Sani ol molk

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Sani ol molk.jpg

Abu'l-Hasan Khan Ghaffari Kashani (1814–1866) (Persian: ابوالحسن غفاری‎), also known as Sani ol Molk (Persian: صنیع‌الملک‎) was an Iranian painter, miniature and lacquer artist and book illustrator.[1][2]

Life and work[edit]

In 1829 he became a pupil of Mihr 'Ali, the best of Fath-Ali Shah Qajar's court painters.[2] His 1842 portrait of Mohammad Shah Qajar secured him a position at the court.[2] He spent the years between 1846 and 1850 in Italy, studying the works of Italian masters.[2] Upon his return to Persia, he was appointed naqqāšbāšī (chief painter) of the court and became involved with the newly established Dar ul-Funun, the first modern institution of higher learning in Iran.[2] In 1853, he supervised a team of 34 painters in creating 1,134 pages of miniature illustrations for a Persian edition of One Thousand and One Nights, now housed at the Golestan Palace library.[2] In his last years he assumed more administrative responsibilities, editing government periodicals and supervising printing establishments in the country.[2] In 1861, he received the title Sani ol Molk, by which he is commonly known.[2]

He was the uncle of Mohammad Ghaffari (Kamal ol molk), a court painter during the reign of Nasser ad-Din Shah.[3]

Image gallery[edit]

Illustrations of One Thousand and One Nights[edit]

Miniature illustrations of a Persian version of One Thousand and One Nights, created by Sani ol Molk and other artists under his supervision. 1853, Golestan Palace library.


  1. ^ "Iran Chamber Society: Iranian Visual Arts: Sani-ol-Molk". Retrieved 1 October 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h B. W. Robinson, "Abu'l-Hasan Khan Gaffari", Encyclopædia Iranica, I/3, pp. 306–308
  3. ^ Historical Photos, Paintings on Display at Tehran Exhibits Archived 2016-09-17 at the Wayback Machine Cultural Heritage News Agency

External links[edit]