Sang Sapurba

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Sri Maharaja Sang Sapurba Paduka Sri Trimurti Tri Buana,[1] also known as Sri Nila Pahlawan,[2] is a figure in the Malay Annals, highly revered as the legendary great ancestor of some of the major dynasties of the Malay world; Singapura, Malacca, Pahang, Johor, Perak, Kelantan, Terengganu and Siak Sri Indrapura.[1] Legend has it that after his accession to Seguntang Hill with his two younger brothers, Sang Sapurba enters into a sacred covenant with Demang Lebar Daun the native ruler of Palembang, which laid the basis of the proper relationship between the Malay rulers and the subjects.[3] The legendary sword believed to be carried by the king, the Cura Si Manjakini, is now formed part of the regalia of Perak Sultanate, whose rulers are said directly descended from the king.[4] The details of Sang Sapurba stories are mainly composed of folklore and legends, and thus his historical existence is debated and disputed by modern historians. Even so, as De Jong argued in her article The Character of Malay Annals, the stories of the Malay Annals could have been realistically mixed with the historical figures and events.[5]

Legend[edit]

Tradition in the Malay Annals hold that the founder of the major line of rulers in the Malay world was a prince named Sang Sapurba who alleged to be the descendant of Dhul-Qarnayn with his Indian wife.[1] Sang Sapurba, then known as Sri Nila Pahlawan first revealed himself with his younger brothers, Sri Krishna Pandita and Sri Nila Utama, upon the sacred hill of Seguntang in the hinterland of Palembang. The name of the princes varied in different versions of the Malay Annals. In Winstedt's version, they are known as Bichitram, Paladutani dan Nilatanam, while in Abdullah's version, they are Bichitram Syah, Nila Pahlawan dan Kama Pandita.[6] Two young women who dwelt upon the hill, Wan Empuk and Wan Malini, are said to have seen a great light shining through the darkness of night. On ascending the hill in the morning they found that their rice crops had been transformed the grain into gold, the leaves into silver, the stalks into golden brass. Proceeding further, they came across three young men, the eldest of whom was mounted on a silver white bull and was dressed as a king, while the two younger, his brothers, bore a sword, a lance and a signet that indicated sovereign power. The two women were greatly astonished at the refined appearance and elegant apparel of the young men, and thought that they must be the cause of the phenomenon which had appeared in their rice grounds. The curious young women immediately inquired who they were, where they came from and whether they were spirits or fairies. The eldest prince replied that they were neither spirits nor fairies, but that of men and they are princes from the line of the Great Alexander seeking his inheritance on earth. Then, Wan Empuk and Wan Malini asked what proofs they could produce of the truth of this relation, Nila Pahlawan said that let the crown he is wearing serves an evidence of descent and if any farther proof wanting, consider the phenomenon which the women have seen on their rice grounds. Then out of the mouth of the bull there issued a sweet-voiced herald, who at once proclaimed in Sanskrit language, the eldest prince to be a king bearing the title of 'Sang Sapurba Trimurti Tri Buana'.[7][8]

The Covenant[edit]

The newly installed sovereign afterwards descended from the hill of Seguntang into the great plain watered by the Palembang river, where he married Wan Sendari, the daughter of the local chief, Demang Lebar Daun, and was everywhere accepted as ruler of the land.[1] Prior to his marriage, Sang Sapurba made the famous pact with Demang Lebar Daun, who abdicated in favour of him:

At a later date Sang Sapurba is said to have crossed the great central range of Sumatra into the Minangkabau Highlands, where one of his warriors, Permasku Mambang, slew the great serpent Saktimuna using his legendary sword, Cura Si Manjakini, and was made the king of a grateful people and the founder of the long line of Princes of Minangkabau.[11]

Royal dynasties[edit]

A. Samad Ahmad's version of the Malay Annals identified Sri Tri Buana who reigned in Palembang and the founder of ancient Singapura as the youngest brother of Sang Sapurba, Sri Nila Utama. In A. Samad Ahmad's version, Sang Sapurba was said to have reigned only in Minangkabau.[12] On the other hand, Shellabear and Leyden's versions noted that Sang Nila Utama who reigned in Bintan and later founded ancient Singapura was the son of Sang Sapurba.[13][14] The Misa Melayu and Silsilah Perak that contains comprehensive genealogical tree of the Sultans of Perak agreed with Shellabear and Leyden's versions, tracing the lineage of the rulers of Perak directly from Sang Sapurba.[15] If these versions of the Malay Annals and the Perak text are to be taken into account, the line of rulers descended from Sang Sapurba should began with Sang Nila Utama who founded the Kingdom of Singapura in 1299. Four generations of rulers reigned over the island kingdom before the last ruler, known in certain accounts as Parameswara, fled after a Majapahit invasion in 1398. In 1400, Parameswara reached the mouth of Bertam river in Malay peninsula, where he established Melaka Sultanate. During the reign of Mansur Shah of Melaka (r. 1459–1477), an heir apparent named Raja Muhammad whose mother was a captured princess of Pahang, was banished for committing murder and went into exile. He was then proclaimed and installed as Sultan of Pahang in 1470. The Portuguese invasion of Melaka in 1511 caused a major split of the royal house when Muzaffar Shah the son of Mahmud Shah of Melaka (r.1488–1511) was invited by the people of Perak to rule the state. Another son, Alauddin Riayat Shah II established the Johor Empire to succeed Melaka in 1528.

In 1636, the Achehnese installed a prince from Siak to the throne of Perak following the demise of Sultan Salehuddin Shah (r.1630–1635) in exile in Acheh. The new Sultan who reigned as Muzaffar Shah II (r. 1636–1654) also claimed descent from a branch of Sang Sapurba dynasty in Siak.[15] He married to Fatima Puteh the elder daughter of Raja Muda of Pahang, Raja 'Abdu'llah by his wife, Putri Perak, who in turn was the granddaughter of Sultan Mansur Shah I of Perak (r. 1549–1577).[16] Earlier in 1623, Pahang was united with the crown of Johor[17] and the rulers from Melaka dynasty continued to reign in the state until 1688, when the Bendahara of Johor effectively consolidated the state as his personal fief.

The royal line of Sang Sapurba was finally ended in Johor when Mahmud Shah II (r. 1685–1699) was assassinated by Megat Seri Rama, leaving behind no male heir. As a result, Bendahara Abdul Jalil declared himself the next Sultan of Johor. Upon ascending the throne, the new Sultan Abdul Jalil IV killed all the wives of Sultan Mahmud to avoid the possibility of any future claims to the throne. However, according to the Hikayat Negeri Johor (Chronicles of the State of Johor) and the Pahang Manuscripts, a wife by the name of Cik Apung the daughter of Laksamana managed to escape to Minangkabau and gave birth to Raja Kechil.[18] Less than two decades later in 1717, Raja Kechil would assemble a fleet from Minangkabau and succeed temporarily in ousting Sultan Abdul Jalil's successor Sultan Sulaiman and gain the Johor Sultanate, basing his legitimacy on the claim that he was the post-humous son of Sultan Mahmud Shah II. However, Bugis mercenaries that assisted him in this campaign changed sides and he was eventually forced to flee to Siak, where he founded Siak Sultanate.

  A Monarch   Raja Bendahara of Pahang

Sang Nila Utama
Singapura
r. 1299-1347
Tun Perpatih Pramuka Berjajar
Bendahara of Singapura
Sri Wikrama Wira
Singapura
r. 1347-1362
Sri Rana Wikrama
Singapura
r. 1362-1375
Tun Perpatih Besar
Sri Nara Diraja
Tun Perpatih Tulus
Bendahara of Singapura - Melaka
Sri Maharaja
Singapura
r. 1375-1389
Iskandar Shah
Singapura
r. 1389-1398
Melaka
r. 1400-1414
Mani Purindan ♀Tun Ratna Sendari Megat Iskandar Shah
Melaka
r. 1414-1424
Tun Ali
Bendahara of Melaka V
♀Tun Ratna Wati Muhammad Shah
Melaka
r. 1424-1444
Tun Perpatih Pramuka Berjajar II
Bendahara of Melaka II
Tun Tahir Tun Mutahir
Bendahara of Melaka VIII
Seri Amar Diraja
Bendahara of Melaka III
Tun Perpatih Sedang
Bendahara of Melaka IV
Muzaffar Shah
Melaka
r. 1446-1459
Abu Syahid Shah
Melaka
r. 1444-1446
Tun Perak
Bendahara of Melaka VI
Tun Perpatih Putih
Bendahara of Melaka VII
Mansur Shah
Melaka
r. 1456-1477
♀Putri Wanang Seri Lela Wangsa
Tun Tepok
Bendahara of Melaka IX
Tun Pikrama Alauddin Riayat Shah
Melaka
r. 1477-1488
Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Ahmad Shah
r. 1475-1497(2)
Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Muhammad Shah
r. 1470-1475(1)
♀Mengindra Putri
Tun Khoja Ahmad
Bendahara of Johor I
Mahmud Shah
Melaka
r. 1488-1511
Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Mansur Shah I
r. 1512-1519(4)
♀Raja Putri Olah Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Mahmud Shah
r. 1519-1530(5)
Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Abdul Jamil Shah
r. 1495-1512(3)
Tun Isap Barakah Muzaffar Shah I
Perak
r. 1528-1549
Alauddin Riayat Shah II
Johor
r. 1528-1564
♀Raja Putri Dewi Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Zainal Abidin Shah
r. 1540-1555(7)
♀Tun Kamala Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Muzaffar Shah
r. 1530-1540(6)
Tun Mahmud
Bendahara of Johor III
♀Putri Mansur Shah I
Perak
r. 1549-1577
Muzaffar Shah II
Johor
r. 1564-1570
♀Raja Kemala Dewi Raja Ahmad of Terengganu Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Mansur Shah II
r. 1555-1560(8)
Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Abdul Jamal Shah
r. 1560-1575(9)
Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Abdul Kadir Alauddin Shah
r. 1575-1590(10)
Tun Isap Misai
Bendahara of Johor IV
Alauddin Mansur Syah
Aceh
r. 1579-1586
Ahmad Tajuddin Shah
Perak
r. 1577-1584
Tajul Ariffin Shah
Perak
r. 1584-1594
♀Putri A Sultan of Aceh
Tun Ahmad Mukaddam Shah
Perak
r. 1603-1619
Mahmud Shah
Perak
r. 1627-1630
Raja Inu
Tun Sri Lanang
Bendahara of Johor V
♀Putri Abdullah ibn Shaykh al-Aydarus Alauddin Shah
Perak
r. 1594-1603
Mansur Shah II
Perak
r. 1619-1627
Tun Jenal
Bendahara of Johor VII
Ali Jalla Abdul Jalil Shah II
Johor
r. 1571-1597
Putri of Saiful Rijal of Brunei Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Ahmad Shah II
r. 1590-1592(11)
♀Putri Bongsu Chandra Dewi
Putri of Siak
Ratu Ungu
Pattani
r. 1624-1635
Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Abdul Ghafur Muhiuddin Shah
r. 1592-1614(12)
♀Raja Putri Zohra
Putri of Saiful Rijal of Brunei
♀Tun Kaishi Sayyid Zainal Abidin
a.k.a. Tun Dagang
Abdul Jalil Shah I
Johor
r. 1570-1571
Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah
Johor
r. 1615-1623
♀Raja Putri Kamarliah Iskandar Thani
Aceh
r. 1610-1641
♀Ratu Kuning
Pattani
r. 1635-1688
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Alauddin Riayat Shah
r. 1614-1615(13)
Raja Abdullah ♀Putri
Alauddin Riayat Shah III
Johor
r. 1597-1615
Tun Muhammad Ali BenderaSultanJohor.svgStandard Sultan Pahang.svg
Abdul Jalil Shah III
Pahang
r. 1615-1617(14)
Johor-Pahang
r. 1623-1677(15)
Raja Bajau
Yamtuan Muda of Pahang
r. 1641–1676(16)
Muzaffar Shah II
(Son of Raja Mahmud of Siak)
Perak
r. 1636-1654
♀Raja Putri Fatima Puteh
Sayyid Jaafar
Raja Temenggung of Muar
Tun Habib Abdul Majid
Bendahara of Johor XII
BenderaSultanJohor.svgStandard Sultan Pahang.svg
Ibrahim Shah
Johor-Pahang
r. 1677-1685(17)
Mahmud Iskandar Shah
Perak
r. 1654-1720
Raja Mansur
♀Putri Bakal BenderaSultanJohor.svgStandard Sultan Pahang.svg
Mahmud Shah II
Johor-Pahang
r. 1685-1699(18)
Alauddin Mughayat Shah
Perak
r. 1720-1728
Muzaffar Shah III
Perak
r. 1728-1752
Muhammad Shah
Perak
r. 1744-1750
Tun Mas Anum
Bendahara of Johor XIV
Tun Abdullah
Bendahara of Johor XV
Zainal Abidin I
Terengganu
r. 1725-1733
BenderaSultanJohor.svgStandard Sultan Pahang.svg
Abdul Jalil Shah IV
Bendahara of Johor XIII
1697-1699
Sultan of Johor
r. 1699-1718
Iskandar Zulkarnain Shah
Perak
r. 1752-1765
Mahmud Shah
Perak
r. 1765-1773
Alauddin Mansur Shah
Perak
r. 1773-1786
Ahmaddin Shah
Perak
r. 1786-1806
Mansur Riayat Shah
Terengganu
r. 1733-1793
Tun Abbas
Bendahara of Johor XVII
1722-1736
BenderaSultanJohor.svgStandard Sultan Pahang.svg
Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah
Johor
r. 1722-1760
♀Raja Mandak Raja Syed Hitam of Siak Abdul Malik Mansur Shah
Perak
r. 1806-1825
BenderaSultanJohor.svgStandard Sultan Pahang.svg
Abdul Jalil Muazzam Shah
Johor
r. 1760-1761
Ismail Mua'bidin Riayat Shah
Perak
r. 1871-1874
Raja Inu Muhammad Saleh Raja Abdul Rahman
Tengku Muhammad Zainal Abidin II
Terengganu
r. 1793-1808
Tun Hassan
Bendahara of Johor XVIII
1736-1770
Flag of Pahang (1853 - 1887).svg
Tun Abdul Majid
Bendahara of Johor XIX
Raja Bendahara of Pahang I

r. 1770-1802
Tun Abdul Jamal
Temenggong of Johor
Daeng Maimuna
daughter of Daeng Parani
Shahbuddin Riayat Shah
Perak
r. 1830-1851
Abdullah Muhammad Shah
Perak
r. 1851-1857
Long Sulong
Tengku Putri of Kelantan
Ahmad
Kelantan
r. 1886-1890
Ahmad Shah I
Terengganu
r. 1808-1830
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Tun Koris
Bendahara of Johor XXI
Raja Bendahara of Pahang III

1803-1806
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Tun Muhammad
Bendahara of Johor XX
Raja Bendahara of Pahang II

1802-1803
BenderaSultanJohor.svgStandard Sultan Pahang.svg
Ahmad Riayat Shah
Johor
1761-1761
BenderaSultanJohor.svgStandard Sultan Pahang.svg
Mahmud Shah III
Johor
1761-1812
Ali Al-Mukammal Inayat Shah
Perak
r. 1865-1871
Yusuf Sharifuddin Mudzaffar Shah
Perak
r. 1877-1887
Mansur Shah II
Terengganu
r. 1831-1836
Abdul Rahman Shah
Terengganu
r. 1830-1831
Flag of Pahang (1853 - 1887).svg
Tun Ali
Bendahara of Johor XXII
Raja Bendahara of Pahang IV

1806-1847
Tun Abdul Hamid
(Engku Daeng Kechil)
Temenggong of Johor
Raja Ahmad Abdullah Muazzam Shah
Perak
r. 1825-1830
Muhammad III
Kelantan
r. 1890-1891
Mansur
Kelantan
r. 1891-1900
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Tun Mutahir
Bendahara of Johor XXII
Raja Bendahara of Pahang V

1847-1863
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Ahmad Muadzam Shah
Raja Bendahara of Pahang VI
1863-1881
Sultan of Pahang
r. 1881-1914
Ungku Abdul Rahman
Temenggong of Johor
Hussein Muazzam Shah
Johor
1819-1835
Abdul Rahman Muazzam Shah
Johor
1812-1819
Jaafar Muazzam Shah
Perak
r. 1857-1865
Raja Alang Iskandar
Muhammad IV
Kelantan
r. 1900-1920
Muhammad Shah
Terengganu
r. 1836-1839
Daud
Terengganu
r. 1831
Omar
Terengganu
r. 1839-1876
Tun Daeng Ibrahim
Temenggong of Johor
Ali Iskandar Shah
Johor
r. 1835-1855
Sultan of Muar
r. 1855-1877
Abdullah Muhammad Shah II
Perak
r. 1874-1876
Raja Musa Idris Murshidul'azzam Shah
Perak
r. 1887-1916
Ismail
Kelantan
r. 1920-1944
Ibrahim
Kelantan
r. 1944-1960
Tengku Mahmud Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Mahmud Shah
r. 1914-1917
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Abdullah Al-Mu'tasim Billah Shah
r. 1917-1932
Abu Bakar
Temenggong of Johor
1862-1868
Sultan of Johor
r. 1868-1886
Abdul Aziz Al-Mu'tasim Billah Shah
Perak
r. 1938-1948
Iskandar Shah
Perak
r. 1918-1938
Abdul Jalil Karamatullah Shah
Perak
r. 1916-1918
Yahya Petra
Kelantan
r. 1960-1979
Ahmad Muazzam Shah
Terengganu
r. 1876-1881
Tengku Muhammad Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Abu Bakar Riayatuddin Al-Muadzam Shah
r. 1932-1974
Ibrahim
Johor
r. 1895-1959
Idris Iskandar Al-Mutawakkil Alallah Shah
Perak
r. 1963-1984
Yusuf Izzuddin Shah
Perak
r. 1948-1963
Zainal Abidin III Muazzam Shah
Terengganu
r. 1881-1918
Tengku Afzan Standard Sultan Pahang.svg
Ahmad Shah
r. 1974-present
Muhammad Muazzam Shah
Terengganu
r. 1918-1920
Ismail Nasiruddin Shah
Terengganu
r. 1945-1979
Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah
Terengganu
r. 1920-1942
Ismail
Johor
r. 1959-1981
Ismail Petra
Kelantan
r. 1979-2010
Mahmud Al-Muktafi Billah Shah
Terengganu
r. 1979-1998
Ali Shah
Terengganu
r. 1942-1945
Iskandar
Johor
r. 1981-2010
Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah
Perak
r. 1984-2014
Muhammad V
Kelantan
r. 2010-present
Mizan Zainal Abidin
Terengganu
r. 1998-present
Tengku Abdullah ♀Tunku Azizah Aminah Maimunah Iskandariah Ibrahim Ismail
Johor
r. 2010-present
Raja Zarith Sofia Nazrin Shah
Perak
r. 2014-present

References[edit]

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