Sandra Seacat

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Sandra Seacat
Born
Sandra Diane Seacat

(1936-10-02) October 2, 1936 (age 83)[1]
Other namesCredited as Sandra Kaufman, her then-married name, before 1969[2]
OccupationActing teacher, actress, director
Years active1962–present
Spouse(s)Arthur I. Kaufman (1959–1968 or 1969; divorced)[3]
Michael Ebert (?–1978; divorced)[4][5]
Thurn Hoffman (?–present)
Children1

Sandra Diane Seacat[a] (born October 2, 1936) is an American actress, director and acting coach best known for her innovations in acting pedagogy—blending elements of Strasberg,[8] Siddha Yoga[9] and Jungian dream analysis[10]—and for a handful of coaching success stories.[11][12][8][13][14]

Early life and career[edit]

Seacat was the first of three daughters born to Russell Henry and Lois Marion Seacat in Greensburg, Kansas.[1][15][16] Involved in theatre from her mid-teens on,[17][18] Seacat first focused on method acting while attending Northwestern University,[19] earning her degree and relocating to New York, where she studied with Actors Studio alumnus Michael Howard and later at the Studio with its director Lee Strasberg.[18]

Seacat first attracted attention—as Sandra Kaufman, her then married name—in July 1962, in the Barnard-Columbia Summer Theater production of Somerset Maugham's The Noble Spaniard. Despite finding the play "rather silly,” Back Stage's reviewer "found particular pleasure in Sandra Kaufman's characterization."[20] She appeared once more that summer, this time under Michael Howard's direction, in the US premiere of Leonid Andreyev's The Waltz of the Dogs.[21] Amidst a generally favorable review, Back Stage reserved "bouquets" for Kaufman and 2 others,[22] while The Village Voice predicted, “Miss Kaufman’s appetizing warmth [is] destined to bring many future stages alive.”[23]

The following winter, an eventful few hours—attaining both Actors Studio membership and first-time motherhood[24]—gave rise to roughly 2 years of seeming inactivity, a notable exception being Kaufman’s Broadway debut, a small part in the Actors Studio production of Chekhov’s Three Sisters.[1][25] Her full-fledged return came on October 12, 1965, in Atlanta’s Community Playhouse (again under Howard’s direction),[21] when, having beaten out Rosemary Forsyth for the title role in Shaw’s Saint Joan,[26] Kaufman's portrayal was described by The Journal-Constitution as "a masterpiece of suave speech and faultless timing [which] enhances the lyrical quality of Shaw's lines." "Kaufman," it continues, "is both saint and genius; her portrayal leaves nothing to be desired."[27]

After resuming her studies in New York,[28] Kaufman again collaborated with her former teacher, along with Gene Hackman, Tom Aldredge and Chicago import Mina Kolb, to form the Second City Revue (a short-lived New York offshoot of the like-named Chicago-based improvisational troupe). On June 5, 1966, the group was featured on ABC News' Directions '66.[29]

Between 1968 and 1970, Seacat[b] appeared in regional theater in Toronto,[19] Atlanta[30] and New Orleans.[31]

Under her married name, she lived in Sea Gate, Brooklyn.[32]

Teaching[edit]

During the 1970s, Seacat taught at the Lee Strasberg Theatre Institute, City College of New York's Leonard Davis Center for the Performing Arts, the Actors Studio, and she taught privately. Among her clients were Steve Railsback,[33] Lance Henriksen,[34] Christopher Reeve[35] and Mickey Rourke, who later said of his time with Seacat, "That's when everything started to click."[11]

Over the next decade, while teaching in New York and Los Angeles,[10] Seacat was credited with a number of such breakthroughs, including those of Jessica Lange,[36][37][38] Rachel Ward[39][37] and Marlo Thomas.[38][8] During this period, she also helped pioneer the practice of dream work, in which actors study and play characters from their dreams.[10] Among those studying the technique was Seacat's daughter, Greta, who went on to become an acting coach. In addition, actresses Melanie Griffith and Gina Gershon publicly credited Seacat's use of the dream method with improving their craft.[40][41]

Also attending those classes were future Songwriter's HOF inductee Desmond Child, then a self-professed "fly on the wall" alongside Lange, Rourke, Michelle Pfeiffer and others. Speaking in 2018 with Music & Musicians, he gratefully acknowledged Seacat's mentorship, noting the correlation between her early efforts at linking text to actor and Child's later knack for matching song to singer. Similarly, Child embraced Seacat's vision of the artist as a "wounded healer" and the audience "a co-creator [who] heals through that process." "As songwriters," Child concurred, "we have a sacred job to help them connect."[42]

Acting teacher Alex Cole Taylor in 2010 told Backstage that Seacat taught him compassion for his students.[43] In 2012, CNN's profile of acting coach Elizabeth Kemp coupled Seacat with Lee Strasberg as "legendary acting coaches."[44] Longtime Seacat student Laura Dern, speaking at the January 2012 Golden Globe Awards presentation, thanked "Sandra Seacat, Frank Capra, Lucille Ball, [and] everybody who's ever inspired any of us" at the conclusion of her acceptance speech for Best Actress.[45][46]

In 2012 and 2013, Seacat was a faculty member at the annual Film Forum hosted by the University of Arkansas's Winthrop Rockefeller Institute, organized by fellow Actors Studio alumnus Robert Walden.[47][48]

While Seacat has always shunned publicity, both for her own sake and that of her clients,[49] she has gone on record regarding a few of her more famously self-proclaimed students such as Jessica Lange,[50] Mickey Rourke,[51] Meg Ryan[52] and, on multiple occasions, Laura Dern,[53][54] whose longstanding relationship with Seacat is the subject of an article and the accompanying video published by The Hollywood Reporter in February 2015.[14]

In February 2018, Seacat and her husband Thurn Hoffman were featured among more than 20 couples seen in the music video for Night Things' cover of The Everly Brothers' 1959 hit "(Till) I Kissed You."[55]

Directing[edit]

Seacat has directed one movie, In the Spirit, shot in 1988, released in April 1990, and starring Marlo Thomas and Elaine May. The year-plus gap between wrap and release saw one previously announced cast member, Louise Lasser, end on the cutting room floor,[56][57] as well as the addition of what Variety later termed "the stupid framing device of a mystical narrator,"[58] presumably inserted in hopes of patching over rough spots in the narrative, in particular the dramatic shift in tone occurring midway through the film.

That any such hopes had gone unrealized was the general consensus amongst critics, who were nonetheless divided between those who found such flaws forgivable—such as The Boston Globe ("An Endearing Mess")[59] or Hal Hinson of The Washington Post ("disjointed [but] deliciously addlebrained")[60]—and those who did not, such as Janet Maslin, who dubbed In the Spirit "a nervous new-age comedy more notable for good intentions than good luck,"[61] and the Los Angeles Times, which noted that what begins as "a richly comic" vehicle for Ms. May abruptly "crumbles around her at roughly its halfway point."[62] Variety, however, perceived a method to Spirit's messiness, "a throwback to the looser, madcap '60s," featuring "big name talent [working on] a low budget" to make a "pic freed of mainstream good taste and gloss."[58]

In August 2007, Seacat, with Jamie Wollrab, directed her daughter, Greta Seacat, along with Shannon Woodward, Justin Chatwin and Johnny Lewis in Elizabeth Meriwether's play The Mistakes Madeline Made at the Dairy Center for the Arts in Boulder, Colorado.[63][64]

Filmography[edit]

Film[edit]

Year Title Role
1975 Night Moves Voice
1979 The Rose Reporter
1980 The Kidnapping of the President Henrietta Cown
1980 Jane Austen in Manhattan Thriftshop Lady
1982 Frances Drama Teacher
1983 The Golden Seal Gladys
1984 Country Louise Brewer
1987 Promised Land Mrs Rivers
1988 Wildfire Sissy
1990 In the Spirit Director
1993 Born Yesterday Thanks
1994 The New Age Mary Netter
1996 The Destiny of Marty Fine Woman on Beach
1998 The Baby Dance Doreen
1999 Crazy in Alabama Meemaw
2001 The Want Doctor
2001 Nailed Sandra the Midwife
2001 Daddy and Them Elbe
2003 Prey for Rock & Roll Mother
2003 In the Cut Creative consultant
2003 A Little Crazy Delphine
2004 In the Land of Milk and Money Mrs. Trevors
2004 Illusion The Boarding House Lady
2007 Fade Woman
2007 Tattered Angel Louise
2010 Sympathy for Delicious Mrs. Matilda
2010 You Don't Know Jack Janet Adkins
2012 Shale (short subject) Sheila
2012 The Time Being Annette
2013 Palo Alto Tanya
2014 Alex of Venice Sandra
2015 The Scarecrow (short subject) Janine
2016 Buster's Mal Heart Public Access Psychic
2017 The Strangeness You Feel (short subject) Jane

Television[edit]

Year Title Role
1966 Directions '66 (TV series; one episode – 1966, 5 June) Not available (as Sandra Kaufman)
1976 First Ladies Diaries: Edith Wilson (TV movie) Helen
1978 "Fame" (Hallmark) (TV movie) Bess
1986 Nobody's Child (TV movie) Barbara
1991 Held Hostage: The Sis and Jerry Levin Story (TV movie) NA
1994 Reunion (TV movie) NA
1999 Mickey Rourke: The E! True Hollywood Story (TV documentary) Herself
2000 Intimate Portrait: Laura Dern (TV series documentary) Herself
2001 Biography: Jessica Lange, On Her Own Terms (TV series documentary) Herself
2008 The Dark Side of Fame with Piers Morgan: Mickey Rourke (TV series documentary) Herself
2011 Enlightened (TV series; two episodes – 2011, 10 and 17 October) Patricia
2013 Enlightened (One episode – 2013, 27 January) Patricia

Students of Sandra Seacat[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Confusion about the spelling of Seacat's first name has arisen over the years, because of its counterintuitive pronunciation. Despite the conventional spelling, her name is properly pronounced somewhere between 'Sondra' and 'Saundra';[6] thus, on occasion, it has been misspelled accordingly, both in print and online.[7]
  2. ^ Starting in 1968 (when her first marriage ended in divorce), Seacat has always worked under her maiden name.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Willis, John (1980). Theatre World (1978–1979 season). 35. New York: Crown Publishing, Inc. p. 252. ISBN 0-517-53997-7.
  2. ^ Giannetti, Louis D. Educational Theatre Journal. Volume 21, Number 1. March, 1969. pp. 110–111.
  3. ^ SortedByName.com "Kaufman, Arthur married a bride named Sandra Seacat in the year 1959 on license number 3440 issued in Manhattan, New York City, New York."
  4. ^ "California, Divorce Index, 1966–1984: Sandra D Seacat and Michael C Ebert, 1977," FamilySearch.org.
  5. ^ "California, Divorce Index, 1966–1984: Michael C Ebert and Sandra D, 1978," FamilySearch.org.
  6. ^ Excerpts from Rourke's appearances on Inside the Actors Studio and The Dark Side of Fame on YouTube.
  7. ^ Search results for "Sondra Seacat". Google.com. See also:
  8. ^ a b c d Thomas, Marlo (2010). "Obsession". Growing Up Laughing: My Story and the Story of Funny. New York: Hyperion. p. 210. ISBN 0-13-367870-9. I only wish Lee [Strasberg] could have lived to see me portray a schizophrenic in Nobody's Child. I never could have gotten near playing that kind of part without Lee's exercises, and the subsequent work I did and continue to do with his primary disciple, the brilliant Sandra Seacat.
  9. ^ Flynn, Ed. "SAG Views". Back Stage. June 26, 1981. See also:
    • Rosenbaum, Ron. "Jessica Lange: Sex and Subtext". Vanity Fair. October 1988. "She never worked with Strasberg, but she did work with one of his acting-teacher disciples, Sandra Seacat. 'She really changed things around for me. She got me at the moment where it was all beginning to come alive, and it was a great catalyst for me.' What was her method like? 'She was out of the Actors Studio, but then she really diverged from Method acting. She did a lot with Siddha yoga. You know, she was a follower of Guru Baba Muktananda. I never became a follower of his,' Jessica says, 'but Sandra brought a lot of that stuff into her early work with me, relaxation and meditation.'"
  10. ^ a b c "The Role of Their Dreams". The New York Times. May 6, 2009.
  11. ^ a b c "This Rising Star Has an Identity Problem". Newsday. June 29, 1984. See also:
  12. ^ Rothenberg, Fred. "'Thorn Birds' casting gamble". The Lewiston Journal. March 29, 1983. See also:
    • Rosenbaum, Ron. "Jessica Lange: Sex and Subtext". Vanity Fair. October 1988. "She never worked with Strasberg, but she did work with one of his acting-teacher disciples, Sandra Seacat. 'She really changed things around for me. She got me at the moment where it was all beginning to come alive, and it was a great catalyst for me.'
    • "Critic's Choice". The Minneapolis Star-Tribune. June 12, 1996.
  13. ^ Schruers, Fred. "Meg Ryan, survivor, pushes beyond 'America's sweetheart' in a raw new film". Los Angeles Times. October 5, 2003.
  14. ^ a b c "Laura Dern and Her Legendary Acting Coach: "We Can Say Anything to Each Other". Hollywood Reporter. February 27, 2015.
  15. ^ "1940 U.S. Census form". Familysearch.org.
  16. ^ "Obituary: Lois Marion Seacat" Archived 2013-01-26 at Archive.today. HutchNews.com. December 23, 2007.
  17. ^ Southgate, Patsy. “Serena Seacat: CTC Theater Live’s Director”. The East Hampton Star. March 20, 1997.
  18. ^ a b “Sandra Seacat”. Schott Acting Studio.
  19. ^ a b Hampton, Edna. "Actresses Develop Tension-Shredding Skills". The Globe and Mail. April 12, 1968.
  20. ^ Oppenheimer, Ernest. "Back Stage Capsule Reviews”. Back Stage. July 13, 1962.
  21. ^ a b “Opening This Week: ‘Saint Joan,’ ‘Dybbuk’ Ready”. ‘’The Atlanta Journal and Constitution’’. October 10, 1965.
  22. ^ Maisil, Stella. “Back Stage Capsule Reviews”. Back Stage. August 10, 1962.
  23. ^ Tallmer, Jerry "Theatre: The Waltz of the Dogs". The Village Voice. August 2, 1962.
  24. ^ Gray, Tom. “Shaw's St. Joan a Role She Loves, Sandra Says”.The Atlanta Journal and Constitution. October 7, 1965.
  25. ^ “Sandra Kaufman”. Internet Broadway Database
  26. ^ Kay, Terry. “From the Stage: Rosemary Forsyth Wanted ‘Joan’”. The Atlanta Journal and Constitution. November 21, 1965.
  27. ^ Gray, Tom. “St. Joan May Be Theater's Best Effort”. The Atlanta Journal and Constitution. October 13, 1965.
  28. ^ "As Sandra Kaufman". University of Wisconsin Digital Collection.
  29. ^ "'Second City' Satirizes Marriage". The Hagerstown Daily Mail. June 4, 1966.
  30. ^ Kay, Terry. "Theater Billboard: 'Hostage' Opens Thursday". The Atlanta Journal and Constitution. December 15, 1968.
  31. ^ Kelly, John. "1970: June Havoc produces A Streetcar Named Desire in New Orleans". The New Orleans Times-Picayune. April 7, 2010.
  32. ^ Gray, Tom. "Shaw's St. Joan a Role She Loves, Sandra Says". The Atlanta Constitution. October 7, 1965.
  33. ^ a b "Film Forum Faculty" Archived 2012-05-08 at the Wayback Machine. Winthrop Rockefeller Institute. U. of Arkansas System.
  34. ^ a b Smith, Gavin: "Don't Let That Go: That's Valuable". Film Comment. September/October 1993. Vol. 29 Issue 5, p. 54.
  35. ^ a b Who's Who In Entertinment. Wilmette, Ill: Marlowe & Company. 1988. p. 57. ISBN 1-56924-554-1.
  36. ^ a b Holston, Mark. "Critic's Choice". Minneapolis Star-Tribune. June 12, 1996.
  37. ^ a b c Associated Press: "Casting Gamble in Thorn Birds". The Nashua Telegraph. March 29, 1983.
  38. ^ a b Smith, Liz. "Elaine May gathers quality cast together for her next movie". The Orange County Register. December 1, 1988. "The director was an interesting choice: Sandra Seacat, acting coach and guru to many stars. (Sandra is credited with helping Jessica Lange to her Oscar and Marlo Thomas to her Emmy."
  39. ^ Preston, Marilynn. "The Thorn Birds' Rachel Ward: I Just Couldn't Live With Being Mediocre'". The Panama City News Herald. March 30, 1983.
  40. ^ a b Goldstein, Patrick: "Many-Sided Melanie Griffith". The Los Angeles Times. November 10, 1986.
  41. ^ a b "I Dream of Gina" Archived 2016-11-28 at the Wayback Machine. Cigar Aficionado, September/October 1998.
  42. ^ a b "Songwriter Desmond Child: Video Feature and Web-Exclusive Interview". Music & Musicians. April 2018.
  43. ^ a b "L.A. Readers' Choice: Classes and Coaches". Backstage. June 23, 2010.
  44. ^ Leopold, Todd. "Actress' role of a lifetime: Being a mentor". CNN. February 13, 2012.
  45. ^ "Best Actress TV Series Comedy Or Musical - Acceptance Speech". 69th Annual Golden Globes Awards. January 15, 2012.
  46. ^ Belissimo, Sarina. "2012 Golden Globe Awards – The Winners & The Highlights". The Belissimo Files. January 16, 2012.
  47. ^ Bell, Robert. "Thursday To-Do: Winthrop Rockefeller Institute Film Forum". The Arkansas Times. March 7, 2012.
  48. ^ "Winthrop Rockefeller Institute to Host Second Annual Film Forum". PR Web. January 4, 2013.
  49. ^ a b Parker, Corey. "Focus: Sandra Seacat; Simply Untouchable". The Actor's Work. December 2012.
  50. ^ "Jessica Lange, On Her Own Terms". A&E's Biography. October 31, 2001.
  51. ^ "Mickey Rourke". The Dark Side of Fame with Piers Morgan. October 6, 2008.
  52. ^ Schuers, Fred. "Cut to darkness: Meg Ryan, survivor, pushes beyond 'America's sweetheart' in a raw new film". October 5, 2003.
  53. ^ "Laura Dern" Intimate Portrait. December 27, 1999.
  54. ^ "Laura Dern: A Hollywood Old-Timer at 37". The Baltimore Sun. August 23, 2004.
  55. ^ "Night Things - Til I Kissed You Music Video". Vimeo.
  56. ^ "Part 2: Annual Preview Section: 'In the Spirit'". The Film Journal. January 1989.
  57. ^ Bartholomew, David. "Buying and Booking Guide: 'In the Spirit'". The Film Journal. April/May 1990.
  58. ^ a b "Film Reviews: In the Spirit". Variety. April 4, 1990.
  59. ^ "In the Spirit – An Endearing Mess". The Boston Globe. June 8, 1990.
  60. ^ "Grand and Goofy Comedy". The Washington Post. May 18, 1990.
  61. ^ "Movie review: In the Spirit". The New York Times. April 6, 1990.
  62. ^ "Spirit Loses Its Comic Flair Halfway Through". Los Angeles Times. April 11, 1990.
  63. ^ "Hollywood Actors come to Boulder" Archived 2013-01-21 at Archive.today. Denver Post. July 29, 2007.
  64. ^ "Review: The Mistakes Madeline Made". The Boulder Daily Camera. August 9, 2007.
  65. ^ Solomon, Linda Ilene (June 8, 1993). "A Vietnam Movie Through a Different Lens". International Herald Tribune. June 8, 1993. "Disenchanted with Hollywood and frustrated by the limited roles available for Shakespearean-trained Asian-American actresses, Alexandra took the advice of her acting teacher, Sandra Seacat, who told her she'd find 'all the power in the universe' in going back to her roots."
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  68. ^ Schwartz, Don. “The Active Imagination Method of Kirk Baltz”. ‘’CineSource’’. August 12, 2010.
  69. ^ “Pupils interview: Kirk Baltz”. ‘’The Bradfieldian’’. February 2017. p. 25.
  70. ^ Baldwin, Greg. "Kirk Baltz Nails the Role". Second Chance. April 2, 2018.
  71. ^ Reuters: "Baryshnikov natural for movie". The Windsor Star. December 18, 1985.
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  74. ^ a b Silverman, Jason. "Cine Cafe on Bender: Producer guests at CSF". The Santa Fe New Mexican. March 29, 1996. "A former member of Maine State Ballet, Bender began studying acting after a dance injury ended his career. He took classes with renowned coach Sandra Seacat, working with actors-in-training including Jessica Lange, Mickey Rourke, Mario Thomas and Christopher Reeve."
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  82. ^ a b "Carter tackles the wonders of history". USA Today. August 15, 1994. "[S]he started commuting to New York to meet with acting coach Sandra Seacat, who also works with Melanie Griffith, Marlo Thomas and Tatum O'Neal. 'The experience was "better than any therapist,' she says. 'You strip yourself of ego, and the whole experience unearths all your analytical feelings and self-discovery.'"
  83. ^ Collins, Mark. “Boulder International Fringe Festival: Native returns in dream-fueled play”. ‘’The Boulder Daily Camera’’. August 7, 2009.
  84. ^ a b Parker, Corey. "Interview: Scott Coffey on Directing 'Adult World'". The Actor's Work. February 2013.
  85. ^ McClatchy-Tribune News Service. “There’s nothing Common about this rapper’s acting ambitions”. Boulder Weekly. May 11, 2010.
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  90. ^ a b Lipton, Peggy; Dalton, David and Coco (2005). "Ch. 67. Gurumayi". Breathing Out. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 240–242. ISBN 0-312-32413-8.
  91. ^ "Frances Fisher Coming to Serenbe Playhouse, 11/15" Broadway World. October 29, 2014.
  92. ^ a b Fischer, Joely; Myers, Marc. "Playlist: Joely Fisher: A Far-Off Father". The Wall Street Journal. January 27, 2018.
  93. ^ Galloway, Stephen. "Andrew Garfield on Mel Gibson: 'He's All Flesh and Blood and Passion'". The Hollywood Reporter. November 4, 2016. "GALLOWAY: Do you have an acting coach you work with? GARFIELD: Yeah, I do. I’ve worked with a couple of people that are actually mother and daughter. Sandra Seacat is the name of the mother, and Greta Seacat is the name of the daughter, and they’re both witches. They’re both just these genius witches."
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  96. ^ "The Cast of 'God Help Us': Pamela Guest (Theatre)". GodHelpUs.net. "THE CHERRY ORCHARD – LEAD opp. Martin Henderson ’07 SANDRA SEACAT Workshop".
  97. ^ Carpenter, Cassie. "The Traveler". Backstage. July 13, 2005.
  98. ^ Carter, Lance. "Have You Heard of 'The Way'?". Daily Actor. May 7, 2009.
  99. ^ Singh, Sanjam Preet. "Lady love ignites the flame". The India Tribune. Sep 18, 2018.
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  103. ^ Kolson, Ann: "Isabella Rossellini: No Comparisons". The Pittsburgh Press. December 22, 1985.
  104. ^ Cook, Bruce: "Isabella Rossellini: A Rose Who Has Known Thorns". Chicago Tribune. November 28, 1985.
  105. ^ "Campion, Jane: In the Cut". Australia:Urban Cinefile. November 13, 2003.
  106. ^ Arkatov, Janice. "Salinger on Risks, Rewards of Staging Schizophrenia". Los Angeles Times. November 20, 1987.
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  108. ^ Ryan, Michael. “We All Have a Place We Feel Locked Out Of”. ‘’The Indianapolis Star’’. April 6, 1986. “Thomas' next move was unconventional if not downright audacious. In 1978, she simply stopped appearing in public. ‘I needed to go back to the beginning, so I took off and studied with Lee Strasberg and Sandra Seacat,’ she recalled.”
  109. ^ "Bio". DovTiefenbach.com.
  110. ^ “Rosie”. ‘’The St. Louis Post-Dispatch’’. December 3, 1986. “She also worked at acting lessons with Sandra Seacat in Los Angeles and in 1980 got a small part in the film "Heaven's Gate.”
  111. ^ Wilkins, William: "'Thorn Birds' Star Enthused: Chamberlain Role Pursuit Succeeds". The Oxnard Press-Courier. March 27, 1983.
  112. ^ Preston, Marilynn Preston. "The Thorn Birds' Rachel Ward: I Just Couldn't Live With Being Mediocre'". The Panama City News Herald. March 30, 1983.
  113. ^ Robbins, Jane Marla (2002). "Relaxation". Acting Techniques for Everyday Life: Look and Feel Self-Confident in Difficult Real-Life Situations. New York: Marlowe & Company. p. 57. ISBN 1-56924-554-1.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]