Sankrail, Jhargram (community development block)

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Sankrail
সাঁকরাইল
Community development block
সমষ্টি উন্নয়ন ব্লক
Sankrail is located in West Bengal
Sankrail
Sankrail
Location in West Bengal, India
Coordinates: 22°16′34″N 87°07′05″E / 22.276°N 87.118°E / 22.276; 87.118Coordinates: 22°16′34″N 87°07′05″E / 22.276°N 87.118°E / 22.276; 87.118
Country  India
State West Bengal
District Jhargram
Government
 • Type Community development block
Area
 • Total 276.80 km2 (106.87 sq mi)
Population (2001)
 • Total 102,626
 • Density 370/km2 (960/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Bengali, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
ISO 3166 code IN-WB
Lok Sabha constituency Jhargram
Vidhan Sabha constituency Gopiballavpur
Website paschimmedinipur.gov.in

Sankrail is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Jhargram subdivision of Jhargram district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

History[edit]

Red corridor[edit]

106 districts spanning 10 states across India, described as being a part of the Left Wing Extremism activities, constitutes the Red corridor. In West Bengal the districts of Pashim Medinipur, Bankura, Purulia and Birbhum are part of the Red corridor. However, as of July 2016, there has been no reported incidents of Maoist related activities from these districts for the previous 4 years.[1] In the period 2009-2011 LWE violence resulted in more than 500 deaths and a similar number missing in Paschim Medinipur district.[2]

The Lalgarh movement, which started attracting attention after the failed assassination attempt on Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee, then chief minister of West Bengal, in the Salboni area of Paschim Medinipur district, on 2 November 2008 and the police action that followed, had also spread over to these areas.[3] The movement was not just a political struggle but an armed struggle that concurrently took the look of a social struggle. A large number of CPI (M) activists, and others active in different political parties, were killed. Although the epi-centre of the movement was Lalgarh, it was spread across 19 police stations in three adjoining districts – Paschim Medinipur, Bankura and Purulia, all thickly forested and near the border with Jharkhand. The deployment of CRPF and other forces started on 11 June 2009. The movement came to an end after the 2011 state assembly elections and change of government in West Bengal. The death of Kishenji, the Maoist commander, on 24 November 2011 was the last major landmark.[3][4]

From 2009 Maoist violence had rapidly spread across eleven western CD Blocks of the district: Binpur I, Binpur II, Salboni, Grahbeta II, Jamboni, Jhargram, Midnapore Sadar, Gopiballavpur I, Gopiballavpur II, Sankrail and Nayagram.[5]

Geography[edit]

The Chota Nagpur Plateau gradually slopes down creating an undulating area with infertile laterite rocks/ soil. In Sankrail CD Block 80% of the cultivated area has lateritic soil and 20% has alluvial soil. Sankrail CD Block is drought prone with a particularly severe drought situation.[6]

Sankrail is located at 22°16′34″N 87°07′05″E / 22.276°N 87.118°E / 22.276; 87.118.

Sankrail CD Block is bounded by Jhargram and Kharagpur I CD Blocks in the north, Keshiari CD Block in the east, Nayagram CD Block in the south and Gopiballavpur II CD Block in the west.[7][8]

It is located 31 km from Midnapore, the district headquarters.[7]

Sankrail CD Block has an area of 276.80 km2. It has 1 panchayat samity, 10 gram panchayats, 87 gram sansads (village councils), 287 mouzas and 257 inhabited villages. Sankrail police station serves this block.[9] Headquarters of this CD Block is at Rohini.[10]

Sankrail CD Block had a forest cover of 1,620 hectares, against a total geographical area of 27,610 hectares in 2005-06.[11]

Gram panchayats of Sankrail block/ panchayat samiti are:Andhari, Chhatri, Dhanghori, Khudmarai, Kultikri, Laudaha, Pathra, Ragra, Rohini and Sankrail.[12]

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

As per the 2011 Census of India Sankrail CD Block had a total population of 115,418, all of which were rural. There were 58,240 (50%) males and 57,178 (50%) females. Population below 6 years was 13,128, Scheduled Castes numbered 21,004 (18.20%) and Scheduled Tribes numbered 28,825 (24.97%).[13]

As per the 2001 census, Sankrail block had a total population of 102,626, out of which 52,096 were males and 50,530 were females. Sankrail block registered a population growth of 17.04 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for the combined Midnapore district was 14.87 per cent.[14] Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.45 per cent.[15]

Large villages (with 4,000+ population) in Sankrail CD Block are (2011 census figures in brackets): Ragra (5,916),[13]

Other villages in Sankrail CD Block included (2011 census figures in brackets): Andhari (797), Pathra (660), Sankrail (491), Rohini (1,691), Laudaha (2,300), Kultikri (797), Chhatri (704), Dhanghari (864) and Khudmarai (639).[13]

Literacy[edit]

As per the 2011 census the total number of literates in Sankrail CD Block was 75,028 (73.35% of the population over 6 years) out of which males numbered 41,793 (81.01% of the male population over 6 years) and females numbered 33,235 (65.55% of the female population over 6 years). The gender gap in literacy rates was 15.47%.[13]

See also – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate


Languages and religion[edit]

Bengali is the local language in these areas.[7]

There is a tribal presence in many of the CD Blocks of the district. Santali is spoken by 55.93% of the tribal population of the district. The Bhumij, forming 11.16% of the tribal population, and the Mundas, forming 6.10% of the tribal population, speak Mundari. Other small groups include Koras and Mahalis. The Lodhas, forming 3.85% of the tribal population, the only primitive tribe in the district, speak Lodhi.[16]

Religion in Sankrail CD Block
Hindu
  
96.35%
Muslim
  
1.81%
Christian
  
0.72%
Others
  
1.11%

In the 2011 census Hindus numbered 111,205 and formed 96.35% of the population in Sankrail CD Block. Muslims numbered 2,094 and formed 1.81% of the population. Christians numbered 827 and formed 0.72% of the population. Others numbered 1,292 and formed 1.11% of the population.[17] Others include Addi Bassi, Marang Boro, Santal, Saranath, Sari Dharma, Sarna, Alchchi, Bidin, Sant, Saevdharm, Seran, Saran, Sarin, Kheria,[18] and other religious communities.[17]

BPL families[edit]

In Sankrail CD Block 51.33% families were living below poverty line in 2007.[19]

According to the District Human Development Report of Paschim Medinipur: The 29 CD Blocks of the district were classified into four categories based on the poverty ratio. Nayagram, Binpur II and Jamboni CD Blocks have very high poverty levels (above 60%). Kharagpur I, Kharagpur II, Sankrail, Garhbeta II, Pingla and Mohanpur CD Blocks have high levels of poverty (50-60%), Jhargram, Midnapore Sadar, Dantan I, Gopiballavpur II, Binpur I, Dantan II, Keshiari, Chandrakona I, Gopiballavpur I, Chandrakona II, Narayangarh, Keshpur, Ghatal, Sabang, Garhbeta I, Salboni, Debra and Garhbeta III CD Blocks have moderate levels of poverty (25-50%) and Daspur II and Daspur I have low levels of poverty (below 25%).[19]

Economy[edit]

Infrastructure[edit]

245 or 85% of mouzas in Sankrail CD Block were electrified by 31 March 2014.[20]

246 mouzas in Sankrail CD Block had drinking water facilities in 2013-14. There were 43 fertiliser depots, 20 seed stores and 33 fair price shops in the CD Block.[20]

Agriculture[edit]

Circle frame.svg

Persons engaged in agriculture
in Sankrail CD Block

  Bargadars (4.87%)
  Patta holders (41.19%)
  Small farmers (2.15%)
  Marginal farmers (16.65%)
  Agricultural labourers (35.14%)

Although the Bargadari Act of 1950 recognised the rights of bargadars to a higher share of crops from the land that they tilled, it was not implemented fully. Large tracts, beyond the prescribed limit of land ceiling, remained with the rich landlords. From 1977 onwards major land reforms took place in West Bengal. Land in excess of land ceiling was acquired and distributed amongst the peasants.[21]Following land reforms land ownership pattern has undergone transformation. In 2013-14, persons engaged in agriculture in Sankrail CD Block could be classified as follows: bargadars 4.87%, patta (document) holders 41.19%, small farmers (possessing land between 1 and 2 hectares) 2.15%, marginal farmers (possessing land up to 1 hectare) 16.65% and agricultural labourers 35.14%.[20]

In 2005-06 net cropped area in Sankrail CD Block was 21,153 hectares and the area in which more than one crop was grown was 11,275 hectares.[22]

The extension of irrigation has played a role in growth of the predominantly agricultural economy.[23]In 2013-14, the total area irrigated in Sankrail CD Block was 9,770 hectares, out of which 2,000 hectares were by canal waters, 160 hectares by tank water, 395 hectares by deep tubewells, 6,550 hectares by shallow tube wells, 450 hectares by river lift irrigation, 90 hectares by open dug wells and 125 hectares by other methods.[20]

In 2013-14, Sankrail CD Block produced 26,310 tonnes of Aman paddy, the main winter crop, from 15,874 hectares, 4,142 tonnes of Aus paddy (summer crop) from 1,489 hectares, 12,162 tonnes of Boro paddy (spring crop) from 4,152 hectares, 4,086 tonnes of potatoes from 145 hectares and 342,399 tonnes of sugar cane from 1,552 hectares. It also produced mustard and til.[20]

Banking[edit]

In 2013-14, Sankrail CD Block had offices of 8 commercial banks and 1 gramin bank.[20]

Transport[edit]

Sankrail CD Block has 5 ferry services and 4 originating/ terminating bus routes. The nearest railway station is 45 km from the CD Block headquarters.[20]

Education[edit]

In 2013-14, Sankrail CD Block had 153 primary schools with 6,776 students, 26 middle schools with 1,552 students and 14 higher secondary schools with 10,365 students. Sankrail CD Block had 1 general college with 704 students and 275 institutions for special and non-formal education with 8,496 students.[20]

The United Nations Development Programme considers the combined primary and secondary enrolment ratio as the simple indicator of educational achievement of the children in the school going age. The infrastructure available is important. In Sankrail CD Block out of the total 151 primary schools in 2008-2009, 113 had pucca buildings, 12 partially pucca and 26 multiple type.[24]

Sankrail Anil Biswas Smriti Mahavidyalaya was established at Kultikri in 2007 and is affiliated to Vidyasagar University. It offers arts courses with honours in English, Bengali, Sanskrit, Santali, history and political science.[25]

Healthcare[edit]

In 2014, Sankrail CD Block had 1 rural hospital and 2 primary health centres with total 51 beds and 3 doctors. It had 22 family welfare sub centres and 1 family welfare centre. 4,954 patients were treated indoor and 46,393 patients were treated outdoor in the hospitals, health centres and subcentres of the CD Block.[20]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Singh, Vijayita. "Red Corridor to be redrawn". The Hindu, 25 July 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016. 
  2. ^ "District Human Development Report: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). May 2011. Page 271. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  3. ^ a b "Lalgarh Battle". Frontline. 17 July 2009. Retrieved 23 July 2016. 
  4. ^ "Kishenji's death a serious blow to Maoist movement". The Hindu. 25 November 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2016. 
  5. ^ "District Human Development Report: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). May 2011. Page 271. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  6. ^ "District Human Development Report: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). page 4 (About Paschim Medinipur), page 26 (Predominant Soil), pages 265- 268 (Identification of Flood prone areas, Names of drought prone blocks). Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c "Sankrail Block". onefivenine. Retrieved 22 July 2016. 
  8. ^ "District Map Paschim Medinipur". Maps. Paschim Medinipur district administration. Retrieved 22 July 2016. 
  9. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Paschim Medinipur". Tables 2.1, 2.2. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 10 October 2016. 
  10. ^ "District Census Handbook: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). Map of Paschim Medinipur with CD Block HQs and Police Stations (on the fifth page). Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2016. 
  11. ^ "District Human Development Report, Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). Table 2.4, Page 28. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, May 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2017. 
  12. ^ "Directory of District, Subdivision, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal". Paschim Medinipur - Revised in March 2008. Panchayats and Rural Development Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 1 August 2016. 
  13. ^ a b c d "C.D. Block Wise Primary Census Abstract Data(PCA)". 2011 census: West Bengal – District-wise CD Blocks. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 3 May 2016. 
  14. ^ "Provisional population totals, West Bengal, Table 4, (erstwhile) Medinipur District". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2016. 
  15. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2016. 
  16. ^ "District Human Development Report: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). Page 217 Scheduled Tribe Community. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2016. 
  17. ^ a b "C1 Population by Religious Community". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 29 July 2016. 
  18. ^ "ST-14 A Details Of Religions Shown Under 'Other Religions And Persuasions' In Main Table". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 29 July 2016. 
  19. ^ a b "District Human Development Report: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). May 2011. Page 177. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Paschim Medinipur". Tables 2.1, 8.2, 16.1, 17.2, 18.2, 18.1, 20.1, 21.2, 4.4, 3.1, 3.3 – arranged as per use. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 2 January 2017. 
  21. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". (1) Chapter 1.2, South 24 Parganas in Historical Perspective, pages 7-9 (2) Chapter 3.4, Land reforms, pages 32-33. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Retrieved 7 August 2016. 
  22. ^ "District Human Development Report, Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). Table 2.4, Page 28. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, May 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2017. 
  23. ^ "District Human Development Report: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). Chapter V: Economic Livelihoods, pages 129-131. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2017. 
  24. ^ "District Human Development Report: Paschim Medinipur" (PDF). May 2011. Page: 60. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  25. ^ "Sankrail Anil Biswas Smriti Mahavidyalaya". College Admission. Retrieved 20 November 2016.