
  153. ^ The Times. He died leaving £242,827.
  154. ^ He died leaving £195,389.
  155. ^ V&A bought his collection of Arab glass in 1900, and his Egyptian collection forms Eton College's Myers Museum. See ODNB.
  156. ^ later of Bryngomer, Pontrhydyrun, he died leaving £425,843.
  157. ^ Malvern school list
  158. ^ London Gazette
  159. ^ Who's Who
  160. ^ Burke's Peerage and Burke's Landed Gentry
  161. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=zzkYtitMBRsC&pg=PA387
  162. ^ The New Monthly Magazine and Universal Register, Volume 8, 1817.
  163. ^ The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1820–1832, edited by D.R. Fisher, 2009.
  164. ^ Magenis had retired from the 32nd Light Infanrtry/Regiment of Foot (or 90th Regiment), on 20 July 1858.
  165. ^ Debrett's peerage, baronetage, knightage, and companionage
  166. ^ By 1880 Lady Louisa was living in London at 95 Eaton Place and by 1918 was at 34 Lennox Gardens.
  167. ^ Magenis died leaving under £8,000.
  168. ^ Kelly's Directory of Berkshire and 1871 census.
  169. ^ census and Kelly's
  170. ^ Who's Who
  171. ^ VCH, Berks, vol. 4, East Garston. The VCH assertion of son changed to brother by work of David Crouch in "William Marshal, knighthood, war and chivalry 1147–1219", 2nd edition, 2002, pages 89–90, and by Douglas Richardson.
  172. ^ Walter Money, Newbury, 1887, page 129.
  173. ^ Walter Money, Newbury, page 160
  174. ^ A Descriptive Catalogue of Ancient Deeds, Volume 6, His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1915. C. 6148.
  175. ^ Calendar of State Papers, January 1605, published 1857, page 186. 'Letter to the Dean & Canons of Windsor, to make a lease to the King of the farm of Sandleford, Wiltshire [sic], a docquet, a Scots word for docket.
  176. ^ 6 May 1668: Lease of Sandleford coppices, called Bradmore and Highwood, the first late held by Anthony Childe and the other by Richard Pinfold, and their coppices in the Parish of Migham, in all 68 acres, by the Dean and Canons of Windsor to John Kingsmill of Sandelford, esquire. Counterpart.
  177. ^ Walter Money, 1884
  178. ^ The History and Antiquities of Newbury and its environs, by Edward William Gray, Speenhamland, 1839.
  179. ^ Walter Money, The History of the Ancient Town and Borough of Newbury in the County of Berks London, 1887, page 287.
  180. ^ 6 May 1668: Lease of Sandleford coppices, called Bradmore and Highwood, the first late held by Anthony Childe and the other by Richard Pinfold, and their coppices in the Parish of Migham, in all 68 acres, by the Dean and Canons of Windsor to John Kingsmill of Sandelford, esquire. Counterpart.
  181. ^ Accounts and Papers, Parliamentary Papers, House of Commons, XLV, 1834.
  182. ^ Smith v. Kemp, 5 William & Mary; and an old hand drawn map of c. 1700 in Berkshire Record Office.
  183. ^ ODNB
  184. ^ History of Newtown by Doug Ellis, Newtown Parish Council, 2015.
  185. ^ F. Nigel Hepper, in Arboricultural Journal: The International Journal of Urban Forestry, Volume 25, Issue 3, 2001 : THE CULTIVATION OF THE CEDAR OF LEBANON IN WESTERN EUROPEAN PARKS AND GARDENS FROM THE 17TH TO THE 19TH CENTURY.
  186. ^ Exhibition catalogue, London, 1851, page 25, number 93.
  187. ^ http://www.sandlefordparkbloorhomes.co.uk/
  188. ^ Newbury Weekly News, Thursday, 18 October 2012, reporter: James Williams.
  189. ^ Burke's Peerage
  190. ^ From John Milton's 'L'allegro', 'Hard by, a cottage chimney smokes, From betwixt two aged oaks,'
  191. ^ The Letters of Mrs. Elizabeth Montagu, edited by her nephew Matthew Montagu, MP, London, 1809.
  192. ^ William Cobbett, Rural Rides, London, 1853.
  193. ^ 'Came through a place called "a park" belonging to a Mr. Montague, who is now abroad ; for the purpose, I suppose, of generously assisting to compensate the French people for what they lost by the entrance of the Holy Alliance Armies into their country. Of all the ridiculous things I ever saw in my life this place is the most ridiculous. The house looks like a sort of church, in somewhat of a gothic style of building, with crosses on the tops of different parts of the pile. There is a sort of swamp, at the foot of a wood, at no great distance from the front of the house. This swamp has been dug out in the middle to show the water to the eye; so that there is a sort of river, or chain of diminutive lakes, going down a little valley, about 500 yards long, the water proceeding from the soak of the higher ground on both sides. By the sides of these lakes there are little flower gardens, laid out in the Dutch manner; that is to say, cut out into all manner of superficial geometrical figures. Here is the grand en petit, or mock magnificence, more complete than I ever beheld it before. Here is a fountain, the basin of which is not four feet over, and the water spout not exceeding the pour from a tea-pot. Here is a bridge over a river of which a child four years old would clear the banks at a jump. I could not have trusted myself on the bridge for fear of the consequences to Mr. Montague; but I very conveniently stepped over the river, in imitation of the Colossus. In another part there was a lion's mouth spouting out water into the lake, which was so much like the vomiting of a dog, that I could almost have pitied the poor Lion. In short, such fooleries I never before beheld; but what I disliked most was the apparent impiety of a part of these works of refined taste. I did not like the crosses on the dwelling house; but, in one of the gravel walks, we had to pass under a gothic arch, with a cross on the top of it, and in the point of the arch a niche for a saint or a virgin, the figure being gone through the lapse of centuries, and the pedestal only remaining as we so frequently see on the out- sides of Cathedrals and of old churches and chapels. But the good of it was, this gothic arch, disfigured by the hand of old Father Time, was composed of Scotch fir wood, as rotten as a pear; nailed together in such a way as to make the thing appear, from a distance, like the remnant of a ruin ! I wonder how long this sickly, this childish, taste is to remain? I do not know who this gentleman is. I suppose he is some honest person from the 'Change or its neighbourhood; and that these gothic arches are to denote the antiquity of his origin! Not a bad plan; and, indeed, it is one that I once took the liberty to recommend to those Fundlords who retire to be country-'squires. But I never recommended the Crucifixes ! To be sure the Roman Catholic religion may, in England, be considered as a gentleman's religion, it being the most ancient in the country; and, there- fore, it is fortunate for a Fundlord when he happens (if he ever do happen) to be of that faith. This gentleman may, for anything that I know, be a Catholic ; in which case I applaud his piety and pity his taste. At the end of this scene of mock grandeur and mock antiquity I found something more rational; namely, some hare hounds, and, in half-an-hour after, we found, and I had the first hare-hunt that I had had since I wore a smock-frock ! We killed our hare after good sport, and got to Burghclere in the evening to a nice farm- house in a dell, sheltered from every wind, and with plenty of good living; though with no gothic arches made of Scotch-fir'.
  194. ^ translated by Walter Money (1884) and/or Kathleen Thompson, Honorary Research Fellow, University of Sheffield, in her Matilda, countess of the Perche (1171–1210): the expression of authority in name, style and seal, 2003.
  195. ^ Sir William Dugdale, Monasticon Anglicanum: a History of the Abbies and other Monasteries, Hospitals, Frieries, and Cathedral and Collegiate Churches, with their Dependencies, in England and Wales, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown, London, 1817–1830, volume VI, p. 565.). (from an inspeximus by Stephen Langton of Hubert Walter’s charter of confirmation; and Acta Stephani Langton Cantuariensis archiepiscopi AD 1207–1228, edited by Kathleen Major, Oxford, Canterbury and York Society, 50 (1950), no 34.
  196. ^ St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle: SGC
  197. ^ St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle: SGC XV.36.17
  198. ^ Samuel Purchas, Purchas his Pilgrimes – or Relations of the world and the Religions observed in all ages and places discovered, from the Creation unto this Present, the Fourth Book, 1614, chapter 13, page 415.
  199. ^ Hoopers rule, see Hedge#Hedgerow dating
  200. ^ Mrs. Montagu's letters (Climenson) and those associated with her nephew (viz. William Wilberforce) record many visitors passing via Sandleford on their way to or from Bath.
  201. ^ A Topographical Map of the County of Berks, by John Rocque, Topographer to His Majesty, 1761.
  202. ^ The Hermit, or Father Philip's Geese, the title of a poem by Jean de La Fontaine published in The Gentleman's Magazine, October 1733, page 544.
  203. ^ The Letters of Mrs. Elizabeth Montagu, published by Matthew Montagu, Esq., her nephew & executor, volume III, page 121, London, 1813.
  204. ^ which West's uncle, Viscount Cobham, had masterminded
  205. ^ Quoted from Torquato Tasso describing the gardens of Armida
  206. ^ Milton's Paradise Lost.
  207. ^ 'the cherub Contemplation', comes from John Milton's Il Penseroso.
  208. ^ Sandleford, 8 September 1757
  209. ^ the 1810 source leaves the acreage blank. The sum 600 comes from another printing of this letter.
  210. ^ Matthew, 2nd Lord Rokeby, though one printer of the letter thought it was to her brother William
  211. ^ Quoted in The Omnipotent Magician, by Jane Brown, Pimlico, London, 2012, p297.
  212. ^ Letters of Elizabeth Carter to Elizabeth Montagu, Letter CCLIX, page 261, volume 3, London, 1817.
  213. ^ Letters of Elizabeth Carter to Elizabeth Montagu, Letter CCLXII, volume 3, London, 1817.
  214. ^ Berkshire Record Office (BRO:D/ELM T19/2/13)
  215. ^ Huntingdon, MO2464
  216. ^ At the time of the Newbury tithe award the forty acres were leased by the Dean and Canons of Windsor to Henry Churchyard, and in 1777 it was occupied by Henry Grace (info: R.B. Tubb).
  217. ^ Newbury Road by Road, by R. B. Tubb, Thatcham, 2011.
  218. ^ Walter Money, FSA, Newbury, 1887, page 555.
  219. ^ Fulwar Craven was ward and nephew of Sir Fulwar Skipwith, 2nd Bt., (1676–1728), MP (Coventry).
  220. ^ size as shown also by a photograph of circa 1906
  221. ^ Named after Mrs Montagu's butler Joseph Woodhouse or his poetical shoemaker brother James (c1735-1820).
  222. ^ Re. Thatcham in A History of the County of Berkshire, Volume 3, Victoria County History, London, 1923. (Feet of Fines, Berkshire, 25 Henry III (1240–1241), no. 25; and Testa de Nevill (Book of Fees) (Rec. Com.), 133.)
  223. ^ St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle: SGC
  224. ^ father of William Stephen Poyntz
  225. ^ *Leases of 1772 & 1779 & 1793; Lease of Midgham meadows, Thatcham, formerly let with Sandleford farm, comprising 37 acres, by the Dean and Canons of Windsor to William Poyntz of Midgham. Counterpart.
    • Lease of 18 June 1765; Lease of Midgham meadows, Thatcham, formerly let with Sandleford farm, comprising 37 acres, by the Dean and Canons of Windsor to Rt Hon John Viscount Spencer.
    • Lease assigned, 6 November 1756, Assignment by Anna Maria Poyntz, widow, of her interest in lease granted by Chapter to her husband 29 June 1751 to the Hon. John Spencer of Althorp, Northampton, esquire 6 November 1756. [Midgham meadows in the parish of Thatcham, formerly let with Sandleford farm].(SGC XV.51.71)
    • Lease of 23 May 1758, Lease of Midgham meadows, Thatcham, formerly let with Sandleford farm, comprising 37 acres, by the Dean and Canons of Windsor to Hon. John Spencer of Althorpe, Northants, assignee of Anna Poyntz.
    • Lease, 29 June 1751, Lease of Midgham meadows, Thatcham, formerly let with Sandleford farm, comprising 37 acres, by the Dean and Canons of Windsor to Anna Maria Poyntz of St James' Westminster, widow and executrix of Rt Hon Stephen Poyntz. Counterpart.
    • Lease, 31 May 1744, Lease of Midgham meadows in the parish of Thatcham, 37 acres, formerly let in lease with Sandleford farm and coppice, by the Dean and Canons of Windsor to Rt Hon. Stephen Poyntz of St James's, Westminster.
    • Lease, 29 August 1737, Lease of Midgham meadows in the parish of Thatcham, 37 acres, formerly let in lease with Sandleford farm and coppice, by the Dean and Canons of Windsor to Michael Hillersdon of Midgham, Berks, esquire, executor of John Hillersdon. Counterpart.
  226. ^ (135 words quoted from the 478-page book): Watership Down, Richard Adams, Puffin, London, 1972, chapter one, pages 19–20.