|Sangre de Cristo Mountains|
|Peak||Blanca Peak, East of Alamosa, Colorado|
|Elevation||14,351 ft (4,374 m)|
|Listing||Mountain ranges of Colorado|
|Length||242 mi (389 km) north-south|
|Width||120 mi (190 km) east-west|
|Area||17,193 sq mi (44,530 km2)|
|Etymology||Sangre de Cristo (Spanish: Blood of Christ)|
|States||Colorado and New Mexico|
|Parent range||Rocky Mountains|
The Sangre de Cristo Mountains (Spanish for "Blood of Christ") are the southernmost subrange of the Rocky Mountains. They are located in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico in the United States. The mountains run from Poncha Pass in South-Central Colorado, trending southeast and south, ending at Glorieta Pass, southeast of Santa Fe, New Mexico. The mountains contain a number of fourteen thousand foot peaks in the Colorado portion, as well as all the peaks in New Mexico which are over twelve thousand feet.
The name of the mountains may refer to the occasional reddish hues observed during sunrise and sunset, and when alpenglow occurs, especially when the mountains are covered with snow. Although the particular origin of the name is unclear, it has been in use since the early 19th century. Before that time the terms "La Sierra Nevada", "La Sierra Madre", "La Sierra", and "The Snowies" (used by English speakers) were used. According to legend, "sangre de Cristo" were the last words of a priest who was killed by Native Americans.
Land management and recreation overview
Much of the mountains are within various National Forests: the Rio Grande and San Isabel in Colorado, and the Carson and Santa Fe in New Mexico. These publicly accessible areas are managed by the United States Forest Service and are popular for hunting, camping, hiking, mountain biking, backpacking, climbing, and cross-country and downhill skiing.
The mountains include two large wilderness areas, the Sangre de Cristo Wilderness in Colorado and the Pecos Wilderness in New Mexico, as well as some smaller wilderness areas, such as Latir Peak Wilderness. The Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve lies on the southwest side of the mountains in Colorado and are managed by the National Park Service.
The Sangre de Cristo Mountains are divided into various subranges, described here from north to south. Use of the terms "Sangre de Cristo Range" and "Sangre de Cristo Mountains" is inconsistent and may refer to the northernmost subrange, the southernmost subrange, or the mountains as a whole.
Sangre de Cristo Range
The Sangre de Cristo Range, the largest and most northerly subrange of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, runs directly along the east side of the Rio Grande rift, extending southeast from Poncha Pass for about 75 miles (120 km) through south-central Colorado to La Veta Pass, approximately 20 miles (32 km) west of Walsenburg. They form a high ridge separating the San Luis Valley on the west from the watershed of the Arkansas River on the east.
The Spanish Peaks are a pair of mountains, West Spanish Peak, 13,626 ft (4,153 m), and East Spanish Peak, 12,860 ft (3,920 m), located in southwestern Huerfano County, Colorado. The Spanish Peaks were designated a National Natural Landmark in 1976 as one of the best known examples of igneous dikes. The mountains can be seen from as far as 133 mi (214 km) to the north from Colorado Springs, 65 mi (105 km) to the south from Raton, New Mexico, and 85 mi (137 km) to the east from La Junta, Colorado.
The Culebra Range runs almost due north and south, with its northern limit at La Veta Pass in Colorado, and its southern limit at Costilla Creek, just south of Big Costilla Peak in New Mexico. Its highest point is Culebra Peak at 14,047 ft (4,282 m), which is notable for being the only fourteener in Colorado on private land. Climbers wishing to ascend Culebra must pay a fee (currently US$150 per person), and the number of climbers per year is limited. It is also the most southerly fourteener in the U.S. Rockies. Standing to the east of the main crest are the two prominent Spanish Peaks (West: 13,626 ft (4,153 m), East: 12,860 ft (3,920 m)). These peaks were important landmarks for 19th century travelers on the mountain branch of the Santa Fe Trail.
The western slope of the Culebras and the San Luis Valley are located within the Sangre de Cristo Land Grant, dating back to the 1840s but still a factor in the pattern of land ownership within the grant. The San Luis Valley is arid. The town of San Luis, Colorado has an annual precipitation of only 9.6 inches (240 mm).The surrounding area, traversed by Culebra Creek, has a rich agricultural history and has been the scene of land disputes between the descendants of Hispanic settlers and Anglo ranchers since the 1860s. 
The Taos Mountains span the western lobe of the range from Costilla Creek in the north, to Tres Ritos in the south.[a] They include the highest point in New Mexico, Wheeler Peak, at 13,161 feet (4,011 m), which is part of the Wheeler Peak Wilderness. Other notable peaks include Pueblo Peak, which at 12,305 feet (3,751 m) rises dramatically above Taos Pueblo, and Latir Peak, at 12,708 feet (3,873 m). Williams Lake is located below Wheeler Peak in the Wheeler Peak Wilderness.
The southern portion of the Taos Mountains, between Palo Flechado Pass and Tres Ritos (U.S. Route 64 and NM Route 518), is lower and less dramatic than the northern section, with its high point being Cerro Vista, 11,939 ft (3,639 m). The Fernando Mountains are a small subrange lying in this section, just south of US Route 64.
The Cimarron Range lies across the Moreno Valley to the east of the Taos Mountains. It is a lower range, with its highest point being Baldy Mountain at 12,441 ft (3,792 m). The Philmont Scout Ranch lies on the east side of the Cimarron Range.
This is a minor subrange, significantly lower than the rest of the Sangre de Cristos; it lies east of the southernmost portion of the Taos Mountains.
Santa Fe Mountains
Rounding out the Sangre de Cristo Mountains are the Santa Fe Mountains, which include all peaks south of NM Route 518. This group lies near Santa Fe and surrounds the Pecos Wilderness, which protects the source watershed of the Pecos River. The peaks include Truchas Peak, 13,102 ft (3,993 m), as their highest point. Other notable peaks are Santa Fe Baldy (12,622 ft (3,847 m)) and Jicarita Peak (12,835 ft (3,912 m)). The Pecos Wilderness is crossed by many trails and is popular for backpacking and for fishing in its high alpine lakes.
|1||Blanca Peak||Sierra Blanca||14,351 ft
|Blanca Peak in Colorado is the highest peak of the Sangre de Cristo mountains.|
|2||Crestone Peak||Crestones||14,300 ft
|Crestone Peak is rock scrambles (Class 3) with some exposure and significant rockfall danger. (Image: Crestone Peak and Crestone Needle seen from the south)|
|3||Culebra Peak||Culebra Range||14,053 ft
|(Image: Big Costilla Peak in the Culebra Range, viewed from Valle Vidal.)|
|4||West Spanish Peak||Spanish Peaks||13,631 ft
|(Image: West Spanish Peak taken from the south)|
|5||Mount Herard||Sangre de Cristo Range||13,325 ft
|(Image: Sangre de Cristo range from the Great Sand Dunes National Park)|
|6||Wheeler Peak[b]||Taos Mountains||13,167 ft
|Wheeler Peak, of the Wheeler Peak Wilderness, is the highest peak in New Mexico. Taos Ski Valley lies just to the west of Wheeler Peak. Much of the central portion of the Taos Mountains are on Taos Pueblo land. As viewed from Taos, they are locally called "Taos Mountain."|
|7||Bushnell Peak||Sangre de Cristo Range||13,111 ft
|8||Truchas Peak||Santa Fe Mountains||13,107 ft
|Truchas Peak is the highest point in the Santa Fe Mountains. (Image: Truchas Peak in winter from Española, New Mexico)|
|9||Venado Peak||Taos Mountains||12,739 ft
|(Image: Taos Mountain at sunset.)|
|10||East Spanish Peak||Spanish Peaks||12,688 ft
|East Spanish Peak is the lower of the two Spanish Peaks, two large igneous stocks which form an eastern outlier of the Culebra Range, a subrange of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. (Image: Spanish Peaks as seen from I25, Huerfano county, Colorado)|
|11||Santa Fe Baldy||Santa Fe Mountains||12,632 ft
|Santa Fe Baldy is a prominent summit in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of New Mexico, located 15 mi (24 km) northeast of Santa Fe. It is prominent as seen from Los Alamos and communities along the Rio Grande in northern New Mexico, but is relatively inconspicuous from Santa Fe, as its north-south trending main ridge line is seen nearly end-on, disguising the size of the mountain. Santa Fe Baldy lies in the Pecos Wilderness within the Santa Fe National Forest, on the water divide between the Rio Grande and the Pecos River.|
|12||Baldy Mountain||Cimarron Range||12,445 ft
|(Image: Baldy Peak summit ridge in the Cimarron Range.)|
|13||Greenhorn Mountain||Wet Mountains||12,352 ft
|Greenhorn Mountain is the highest point in the Wet Mountains of southern Colorado, just high enough to pass tree line which is about 11,500 feet (3,500 m) in this part of Colorado. The massive mountain can be seen from Pueblo and all along Interstate 25. The mountain is protected within the secluded Greenhorn Mountain Wilderness Area but is accessed by a few trails and a nearby 4-wheel drive road to the north.|
|14||Mount Zwischen||Sangre de Cristo Range||12,011 ft
|15||Cerro Vista||Cerro Vista||11,944 ft
|16||Mount Phillips||Cimarron Range||11,745 ft
|Mount Phillips, formerly called Clear Creek Mountain, is located in Colfax County about 11 mi (17 km) south of Baldy Mountain in the Cimarron Range, a subrange of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of New Mexico. The peak was renamed in 1960 in honor of Waite Phillips, who donated the area to the Boy Scouts of America. (Image: Mount Phillips (tallest mountain, at center) seen from Baldy Mountain)|
|17||Mount Mestas||Sierra Blanca||11,574 ft
|18||Iron Mountain||Sierra Blanca||11,416 ft
The Sangre de Cristo Mountains were uplifted during the Cenozoic Laramide orogeny. They are bounded on the west by the Rio Grande rift and on the east by a series of reverse and thrust faults. Vertical displacement along the faults is at least 4,200 metres (13,800 ft), and gravity measurements suggest the uplift has been thrust eastward great distances. This faulting places Precambrian basement rock in contact with sedimentary strata along the eastern margin of the uplift except where igneous rocks have been intruded along the fault.
- Julyan, Robert (1998). The Place Names of New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 978-0826316899.
- Dawson, John Frank (1954). Place names in Colorado: why 700 communities were so named, 150 of Spanish or Indian origin. Denver, CO: The J. Frank Dawson Publishing Co. p. 45.
- Chronic, Halka (1998). Roadside Geology of Colorado. Mountain Press Publishing Company. p. 36. ISBN 0-87842-105-X.
- "National Registry of Natural Landmarks" (PDF). National Park Service. June 2009.
- "Culebra Peak | Colorado Fourteeners Initiative".
- "Colorado Fourteeners Initiative: Peaks: Sangre de Cristo Range: Culebra Peak". Archived from the original on 2006-09-09. Retrieved 2006-08-21.
- "Climate San Luis". U.S. Climate Data. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
- Butterfield, Mike; Greene, Peter (2006). Mike Butterfield's Guide to the Mountains of New Mexico. New Mexico Magazine Press. ISBN 978-0-937206-88-1.
- The elevation of this summit has been converted from the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD 29) to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). National Geodetic Survey
- "Truchas Peak". NGS Data Sheet. National Geodetic Survey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved 2 January 2023.
- "Santa Fe Baldy". NGS Data Sheet. National Geodetic Survey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, United States Department of Commerce.
- "Baldy Mountain". NGS Data Sheet. National Geodetic Survey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, United States Department of Commerce.
- "Greenhorn Mountain". NGS Data Sheet. National Geodetic Survey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, United States Department of Commerce.
- Woodward, Lee A. (1987). "Tectonic framework of northeastern New Mexico and adjacent parts of Colorado, Oklahoma and Texas" (PDF). New Mexico Geological Society Field Conference Series. 38: 80. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
- Sangre de Cristo Mountains travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Sangre de Cristo Mountains @ Peakbagger
- List of the 13-ers in Sangre de Cristo
- NPS—TwHP: “Glorieta and Raton Passes: Gateways to the Southwest” — a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan.