|This article's lead section may not adequately summarize key points of its contents. (October 2015)|
|yângâ tî sängö|
|Pronunciation||[jáŋɡá tí sāŋɡō]|
|Native to||Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo|
|(450,000 cited 1988)
1.6 million as second language (no date)
Official language in
|Central African Republic|
|Regulated by||Institute of Applied Linguistics|
sag – Sango
snj – Riverain Sango
Sango (also spelt Sangho) is a creole language in the Central African Republic and the primary language spoken in the country. It is an official language of the Central African Republic, making the Central African Republic one of the few African countries with an indigenous language as an official language. It is used as a lingua franca across the country and had 450,000 native speakers in 1988. It also has 1.6 million second language speakers.
The creole is based on the Northern Ngbandi language. It was used as a trade language along the Ubangi River prior to French colonisation in the 1880s. In colloquial speech 90% of the language's vocabulary is Sango, whereas in more technical speech French loanwords constitute the majority.
Some linguists, following William J. Samarin, classify it as a Ngbandi-based creole; however, others (like Marcel Diki-Kidiri, Charles H. Morrill) reject that classification and say that changes in Sango structures (both internally and externally) can be explained quite well without a creolization process.
According to the creolization hypothesis, Sango is exceptional in that it is an African- rather than European-based creole. Although French has contributed numerous loanwords, Sango's structure is wholly African.
A variety of Sango was used as a lingua franca along the Ubangi River before French colonization, in the late 1800s. The French army recruited Central Africans, causing them to increasingly use Sango as a means of interethnic communication. Throughout the 20th century, missionaries promoted Sango because of its wide usage.
The rapid growth of the city of Bangui since the 1960s has had significant implications for the development of Sango, with the creation, for the first time, of a population of first-language speakers. Whereas rural immigrants to the city spoke many different languages and used Sango only as a lingua franca, their children use Sango as their main (and sometimes only) language. That has led to a rapid expansion of the lexicon, including both formal and slang terms. Also, its new position as the everyday language of the capital city has led to Sango gaining greater status and being used increasingly in fields for which it was previously the norm to use French.
Sango is widespread in the Central African Republic, with 350,000 speakers at the 1970 census. It is also spoken as a lingua franca in southern Chad, where it is probably not spoken natively and its use is decreasing, and in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where its use is increasing.
Today, Sango is both a national and official language of the Central African Republic, which makes the Central African Republic one of the few African countries to have an indigenous language as an official language.
A study by Taber (1964) indicates that some 490 native Sango words account for about 90% of colloquial speech; however, while French loanwords are much more rarely used, they account for the majority of the vocabulary, particularly in the speech of learned people. The situation might be compared to English, in which most of the vocabulary, particularly "learned" words, is derived from Latin, Greek, or French while the basic vocabulary remains strongly Germanic. However, more recent studies suggest that the result is specific to a particular sociolect, the so-called "functionary" variety. Morrill's work, completed in 1997, revealed that there were three sociologically distinct norms emerging in the Sango language: an urban "radio" variety which is ranked by 80% of his interviewees and has a very few French loan words; a so-called "pastor" variety, which is scored 60%; and a "functionary" variety, spoken by learned people, who make the highest use of French loanwords while speaking Sango, which scores 40%.
|Oral vowels||Nasal vowels|
|Plosive||p b (ɓ)||t d||k ɡ||k͡p ɡ͡b|
|Fricative||f v||s z||h|
Palatal affricates occur in loan words and certain dialects. Some dialects have alternations between [ᶬv] and [m], [ᵐb] and [ᵑ͡ᵐg͡b], [ᵐb] and [b], word-medial [l] and [r], and word-initial [h] and [ʔ]. [ᶬv] is quite rare.
Words are generally monosyllabic or bisyllabic but less commonly are trisyllabic. Four-syllable words are created via reduplication and compounding, and may also be written as two words (kêtêkêtê or kêtê kêtê 'tiny bit', walikundû or wa likundû 'sorcerer').
Sango has three basic tones (high, mid, and low), with contour tones also occurring, generally in French loanwords. Tones have a low functional load, but minimal pairs exist: dü 'give birth' versus dû 'hole'.
Monosyllabic loan words from French usually have the tone pattern high-low falling (bâan 'bench' from French banc). In multisyllabic words all syllables carry low tone except the final syllable, which is lengthened and takes a descending tone. The final tone is generally mid-low falling for nouns ('ananäa' pineapple from French ananas) and high-low falling for verbs ('aretêe' 'to stop' from French arrêter).
- "a small child"
- "some small children"
â- may be attached to multiple items in the noun phrase by some speakers, but this is less common:
- "important people/dignitaries"
|kono||to grow, be big||kîri||to return, repeat|
Genitives are normally formed with the preposition tî 'of':
- "water hole, well"
The verbal prefix a- is used when the subject is a noun or noun phrase but not when the subject is either a pronoun or implicit (as in imperatives):
- "his children came"
- "he was born" (lit. "someone bore him")
- "get up and come (here)"
The prefix is sometimes written as a separate word.
The pronouns are mbï "I", mo "you (singular)", lo "he, she, it", ë "we", ï "you (plural)", âla "you (plural)", âla "they". Verbs take a prefix a- if not preceded by a pronoun: mo yeke "you are" but Bêafrîka ayeke "Central Africa is". Particularly useful verbs include yeke "be", bara "greet" (> bara o "hi!"), hînga "know". Possessives and appositives are formed with the word tî "of": ködörö tî mbï "my country", yângâ tî sängö "Sango language". Another common preposition is na, covering a variety of locative, dative, and instrumental functions.
Letters are pronounced as their IPA equivalent except for ⟨y⟩, pronounced as [j]. Also, the digraphs ⟨kp, gb, mb, mv, nd, ng, ngb, nz⟩ are pronounced [k͡p], [ɡ͡b], [ᵐb], [(ᶬv)], [ⁿd], [ᵑɡ], [ᵑ͡ᵐɡ͡b] and [ⁿz], respectively.
⟨’b⟩, ⟨ty⟩, and ⟨dy⟩ may be used in loan words not fully integrated into Sango's phonological system.
The official orthography contains the following consonants: ⟨p, b, t, d, k, g, kp, gb, mb, mv, nd, ng, ngb, nz, f, v, s, z, h, l, r, y, w⟩: some add ⟨’b⟩ for the implosive /ɓ/. Sango has seven oral vowels, /a e ɛ i o ɔ u/, of which five, /ĩ ã ɛ̃ ɔ̃ ũ/, occur nasalized. In the official orthography, ⟨e⟩ stands for both /e/ and /ɛ/, and ⟨o⟩ stands for both /o/ and /ɔ/; nasal vowels are written ⟨in, en, an, on, un⟩.
Sango has three tones: low, mid, and high. In standard orthography, low tone is unmarked, ⟨e⟩, mid tone is marked with diaeresis, ⟨ë⟩, and high tone with circumflex, ⟨ê⟩: do-re-mi would be written ⟨do-rë-mî⟩.
Sango has little written material apart from religious literature, but some basic literacy material has been developed.
Sango is considered unusually easy to learn; according to Samarin, "with application a student ought to be able to speak the language in about three months." However, reaching true fluency takes much longer, as with any other language.
For English-speakers there are two main difficulties. One must remember not to split double consonants: Bambari, for example, must be pronounced ba-mba-ri, not bam-ba-ri. Also, as with any other tonal language, one must learn not to vary the tone according to the context. For example, if one pronounces a question with a rising tone as in English, one may inadvertently be saying an entirely different and inappropriate Sango word at the end of the sentence.
- Sango at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Riverain Sango at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Sango language at Ethnologue (15th ed., 2005)
- (French) Le Sango
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Sangoic". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Walker & Samarin (1997)
- Karan (2006, 12.1 Sango: language of wider communication and of the churches)
- Karan (2006, 12.5 The phonology of Sango)
- Karan (2006, 12.4 Sango grammatical structure)
- Karan (2006, 12.9 The Sango orthography before 1984)
- Karan (2006, 12.9 The 1984 orthography decree)
- Karan (2006, 12.7 Sango literature)
- Buquiaux, Luc. Jean-Marie Kobozo et Marcel Diki-Kidiri, 1978 Dictionnaire sango-français...
- Diki-Kidiri, Marcel. 1977. Le sango s'écrit aussi...
- Diki-Kidiri, Marcel. 1978. Grammaire sango, phonologie et syntaxe
- Diki-Kidiri, Marcel. 1998. Dictionnaire orthographique du sängö
- Henry, Charles Morrill. 1997. Language, Culture and Sociology in the Central African Republic, The Emergence and Development of Sango
- Karan, Elke (2006). "Writing System Development and Reform: A Process" (PDF). Grand Forks, North Dakota: University of North Dakota.
- Samarin, William J. (2008). "Convergence and the Retention of Marked Consonants in Sango: The Creation and Appropriation of a Pidgin" (PDF). Journal of language contact. Dynamique du langage et contact des langues at the Institut Universitaire de France. 2: 225–237. Retrieved January 8, 2011.
- Samarin, William. 1967. Lessons in Sango.
- Saulnier, Pierre. 1994. Lexique orthographique sango
- SIL (Centrafrique), 1995. Kêtê Bakarî tî Sängö : Farânzi, Anglëe na Yângâ tî Zâmani. Petit Dictionnaire Sango, Mini Sango Dictionary, Kleines Sango Wörterbuch
- Walker, James A.; Samarin, William J. (1997). "Sango Phonology". In Kaye, Alan S.; Daniels, Peter T. Phonologies of Asia and Africa: (including the Caucasus). Eisenbrauns. pp. 861–882. ISBN 1-57506-018-3.
- Taber, Charles. 1964. French Loanwords in Sango: A Statistical Analysis. (MA thesis, Hartford Seminary Foundation.)
- Thornell, Christina. 1997. The Sango Language and Its Lexicon (Sêndâ-yângâ tî Sängö)
- Khabirov, Valeri. 1984. "The Main Features of the Grammatical System of Sango" (PhD, St. Petersburgh University, in Russian)
- Khabirov, Valeri. 2010. Syntagmatic Morphology of Contact Sango. Ural State Pedagogical University. 310 p.
|Sango edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
|Look up Sango in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|