|Date||Krishna paksha chaturthi in All Hindu lunar calendar month (fourth day after Full moon during Every month), decided by Hindu calendar (lunar calendar)|
Sankashti Chaturthi is an auspicious day dedicated to Ganesha. This day is observed in every lunar month of the Hindu calendar on the fourth day of Krishna Paksha (dark lunar phase or the waning phase). If this Chaturthi falls on a Tuesday it is called Angaraki Sankashti Chaturthi. Angaraki Sankashti Chaturthi is considered highly important among all Sankashti Chaturthi days.
On this day, the devotees observe strict fast. They break the fast at night after having [darshan]]/auspicious sight of the moon preceded by prayers to Ganesha. The Angaraki Chaturthi (angarak in Sanskrit means red like burning coal embers and refers to the planet Mars, which Tuesday is named after) Devotees believe their wishes would be fulfilled if they pray on this day. Observing this fast is believed to reduce problems as Ganesha symbolizes the removal of all obstacles and supreme lord of intelligence. Before moonlight the Ganapati Atharvasheersha is recited to invoke the blessings of Lord Ganesha.
During each month, Ganesha is worshiped with a different name and peeta (seat). On the Sakashta Chaturthi day of each month, the 'Sankashta Ganapathi Pooja' prayer is performed. Each Vratha (strict fast) has a purpose and is explained to us by a story known as the Vratha Katha. This prayer offering has 13 Vratha Kathas, one for each month and the 13th story is for adhika (The Hindu calendar has one extra month every 4 years). The uniqueness of this Vratha is that the story pertaining to that month alone has to be recited.
The Sankasta Ganapathi Pooja - 13 Names and Peetas
|Month||Name of Ganesha of which the pooja is performed||Name of the peeta|
|Chaitra Masa||Vikata Maha Ganapati||Vinayaka Peeta|
|Vaishakha Masa||Chanakra Raja Ekadanta Ganapathi||Srichakra Peeta|
|Jeshtha Masa||Krishna Pingala Maha Ganapati||Sri Shakthi Ganapathi Peeta|
|Ashadha Masa||Gajaanana Ganapati||Vishnu Peeta|
|Shravana Masa||Heramba Maha Ganapati||Ganapathi Peeta|
|Bhadrapada Masa||Vignaraja Maha Ganapati||Vigneshwara Peeta|
|Ashweeja Masa||Vakrathunda Maha Ganapati||Bhuvaneshwari Peeta|
|Karthika Masa||Ganadipa Maha Ganapati||Shiva Peeta|
|Margashira Masa||Akuratha Maha Ganapati||Durga Peeta|
|Pushya Masa||Lambodara Maha Ganapati||Soura Peeta|
|Magha Masa||Dwijapriya Maha Ganapati||Samanya deva Peeta|
|Phalguna Masa||Balachandra Maha Ganapati||Agama Peeta|
|Adhika Masa||Vibhuvana Palaka Maha Ganapati||Doorva Bilva Patra Peeta|
It is believed that Ganesh bestows his presence on earth for all his devotees during this day. It is the day Shiva declared his son Ganesha as superior to all the gods, barring Vishnu, Lakshmi, Shiva and Parvati. Ganesh is widely worshipped as the god of wisdom, prosperity and good fortune and traditionally invoked at the beginning of any new venture or at the start of travel.
Traditional stories tell that Ganesha was created by the goddess Parvati, consort of Shiva. Parvati created Ganesha out of sandalwood paste that she used for her bath and breathed life into the figure. She then set him to stand guard at her door while she bathed. Shiva returned and, as Ganesha didn't know him, he didn't allow him to enter. Shiva became enraged and asked his follower gods to teach the child some manners. Ganesha was very powerful, being born of Parvati, the embodiment of shakti (or power). He defeated the godly-followers (called "Gana"s) and declared nobody was allowed to enter while his mother was bathing. The sage of heavens, Narada, along with the Saptarshi (the seven wise rishis) sensed a growing turmoil and went to appease the boy with no results. Angered, the king of Gods, Indra attacked the boy with his entire heavenly army but even they didn't stand a chance. By then, this issue had become a matter of pride for Parvathi and Shiva.
After the devas were defeated, the trinity, the controller, preserver and destroyer of the universe launched an attack against Ganesha. Amidst the fighting, Shiva severed the head of the child and brought on Parvathi's rage. Seeing her son dead, Parvathi revealed her true self, as the Adi-shakti, the prime energy that fuels the universe and sustains matter. Taking on a terrible form, she vowed to destroy the universe where her son was killed and re-create a better one. The gods prostrated before her and Shiva promised that her son will live again. The trinity hunted the world for a head and came across a mother elephant crying for her dead baby. They consoled the mother and fixed the head of the baby elephant in place of Ganesha's head. Lord Shiva also declared that from this day, the boy would be called as "Ganesha" (Gana-Isha: lord of the Ganas). In this way, Ganesha came to be depicted as the elephant-headed god.
Sankashti Chaturthi comes on every 4th day after Full Moon of Hindu lunar calendar month.
- About Sankashti Chaturthi & Angaraki Chaturthi
- "Sankashtachaturthi vrat | Vowed Religious Observance". hindujagruti.org. 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
Chaturthi falling in the dark fortnight is known as ‘Sankashti’.