Sanjak of Kruševac

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Sanjak of Kruševac
Крушевачки санџак
Alacahisar Sancağı
Sanjak of the Ottoman Empire

1455[2]–1830[1]

Coat of arms of Sanjak of Kruševac

Coat of arms

Capital Kruševac
History
 •  Established 1455[2]
 •  Final Ottoman capture of Kruševac 1830[1]
Today part of Serbia

The Sanjak of Kruševac or the Sanjak of Alaca Hisar (Serbian: Крушевачки санџак, Turkish: Alacahisar Sancağı) was one of the sanjaks in the Ottoman Empire with Alaca Hisar (modern-day Kruševac) as its administrative centre. Its Turkish name Alaca Hisar means a colorful town.[3]

Background[edit]

Despot Stefan Lazarević, who was childless, had arranged for his nephew Đurađ Branković to succeed the Serbian throne and enter an alliance with Hungary, however, after his death, Murat invaded Serbia in 1428 claiming the land for himself.[4] Murat took the Serbian capital Kruševac and forced Branković to continue the Ottoman vassalage.[4] In 1451, when Mehmed II became Sultan, Despot Đurađ recaptured Kruševac and its surroundings.[5] Mehmed II campaigned in Serbia from 1454 until 1459, when he conquered and annexed the Serbian Despotate. Kruševac (now known as Turkish Alacahisar) was taken in 1455 and immediately organized into an Ottoman subdivision.

Administrative division[edit]

Eyalets[edit]

In period between 1455 and 1541 the Sanjak of Kruševac belonged to the Rumelia Eyalet. After the establishment of the Budin Eyalet in 1541 the Sanjak of Kruševac was merged into it together with several other sanjaks including the Sanjak of Smederevo, Sanjak of Pojega, Sanjak of Vučitrn, Sanjak of Zvornik etc. In 1558 the Sanjak of Kruševac was added to the Temeşvar Eyalet[6] At the beginning of the 17th century the Sanjak of Kruševac was again part of Rumelia Eyalet.[7]

Nahiyahs[edit]

The town of Aleksinac was mentioned for the first time in 1516 defter of the Sanjak of Alaca Hisar.[8] In the same year there were 1,000 voynuks registered in Kruševac.[9]

In the 16th century the Sanjak of Alaca Hișar had following nahiyahs: Kruševac (Alaca Hisar), Medveđa, Ürgüp, Zagrlata, Dubočica, Koznik, Kurşunlu, Petrus, Bovan (near modern Aleksinac), Poljanica, Kislina and Izmornik.[10] In the 17th century this sanjak had the following kadilıks: Kruševac, Prokuplje, Medveđa, Bovan, Paraćin and Koznik.[11]

Sanjak-beys[edit]

In 1493 the sanjak-bey of Kruševac was Ismail Bey, who participated in the Battle of Krbava Field.[12]

Deli Hasan-pasha Suljobašić was a sanjak-bey of Kruševac since the 1720s until 1739.[13] He managed to merge numerous small chifliks into one large estate by killing many local sipahis and zaims (leaders) without being sanctioned, despite many official investigations.[14] In 1793 he was transferred to Prizren and then to Ohrid.[14]

In 1789, during the Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792), Şehsuvar Abdi Pasha from İşkodra (Shkodër) was appointed sanjak-bey of the Sanjak of Kruševac.[15][16] In period between 1794 and 1830 the sanjak-bey was Sašit-pasha.[17]

Demographics[edit]

In 1455, the sanjak had 170 timars, out of which 27 were in the hands of Christians.[18]

Ottoman sources emphasize that a wave of Vlachs settled in the Sanjak of Smederevo and a large part of the Sanjak of Kruševac and Sanjak of Vidin.[19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Leskovački zbornik. 1973. p. 27. Retrieved 8 March 2013. Умро је 1830. годи- не, таман када је догорело постојање ха- лаџа хисарског санџака 
  2. ^ Nikola Konstandinović (1970). Beogradski pašaluk. p. 6. Retrieved 8 March 2013. Крушевачки санџак који је образован још 1455 г., пре Смедерев- ског санџака, ... 
  3. ^ Drustvo Istoricara Bosne i Hercegovine, Sarajevo (1950). Godisnjak. p. 178. Retrieved 10 March 2013. Санџак Крушевац (А1аса Шзаг) Град Крушевац, некадању престоницу кнеза Лазара, Турци су~ дефинитивно посјели г. 1455, дали му име Алаџа Хисар (Шарен град) и претворили га у средиште истоименог санџака. 
  4. ^ a b Shaw 1976, p. 48
  5. ^ Celâl Güzel 2002, "When Mehmed II succeeded to the throne in 1451, the Serbian Despot captured Alaca Hisar and its environs, but ..."
  6. ^ Radovan Samardžić (1981). Istorija srpskog naroda. Srpska književna zadruga. p. 51. Retrieved 10 March 2013. Кад је 1541. основан Будимски ејалет, овој области је придружено неколико санџака Румелијског ејалета, »и то Вучитрн, Крушевац, Смедерево, Зворник, Срем, Пожега и др.« Санџак Крушевац је 1558. издвојен из Будимског 
  7. ^ Annuaire de la Société historique de Bosnie et Herzégovine. Istorisko društvo Bosne i Hercegovine. 1952. p. 194. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
  8. ^ NIN. nedeljne informativne novine. 2795-2806. Politika. 2004. Retrieved 6 March 2013. „Алексинац се први пут спомиње 1516. године.у дефтеру за крушевачки санџак, 
  9. ^ Österreichische Osthefte. LIT Verlag Münster. 2005. pp. 148–. ISBN 978-3-8258-9539-6. Retrieved 8 March 2013. 
  10. ^ Zbornik Istorijskog muzeja Srbije. Muzej. 1975. p. 51. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  11. ^ Владимир Бабић (1960). Историја народа Југославије. Просвета. p. 65. Retrieved 6 March 2013. 
  12. ^ Starine. Akademija. 1937. p. 139. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
  13. ^ Leskovački zbornik. 1971. p. 9. Retrieved 10 March 2013. ...може се открити да је њихов родоначелник Дели Хасан-паша, ко- ји је био крушевачки санџакбег до 1739. го- дине. 
  14. ^ a b Milosav M. Đorđević (2000). Razbojna. Kulturno prosvetna zajednica Srbije. p. 79. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
  15. ^ Milosav M. Đorđević (2000). Razbojna. Kulturno prosvetna zajednica Srbije. p. 79. Retrieved 8 March 2013. У току рата 1789, Крушевачки санџак је додељен Шехсувар Абди паши, сину Арслан Али Паше Дели Хасанпашићу, унуку горе поменутог Дели Хасана. Управо тај Шехсувар Абди паша је у ствари Шашит паша лесковачки. 
  16. ^ Antonije Isaković; Srpska akademija nauka i umetnosti. Međuodeljenjski odbor za proučavanje Kosova (1998). Kosovsko-Metohijski zbornik. Srpska Akademija nauk i umetnosti. p. 60. Retrieved 8 March 2013. ...нарочито под крушевачким саниакбегом Шехсувар (Шашит пашом) пореклом из Скадра 
  17. ^ Ljubiša Đidić; Života Radojičić (1988). Kruševac. Bagdala. p. 78. Retrieved 10 March 2013. У току руско-турског рата у Крушевцу се налази Шехсувар Абди паша. Године 1794. санџакбег је Сашит паша који на овом положају остаје до 1830. го- дине. 
  18. ^ Hamzaoǧlu 2004, p. 62: "1455 yılında Alacahisar Sancağı'nda varolan 170 tımardan 27'si Hıristiyanların elinde bulunuyordu"
  19. ^ Balkan Studies. The Institute. 1986. p. 10. Retrieved 10 March 2013. Turkish sources declare that a wave of Vlah herdsmen flowed into Smederevo sandzak and a large part of Krusevac and Vidin sandzak 

Further reading[edit]

  • Olga Zirojević: Kruševački sandžak u svetlosti turskog popisa 1530/31 godine [Sanjak of Kruševac in light of Turkish defter of 1530/31], Leskovački zbornik, VIII, 1968, 221—228
  • Dragana Amedoski: Kruševac u osmanskom popisu iz 1536. godine [Kruševac in the Ottoman survey from 1536.], Miscellanea, XXIX (2008), Istorijski Institut, Belgrade