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The Paleolithic
Pliocene (before Homo)

The Sangoan archaeological industry is the name given by archaeologists to a Palaeolithic tool manufacturing style[1] which may have developed from the earlier Acheulian types. In addition to the Acheulian stone tools, use was also made of bone and antler picks. Sangoan toolkit was used especially for grubbing.

The Sangoan period is broadly analogous to the Mousterian culture in Europe and is dated to about 130,000 to 10,000 years ago.

It is named after the site of Sango Bay in Uganda where it was first discerned in 1920. The peoples who used Sangoan tools were hunting and gathering cultures, also known as the Sangoan, who occupied southern Africa in areas where annual rainfall is less than 40 inches (1016 mm) from the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period. The Sangoan industry was distributed broadly from present day Botswana to Ethiopia.[2] In the Kalahari Desert, many prehistoric stone tools have been recovered by archaeologists dating at least as early as the period of the Sangoan culture.[3] It also went as far west as the forested regions of the Congo.[4]


  1. ^ Robert Linville Hoover. 1974
  2. ^ D.W. Phillipson. 2005
  3. ^ C. Michael Hogan. 2008
  4. ^ Langer, William L., ed. (1972). An Encyclopedia of World History (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 9. ISBN 0-395-13592-3.


  • C. Michael Hogan. 2008. "Makgadikgadi" at Burnham, A. (editor) The Megalithic Portal
  • Robert Linville Hoover. 1974. A review of the Sangoan industrial complex in Africa, 76 pages
  • D.W. Phillipson. 2005. African archaeology, page 81 of 389 pages
  • J. Janmart. 1953. The Kalahari Sands of the Lunda (N.-E. Angola), their earlier redistributions and the Sangoan culture, 64 p.