Sanskrit nominals

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Sanskrit has inherited from its theorised parent the Proto-Indo-European language an elaborate system of nominal morphology. Endings may be added directly to the root, or more frequently and especially in the later language, to a stem formed by the addition of a suffix to it.[1]

Sanskrit is a highly inflected language that preserves all the declensional types found in Proto-Indo-European, including a few residual heteroclitic r/n-stems.[2][3]

Basics[edit]

Declension of a noun in Sanskrit[α] involves the interplay of two 'dimensions': three numbers and eight cases, yielding a combination of 24 possible forms, although owing to syncretism of some forms, the practical number is around 19 or so.[4] Further, nouns themselves in Sanskrit, like its parent Proto-Indo-European, can be in one of three genders.

In addition, adjectives behave much the same way morphologically as nouns do, and can conveniently be considered together. While the same noun cannot be seen to be of more than one gender, adjectives change gender on the basis of the noun they are being applied to, along with case and number, thus giving the following variables:[5][6]

1 3 numbers[β] singular[γ], dual[δ], plural[ε]
2 3 genders[ζ] masculine[η], feminine[θ], neuter[ι]
3 8 cases[κ] nominative, accusative, instrumental, dative, ablative, genitive, locative, vocative

Building blocks[edit]

Roots[edit]

The oldest system of declension was to affix the endings[λ] directly to the nominal root. This was an ancient feature already in decline in later Proto-Indo-European. Of the daughter languages, this system has been best preserved by Sanskrit, especially the older form of Indo-Aryan termed Vedic Sanskrit.[7]

Ancient noun roots in kindred languages
Sanskrit Latin PIE Glossary
pā́d- pē(d)s, ped- *póds foot[a]
vā́c- vōx, vōc- *wṓkʷs speech
rā́j- rēx, rēg- *h₃rḗǵs king, ruler[a]

Stems[edit]

In Proto-Indo-European, a new system developed wherein an intermediary called the thematic vowel is inserted to the root before the final endings are appended: *-o- which in Sanskrit becomes -a-, producing the thematic stem.

Declension of a thematic stem is less complicated owing to the fact that a host of Sandhi rules apply no more, and the later stages of the Sanskrit language see an increase in the profusion of thematic nouns. Thus in classical Sanskrit, the thematic pā́da-s is more likely to be found than its athematic predecessor. [8][9]

Cases[edit]

Sanskrit nouns are declined for eight cases:

The kāraka classification[edit]

In the ancient literature, Pāṇini identified six classes as kārakas[b], operating as accessories to a verb. The six kārakas are the nominative, accusative, instrumental, dative, ablative, and locative cases.[11] He defined them as follows (Aṣtādhyāyi, I.4.24–54):

  1. Kartā [c]: 'he/that which is independent in action'. This is equivalent to the nominative case. [12]
  2. Karman [d]: 'what the agent seeks most to attain': the accusative.
  3. Karaṇa [e] 'that which effects most': the instrumental.
  4. Sampradāna [f]: 'he whom one aims at with the object': the dative.
  5. Apādāna [g]: '(that which is) firm when departure (takes place)': the ablative.
  6. Adhikaraṇa [h]: or 'substratum': the locative.

Pāṇini did not identify the genitive Sambandha and vocative Sambodhana as kārakas.[13]

Endings[edit]

The basic scheme of suffixion[μ] is given in the table below and applies to many nouns and adjectives.

However, according to the gender and the final consonant or vowel of the uninflected word-stem, there are internal sandhi rules dictating the form of the inflected word. Furthermore, these are standalone forms, which when used in actual phrases are subject to external sandhi, such as, the mutation of -s to -ḥ or -r and so on.[15][16]

Singular Dual Plural
Masc./Fem Neu. Masc./Fem Neu. Masc./Fem Neu.
Nominative -s -au -as -i
Accusative -am
Instrumental -bhyām -bhis
Dative -e -bhyas
Ablative -as
Genitive -os -ām
Locative -i -su

Declension[edit]

Classification[edit]

Substantives may be divided into different classes on the basis of the stem vowel before they are declined on the above basis. The general classification is:

  • Short-vowel stems
    • a-stems
    • i- and u-stems
    • ṛ-stems
  • Long-vowel stems
    • ā-stems
    • ī- and ū-stems
  • Diphthong stems
  • Consonant stems
    • Bare stems
    • as/is/us-stems
    • an- and in-stems
    • ant-/mant-/vant-stems
    • vāṅs-stems

When the nominal endings are being affixed to a noun of each class, they may undergo, in some cases, some changes, including being entirely replaced by other forms. This happens most profusely in the a-stem class. However, for reasons noted below, grammars both traditional and modern tend to start with this class. [17][18][19]

a-stems[edit]

The vast majority of nouns in Sanskrit belong to this class, and are masculine or neuter. The position of the accent is maintained throughout, except in the masculine vocative singular. The paradigms are illustrated in their pre-sandhi forms, along with the formation treatment using two stems in the masculine devá- [A][i] and kā́ma- [B] and two in the neuter yugá- [C][a] and phála- [D] with different syllables accented.[20][21][22][23]

a-stem adjectives are also to be found in big numbers, they are invariably masculine or neuter – feminines being formed either in -ā or, less frequently -ī. a-stem adjectives are also declined as below.[24]

a-stem masc singular
Case Std Ending Treatment Ending dev·á- kā́m·a-
Nominative -s -a- + -s -as dev·á·s kā́m·a·s
Accusative -am -a- + -am -am dev·á·m kām·a·m
Instrumental -ena -ena dev·éna kā́m·ena
Dative -e -a- + -a- + e + a -āya dev·ā́ya kā́m·āya
Ablative -as -as -āt -āt dev·ā́t kā́m·āt
Genitive -as -as + ya -asya dev·ásya kā́m·asya
Locative -i -a- + -i -e dev·é kā́m·e
Vocative [j] -a dév·a kā́m·a
a-stem masc dual
Case Std Ending Treatment Ending dev·á- kā́m·a-
Nominative
Accusative
Vocative
-au -au -au dev·áu kā́m·au
Instrumental
Dative
Ablative
-bhyām -ā- + bhyām -ābhyām dev·ā́bhyām kā́m·ābhyām
Genitive
Locative
-os -a- + -y- + -os -ayos dev·á·yos kā́m·a·yos
a-stem masc plural
Case Std Ending Treatment Ending dev·á- kā́m·a-
Nominative, Vocative -as -a- + -as -ās dev·ā́s kā́m·ās
Accusative -as as -ān (-āṅs) -ān (-āṅs [k]) dev·ā́n kā́m·ān
Instrumental -bhis -bhis -ais -ais dev·aís kā́m·ais
Dative
Ablative
-bhyas -a- + -i- + -bhyas -ebhyas dev·ébhyas kā́m·ebhyas
Genitive -ām -ā + -n- ām -ānām dev·ā́nām kā́m·ānām
Locative -su -a- + -i- + su -e dev·éṣu kā́m·eṣu

Neuters only differ from the masculine in the nominative and accusative forms, the two forms always being the same:

a-stem neuter sing, dual, plu
Case Std Ending Treatment Ending yug·á- phál·a-
Nom, Acc SG -a- + -m -am yug·á·m phál·a·m
Nom, Acc DU -a- + -ī -e yug·é phál·e
Nom, Acc PL -i -a- + an + -i -āni yug·ā́ni phál·āni

i- and u-stems[edit]

i-stems[edit]

Final i-stem endings are closer to the standard set compared to the a-stem declension. In general, the -i is gunated in some cases, and a -n- is inserted intervocalically between the stem and the ending in a few other cases, especially in the neuter. The paradigms are illustrated here in their pre-sandhi forms for masculine agní- [E][l], feminine gáti- [F][a] and neuter vā́ri- [G].[26][27]

i-stem masc/fem
Case Std Ending Treatment Ending agní- gáti-
Nom -s -s agní·s gáti·s
Acc -am -am -m agní·m gáti·m
Ins -n- + -ā
-nā
agní-nā gáty·ā
Da -e guna(i) + e -aye agn·áy·e gát·ay·e
Abl, Gen -as guna(i) + s
-i- + -a- + -as
-es [m] agn·és gát·és
gáty·ās
Loc -i -i -au -au agn·aú gát·au
Voc -e agn·é gát·e
Case Std Ending Treatment Ending agní- gáti-
N.A.V -au -au agn·ī́ gát·ī
I.D.A -bhyām -bhyām agní·bhyām gáti·bhyām
Gen, Loc -os -i- + -os -yos agny·ós gáty·os
Case Std Ending Treatment Ending agní- gáti-
Nom, Voc -as guna(i) + -as -ayas agn·áy·as gát·ay·as
Acc -as as -īn (-īṅs) -īn (-īṅs [k]) agn·ī́n gát·īn
Ins -bhis -bhis agní·bhis gáti·bhis
Dat, Abl -bhyas -bhyas agní·bhyas gáti·bhyas
Gen -ām -ī + -n- ām -īnām agn·ī́nam gát·īnām
Loc -su -su agní·ṣu gáti·ṣu

Neuters as always remain identical in the nominative and accusative, and also in the vocative. In the other cases, a -n-[n][ν] is inserted between the stem and the standard endings in all those cases where to avoid a collision of two vowels, making the whole process almost perfectly straightforward.

i-stem neut
Case Std Ending Treatment Ending vā́ri-
N.A.V vā́ri
Ins -n- -nā vā́ri·ṇ·ā
Dat -e -n- -ne vā́ri·ṇ·e
Abl,Gen -as -n- -nas vā́ri·ṇ·as
Loc -i -n- -ni vā́ri·ṇ·i
Case Std Ending Treatment Ending vā́ri-
N.A.V -n- -nī vā́ri·n·ī
I.D.A -bhyām -bhyām vā́ri·bhyām
Gen, Loc -os -n- -nos vā́ri·ṇ·os
Case Std Ending Treatment Ending vā́ri-
N.A.V -i -īni -īni vā́rī·ṇ·i
Ins -bhis -bhis vā́ri·bhis
Dat, Abl -bhyas -bhyas vā́ri·bhyas
Gen -ām -ī + -n- ām -īnām vā́r·īṇām
Loc -su -su vāri·ṣu

u-stems[edit]

i- and u-stem declensions are so similar that they can be grouped together. The u-stem paradigms illustrated here in their pre-sandhi forms are for masculine śátru- [H], feminine dhenú- [I] and neuter mádhu- [J][a].[28][29]

u-stem masc/fem
Case Std Ending Treatment Ending śátru- dhenú-
Nom -s -s śátru·s dhenú·s
Acc -am -am -m śátru·m dhenú·m
Ins -n- + -ā
-nā
śátru-ṇā dhenv·ā
Dat -e guna(u) + e -ave śátr·av·e dhen·áv·e
Abl, Gen -as guna(u) + s
-u- + -a- + -as [m]
-os śátr·os dhen·ós
dhenv·ā́s
Loc -i -i -au -au śátr·au dhen·aú
Voc -e śátr·o dhen·ó
Case Std Ending Treatment Ending śatru- dhenú-
N.A.V -au -au śátr·ū dhen·ū́
I.D.A -bhyām -bhyām śátru·bhyām dhenú·bhyām
Gen, Loc -os -u- + -os -vos śátrv·ós dhenv·ós
Case Std Ending Treatment Ending śátru- dhenú-
Nom, Voc -as guna(u) + -as -avas śátr·av·as dhen·áv·as
Acc -as as -ūn (-ūṅs)
-ūs
-ūn (-ūṅs [k])
-ūs
śátr·ūn dhen·ūs
Ins -bhis -bhis śátru·bhis dhenú·bhis
Dat, Abl -bhyas -bhyas śátru·bhyas dhenú·bhyas
Gen -ām -ū + -n- ām -ūnām śátr·ūṇām dhen·ū́nām
Loc -su -su śátru·ṣu dhenu·ṣu

Neuters are also just as straightforward as for i-stems.

u-stem neut
Case Std Ending Treatment Ending mádhu-
N.A.V mádhu
Ins -n- -nā mádhu·n·ā
Dat -e -n- -ne mádhu·n·e
Abl, Gen -as -n- -nas mádhu·n·as
Loc -i -n- -ni mádhu·n·i
Case Std Ending Treatment Ending mádhu-
N.A.V -n- -nī mádhu·n·ī
I.D.A -bhyām -bhyām mádhu·bhyām
Gen, Loc -os -n- -nos mádhu·n·os
Case Std Ending Treatment Ending mádhu-
N.A.V -i -i -ūni -ūni mádhū·n·i
Ins -bhis -bhis mádhu·bhis
Dat, Abl -bhyas -bhyas mádhu·bhyas
Gen -ām -ū + -n- ām -ūnām mádh·ūnām
Loc -su -su mádhu·ṣu

i- and u-stem adjectives are a small class of so—called primary adjectives, such as bahus, -us, -u [K] and śucis, -is, -i [L], as well as ones adapted from nouns like bahuvrīhis. They are inflected like the i- and u-stem nouns described above; occasionally the feminine u may gain an additional ī and become .[30]

ṛ-stems[edit]

ṛ-stems are predominantly agental derivatives like dātṛ [M], though also include kinship terms like pitṛ [N][a], mātṛ [O][a], and svasṛ [P][a].[31] The neuter equivalents of derivative agental nouns once again form secondary stems in -n, as in the -i and -u classes.

ṛ-stem masc/fem
Case Std Ending Treatment Ending dātṛ́- svásṛ- pitṛ́- dhātṛ́-[Q][o]
Nom -s vṛddi(ṛ) (-rs) datā́ svásā́ pitā́ dhātṛ́
Acc -am vṛddhi(ṛ) + -am
guna(ṛ) + -am[p]
-āram
-aram
dāt·ā́r·am svás·ār·am pit·ár·am dhātṛ́
Ins datr·ā́ svásr·ā pitr·ā́ dhātṛ́·ṇ·ā
Dat -e -e dātr·é svásr·e pitr·é dhātṛ́·ṇ·e
Abl, Gen -as -as -ur -ur dāt·úr svás·ur pit·úr dhātṛ́·ṇ·as
Loc -i guna(ṛ) + -i -ari dāt·ar·í svás·ar·í pit·ar·í dhātṛ́·ṇ·i
Voc [j] guna(ṛ) -ar dā́t·ar svás·ar pít·ar dhā́tṛ, dhā́tar
Case Std Ending Treatment Ending dātṛ́- svásṛ- pitṛ́- dhātṛ́
N.A.V -au vṛddhi/guna(ṛ) + -au -arau dāt·ā́r·au svás·ār·au pit·ár·au dhātṛ́·ṇ·ī
I.D.A -bhyām -bhyām dātṛ́·bhyām svásṛ·bhyam pitṛ́·bhyām dhātṛ́·bhyām
Gen, Loc -os ṛ + -os -ros dātr·ós svásr·os pitr·ós dhātṛ́·ṇ·os
Case Std Ending Treatment Ending dātṛ́- svásṛ- pitṛ́- dhātṛ́
N.V -as vṛiddi/guna(ṛ) + -as -āras / -aras dāt·ār·as svás·ār·as pit·ar·as dhātṝ·ṇ·i
Acc -as as -ṝn (-ṝṅs) -ṝn (-ṝṅs [k]) dāt·ṝ́n svás·ṝn pit·ṝ́n dhātṝ·ṇ·i
Ins -bhis -bhis dātṛ́·bhis svásr·bhis pitṛ́·bhis dhātṛ́·bhis
Dat, Abl -bhyas -bhyas dātṛ́·bhyas svásr·bhyas pitṛ́·bhyas dhātṛ́·bhyas
Gen -ām -ṛ/ṝ + -n- ām -ṛ/ṝṇām [ξ] dāt·ṝṇā́m svás·ṝṇā́m pit·ṝṇā́m dhāt·ṝṇā́m
Loc -su -su dātṛ́·ṣu svásṛ·ṣu pitṛ́·ṣu dhātṛ́·ṣu

A single irregular i-stem noun,[32] sakhi [R][q], has a stem in -i but declines similarly to the above – simply with y i ī taking the place of r ṛ ṝ:

Singular Dual Plural
Nom sákh·ā sákh·āy·au sákh·āy·as
Acc sákh·āy·am sákh·īn
Ins sákhy·ā sákhi·bhyām sákhi·bhis
Dat sákhy·e sákhi·bhy·as
Abl sákh·ay·ur
Gen sákhy·os sákh·īnām
Loc sákhy·au, sákh·ay·i sákhi·ṣu
Voc sákh·e sákh·āy·au sákh·āy·as

This category is made of ā-, ī- and ū-stem, almost entirely feminine, polysyllabic derivative nouns.[33]

ā-stems[edit]

A few forms deviate from the standard in many of which an interspersed -y- can be observed. The vocative also undergoes the usual accent shift.[34][35]

ā-stem fem
Case Std Ending Treatment Ending sénā-[S] kanyā̀-[T]
Nom -s -s sénā kanyā̀
Acc -am -ām sénā·m kanyā̀·m
Ins e + -ā -ayā sén·ay·ā kany·ày·ā
Dat -e -ā + y +vṛddhi(e) -āyai sénā·yai kanyā̀·yai
Abl, Gen -as -ā + y + vṛddhi(a)s -āyās sénā·yās kanyā̀·yās
Loc -i -i -ā + yām -āyām sénā·yām kanyā̀·yām
Voc [j] -e -e sén·e kány·e
Case Std Ending Treatment Ending sénā- kanyà-
N.A.V -au -au -e -e sé·ne kany·è
I.D.A -bhyām -bhyām sénā·bhyām kanyā̀·bhyām
Gen, Loc -os e + -os -ayos sén·ay·os kany·ày·os
Case Std Ending Treatment Ending sénā- kanyā̀-
Nom, Voc -as -ā + as -ās sénā·s kanyā̀·s
Acc -as -ā + as -ās sénā·s kanyā̀·s
Ins -bhis -bhis sénā·bhis kanyā̀·bhis
Dat, Abl -bhyas -bhyas sénā·bhyas kanyā̀·bhyas
Gen -ām -ā + -n- + -ām -ānām sénā·nām kanyā̀·nām
Loc -su -su sénā·su kanyā̀·su

ī- and ū-stems[edit]

Again most ī- and ū-stem nouns are feminine.[36][37] ī- and ū-stem adjectives also belong here.[38]

ī- and ū-stems fem
Case Std Ending Treatment Ending devī́-[U] vadhū́-[V][a]
Nom -s -s [r] devī́ vadhū́·s
Acc -am -a -īm, -ūm devī́·m vadhū́·m
Ins devy·ā́ vadhv·ā́
Dat -e vṛddhi(e) -ai devy·aí vadhv·aí
Abl, Gen -as vṛddhi(a)s -ās devy·ā́s vadhv·ā́s
Loc -i -i -ām -ām devy·ā́m vadhv·ā́m
Voc [j] [s] dévi vádhu
Case Std Ending Treatment Ending devī- vadhū-
N.A.V -au -au devy·aú vadhv·aú
I.D.A -bhyām -bhyām devī́·bhyām vadhū́·bhyām
Gen, Loc -os -os devy·ós vadhv·ós
Case Std Ending Treatment Ending devī- vadhū-
Nom, Voc -as -ās devy·ás vadhv·ás
Acc -as as -īs, -ūs -īs, -ūs devī́·s vadhū́·s
Ins -bhis -bhis devī́·bhis vadhū́·bhis
Dat, Abl -bhyas -bhyas devī́·bhyas vadhū́bhyas
Gen -ām -n- + -ām -nām devī́·nām vadhū́·nām
Loc -su -su devī́·ṣu vadhū́·ṣu

Diphthong stems[edit]

Stems ending in Sanskrit diphthongs (e, ai, o, au) follow a fairly regular pattern, whilst subject to sandhi rules as usual.[39]

Case Std Ending se raí[W][t] [X][a] glau[Y]
Nom -s se·s rā́·s gaú·s, gā́vau glau·s
Acc -am say·am rā́y·am gā́·m glāv·am
Ins say·ā rāy·ā́ gáv·ā glāv·ā
Dat -e say·e rāy·é gáv·e glāv·e
Abl, Gen -as se·s rāy·ás gó·s glāv·as
Loc -i say·i rāy·í gáv·i glāv·i
Voc se rā́·s gaú·s, gávau glau·s
Case Std Ending se raí glau
N.A.V -au say·au rā́y·au gā́v·au glāv·au
I.D.A -bhyām se·bhyām rā·bhyā́m gó·bhyām glau·bhyām
Gen, Loc -os say·os rāy·ós gáv·os glāv·os
Case Std Ending se raí glau
Nom, Voc -as say·as rā́y·as gā́v·as glāv·as
Acc -as say·as rā́y·as gā́·s glāv·as
Ins -bhis se·bhis rā·bhís gó·bhis glau·bhis
Dat, Abl -bhyas se·bhyas rā·bhyás gó·bhyas glau·bhyas
Gen -ām say·ām rāy·ā́m gáv·ām glāv·ām
Loc -su se·ṣu rā·sú gó·ṣu glau·ṣu

Bare-consonant and as/us/is-stem nouns[edit]

Consonant stem nouns may have up to 3 different stems, as well as two special forms:

  1. A special lengthened form for the masculine/feminine nominative singular
  2. A special lengthened and/or nasalized form for the neuter nom/acc. plural
  3. A strong stem[ο] used for masc./fem. sing. acc., dual nom./acc. and plur. nom.
  4. A medium stem [π] used with oblique cases with consonant endings, as well as the neuter nom./acc. sing.
  5. A weak stem [ρ] used everywhere else.

One or more of these stems may be identical for some words, but this is generally not regularly predictable from either the nominative singular or the citation form stem. While the stem ending may undergo expected internal sandhi changes as normal, the endings themselves are gracefully regular.[40][41]

Consonant stems
Case Ending marút m.[Z] trivṛ́t n.[AA] mánas n. [AB][a] havís n. [AC]
Nom -s various marút trivṛ́t mánas havís
Acc -am marút·am
Ins marút·ā trivṛ́t·ā mánas·ā havíṣ·ā
Dat -e marút·e trivṛ́t·e mánas·e havíṣ·e
Abl, gen -as marút·as trivṛ́t·as mánas·as havíṣ·as
Loc -i marút·i trivṛ́t·i mánas·i havíṣ·i
Voc marút trivṛ́t mánas havís
Case Ending marút trivṛ́t mánas havís
N.A.V -au, -ī marút·au trivṛ́t·au mánas·ī havíṣ·ī
I.D.A -bhyām marúd·bhyām trivṛ́d·bhyām máno·bhyām havír·bhyām
Gen, loc -os marút·os trivṛ́t·os mánas·os havíṣ·os
Case Ending marút trivṛ́t mánas havís
Nom, voc -as, -āni, etc marút·as trivṛ́nti mánāṅsi havī́ṅṣi
Acc -as, -āni, etc marút·as
Ins -bhis marúd·bhis trivṛ́d·bhis máno·bhis havír·bhis
Dat, abl -bhyas marúd·bhyas trivṛ́d·bhyas máno·bhyas havír·bhyas
Gen -ām marút·ām trivṛ́t·ām mánas·ām havíṣ·ām
Loc -su marút·su trivṛ́t·su mánaḥ·su havíḥ·su

an-stem nouns and in-stem adjectives[edit]

an-stem nouns and in-stem adjectives (occurring prolifically in masc. and neu.) show very similar behavior and can be grouped together:[42]

Consonant stems
Case Ending rā́jan[AD] ātmán[AE] nāman[AF][a] balín[AG] m.n. yogín[AH] m.n.
Nom -s rā́jā ātmā́ nā́ma balī́, balí yogī́, yogí
Acc -am rā́jān·am ātmā́n·am nā́ma balín·am, balí yogín·am, yogí
Ins rā́jñ·ā ātmán·ā nā́mn·ā balín·ā yogín·ā
Dat -e rā́jñ·e ātmán·e nā́mn·e balín·e yogín·e
Abl, gen -as rā́jñ·as ātmán·as nā́mn·as balín·as yogín·as
Loc -i rā́jn·i, rā́jan·i ātmán·i nā́mn·i, nā́man·i balín.i yogín·i
Voc [j] rā́jan ā́tman nā́man, nā́ma bálin, báli yógin, yógi
Case Ending rā́jan ātmán nā́man balín yogín
N.A.V -au rā́jān·au ātmán·au nā́mn·ī, nā́man·ī balín·au, balín·ī yogín·au, yogín·ī
I.D.A -bhyām rā́ja·bhyām ātmá·bhyām nā́ma·bhyām balí·bhyām yogí·bhyām
Gen, loc -os rā́jṇ·os ātmán·os nā́mn·os balín·os yogín·os
Case Std Ending rā́jan ātmán nā́man balín yogín
Nom, voc -as rā́jān·as ātmā́n·as nā́m·āni balín·as, balín·i yogín·as, yogín·i
Acc -as rā́jñ·as ātmán·as nā́m·āni balín·as yogín·as
Ins -bhis rā́ja·bhis ātmá·bhis nā́ma·bhis balí·bhis ???
Dat, abl -bhyas rā́ja·bhyas ātmá·bhyas nā́ma·bhyas balí·bhyas yogí·bhyas
Gen -ām rā́jñ·ām ātmán·ām nā́mn·ām balín·ām yogín·ām
Loc -su rā́ja·su ātmá·su nā́ma·su balí·ṣu yogí·ṣu

ant-, mant- and vant-stem adjectives[edit]

Participial forms in -ant/-at decline as below, with some stem variation with the -n-.[43]. Possessives in -mant and vant- display similar behavior, the difference that stands out is the nom. sing. masc. -mān & -vān.[44] Forms not mentioned fit the existing pattern with full regularity:

Consonant stems singular
Case Ending bháv·ant-[AI] m.n. ad·ánt-[AJ] m.n. júhv·ant-[AK] m.n. paśu·mánt-[AL] m.n. bhága·vant-[AM][u] m.n.
Nom -s bháv·an, bháv·at ad·án, adát júhv·an, júhv·at paśu·mā́n, paśu·mát bhága·vān, bhága·vat
Acc -am bháv·ant·am, bháv·at ad·ánt·am, ad·át júhv·ant·am, júhv·at paśu·mánt·am, -mát bhága·vant·am, -vat
Ins bháv·at·ā ad·at·ā́ júhv·at·ā pasu·mát·ā bhága·vat·ā
etc etc
Voc [j] bháv·an, bháv·at ád·an, ád·at júhv·an, júhv·at páśu·man, -mat bhág·avan, -vat
Dual
N.A.V -au, -ī bháv·ant·au, -ant·ī ad·ánt·au, ad·at·ī́ júhv·at·au, júhv·at·ī paśu·mánt·au, -mát·ī bhága·vant·au, -vat·ī
Plural
N.V -as, -i bháv·ant·as, -ant·i ad·ánt·as, ad·ánt·i júhv·at·as, júhv·at·i paśu·mánt·as, -mánti bhága·vant·as, -vant·i
Acc -as bháv·at·as, -ant·i ad·át·as, ad·ánt·i júhv·at·as, júhv·at·i paśu·mát·as, -mánt·i bhága·vat·as, -vant·i
Ins -bhis bháv·ad·bhis ad·ád·bhis júhv·ad·bhis paśu·mád·bhis bhága·vad·bhis

vāṅs-stem perfect participles[edit]

These forms exhibit similarities with the -vant stems illustrated above, with the main exception that in the weakest forms, before vowel endings, -vāṅs is zero-graded alongside the disappearance of the -ṅ-.[45][46]

Case Ending vidvā́ṅs-[AN] m.n. babhūváṅs-[AO] m.n.
Nom -s vid·vā́n, vid·vát babhū·vā́n, babhū·vát
Acc -am vid·vā́ṅs·am, -vát babhū·vā́ṅs·am, -vát
Ins vid·úṣ·ā babhū·vúṣ·ā
etc etc
Voc [j] víd·van, víd·vat bábhū·van, bábhu·vat
Dual
N.A.V -au, -ī vid·vā́ṅs·au, vid·úṣ·ī babhū·vāṅs·au, babhū·vúṣ·ī
Plural
N.V -as, -i vid·vāṅs·as, vid·vā́ṅs·i babhū·vā́ṅs·as, babhū·vúṣ·i
Acc -as vid·úṣ·as, -vā́ṅs·i babhū·vúṣ·as, -vā́ṅs·i
Ins -bhis vid·vád·bhis babhū·vád·bhis

Comparatives and superlatives[edit]

Primary derivation[edit]

A small closed class of comparatives and superlatives are directly formed on adjectival roots, after dropping the original stem suffix. The comparative takes the suffix -īyān (yāṃsas), yasī, yas, which declines as a consonant- and ī-stem adjective; the superlative takes -iṣṭhas, ā, am. The root is strengthened to the guṇa grade.

  • from mahān [AP][v], root mah-, is formed mahīyān, mahiṣṭhas;
  • from sthiras [AQ], root sthi-, is formed stheyān, stheṣṭhas.

In some adjectives the original form of the root has been obscured by internal sandhi, making the outcome somewhat irregular. Thus:

  • from gur-us [AR][w], originally g(w)ṛ-us, comes garīyān, gariṣṭhas;
  • from dīrgh-as [AS][a], originally dṝgh- < dṛHgh- (where H denotes a laryngeal), a guṇa placed in the second possible slot [σ] gives draHgh- > drāgh-, whence drāghīyān, drāghiṣṭhas;

Secondary derivation[edit]

The secondary suffixes of comparison are -taras, ā, am for comparative and -tamas, ā, am for superlative. They are appended to the inflectional base, with no modification of the stem. Usually, the pada stem is used for consonant-stem adjectives, but those in a simple -n sometimes retain it.

  • priyatara-, priyatama- from priya-;
  • vṛṣatara-, vṛṣatama- from vṛṣan-, but vṛṣantama- is also attested.

Numerals[edit]

Cardinal numbers[edit]

The numbers[47][48] from one to ten, along with cognates in closely-related languages, are:

Numerals
Sanskrit Latin Proto-Indo-European
éka- ūn- *Hoi-no-, *Hoi-k(ʷ)o-
dvá- duo *d(u)wo-
trí- trēs, tria *trei-, *tri-
catúr- quattuor *kʷetwor-, *kʷetur-
páñca- quīnque *penkʷe
ṣáṣ- sex *s(w)eḱs
saptá-, sápta- septem *septm̥
aṣṭá-, áṣṭa- octō *oḱtō
náva- novem *newn̥
dáśa- decem *deḱm̥(t)

All numbers in Sanskrit can be declined in all the cases. From one to four, the cardinal numerals agree with the substantive they qualify in number, gender and case; from 5 to 19, in number and case, with only one form for all genders; from 20 onwards in case only.[49]

Éka is declined like a pronominal adjective, though the dual form does not occur. Dvá appears only in the dual. Trí and catúr are declined as below:[50]

Three Four
Masculine Neuter Feminine Masculine Neuter Feminine
Nominative tráyas trī́ṇi tisrás catvā́ras catvā́ri cátasras
Accusative trīn trī́ṇi tisrás catúras catvā́ri cátasras
Instrumental tribhís tisṛ́bhis catúrbhis catasṛ́bhis
Dative tribhyás tisṛ́bhyas catúrbhyas catasṛ́bhyas
Ablative tribhyás tisṛ́bhyas catúrbhyas catasṛ́bhyas
Genitive trayāṇā́m tisṛṇā́m caturṇā́m catasṛṇā́m
Locative triṣú tisṛ́ṣu catúrṣu catasṛ́ṣu

The numbers from 11 to 19 are:

ékādaśam, dvā́daśam, tráyodaśam, cáturdaśam, páñcadaśam, ṣóḍaśam, saptádaśam, aṣṭā́daśam, návadaśam.

The tens from 20 to 90 are:

(d)viṃśatí, triṃśát, catvāriṃśát, pañcāśát, ṣaṣṭí, saptatí, aśītí, navatí.

The joint numbers:

21 – ékaviṃśati, 22 – dvā́viṃśati, 23 – trayóviṃśati, ..., 26 – ṣáḍviṃśati, ..., but 82 – dvā́́śīti, 83 – trayā́śīti, 88 – aṣṭā́śīti.

The hundreds are:

śatam, dvai śatai, trīṇi śatāni / tri śatam, etc.

The larger numbers:

1000 sahásra
10,000 ayúta
100,000 lakṣá
1,000,000 prayúta
10,000,000 kóṭi
108 arbudá
109 mahā́rbuda
1010 kharvá
1011 nikharvá[51][x]
10140 asaṅkhyeya!

Compounding numbers[edit]

All the numerals may be compounded attributively in their stem form:[52]

Compound Meaning
dvi-pāda- two-footed
śata-mukha- hundred-mouthed
daśa-kumāra-carita- ten-youth-tale, i.e., the story of the ten princes

Ordinal numbers[edit]

The ordinal numbers from one to ten are:

  1. prathamás, -ā́
  2. dvitī́yas, -ā
  3. tṛtī́yas, -ā
  4. caturthás, -ī́
  5. pañcamás, -ī́
  6. ṣaṣṭhás, -ī
  7. saptamás, -ī́
  8. aṣṭamás, -ī́
  9. navamás, -ī́
  10. daśamás, -ī́

Other numbers:

11. – ekādaśás, ... 20. – viṃśatitamás (viṃśás), 30. – triṃśattamás (triṃśás), 40. – catvāriṃśattamás, 50. – pañcāśattamás, 60. – ṣaṣtitamás, 70. – saptatitamás, 80. – aśītitamás, 90. – navatitamás, 100. – śatatamás, 1000. – sahasratamás.

Pronouns and determiners[edit]

Sanskrit pronouns and determiners behave in their declension largely like other declinable classes such as nouns, adjectives and numerals, so that they can all be classed together under nominals. However, pronouns and determiners display certain peculiarities of their own compared to the other nominal classes.[53][54]

Furthermore, personal pronouns have an additional dimension not present in the other nominals, but shared by verbs: person.[55]

Pronouns[τ] are declined for case[υ], number[φ], and gender[χ]. The pronominal declension applies to a few adjectives as well. Many pronouns have alternative enclitic forms.

The official list of Sanskrit pronouns is: sarva, viśva, ubha, ubhaya, utara, utama, anya, anyatara, tvat, tva, nema, sama, sima, pūrva, para, avara, dakṣiṇa, uttara, apara, adhara, sva, antara; tyad, tad, yad, etad, idam, adam; eka, dvi, yuṣmad, asmad, and kim.[56]

First- and second-person pronouns[edit]

Sanskrit pronouns in the first[ψ] and second[ω] person are theoretically termed asmad and yuṣmad respectively.

They resemble one another in how they are declined, and similarly do not mark gender. These pronouns have shortened, enclitic forms in the accusative, dative, and genitive cases (parenthesized in the table below).[57][58]

sing., dual, plu.
Case asmad yuṣmad
N. ahám tvám
A. mā́m (mā) tvā́m (tvā)
I. máyā tváyā
D. máhyam (me) túbhyam (te)
Ab. mát tvát
G. máma (me) táva (te)
L. máy·i tváy·i
Case asmad yuṣmad
N.A.V āvā́m yuvā́m
I.D.Ab. āvā́·bhyām yuvā́·bhyām
G.L. āváy·os yuváy·os
& A.D.G. (nau) (vām)
Case asmad yuṣmad
N. vayám yūyám
A. asmā́n (nas) yuṣmā́n (vas)
I. asmā́·bhis yuṣmā́·bhis
D. asmá·bhyam, nas yuṣmá·bhyam, vas
Ab. asmát yuṣmát
G. asmā́kam (nas) yuṣmā́kam (vas)
L. asmā́·su yuṣmā·su

The forms mad, asmad, tvad and yuṣmad can be used in derivation and composition: mát·kṛta, mát·sakhi, tvát·pitṛ, etc.[59]

Demonstratives[edit]

Sanskrit does not have true third person pronouns, but its demonstratives play this role when they stand independently of a substantive. The four different demonstratives in Sanskrit[y] are:

  • tad, adas
  • idam, etad

Both tad and adas are used for objects of reference that are far away, the latter being more emphatic. Both are translated by the English distal demonstrative that.

By contrast, idam and etad are used for nearby objects, and, again, the latter is more emphatic and has a strong deictic meaning. These two pronouns are translated by the English proximal demonstrative this.[60]

The masculine singular nominative form of tad, sas exhibits irregular sandhi behaviour — before consonants saḥ becomes sa, giving, for instance, sa gajaḥ [AT] rather than the expected *so gajaḥ.[61][z]

etad, is declined almost identically to tad. Its paradigm is obtained by prefixing e- to all the forms of tat. Consequently [aa] the masculine and feminine nominative singular forms of this pronoun are eṣas and eṣā.[64]

The declension of idam is somewhat irregular because it is formed from two different stems, i- and a-.[ab] The nominative and accusative forms, except the three singular nominatives, are regularly formed with the stem im-, and the remaining forms from a-; an extra -n- is infixed should the ending start with a vowel.

Most of the forms for adas are regularly formed using the stem u- the same way as if it were a-, with the combination *ui- becoming ī- in the plural. The nominative dual and instrumental singular are formed like u-stem nouns.[66][67][68]

sing., dual, plu.
Case tad m.n. idam m.n adas m.n tad f idam f adas f
N. sás, tát ayám, idám asaú, adás iyám asaú
A. tám, tát imám, idám amúm, adás tā́m imā́m amū́m
I. téna anéna amúnā táyā anáyā amúyā
D. tásmai asmaí amúṣmai tásyai asyaí amúṣyai
Ab. tásmāt asmā́t amúṣmāt tásyās asyā́s amúṣyās
G. tásya asyá amúṣya tásyās asyā́s amúṣyās
L. tásmin asmín amúṣmin tásyām asyā́m amúṣyām
Case tad idam adas tad idam adas
N.A.V taú, té imaú, imé amū́ imé amū́
I.D.Ab. tā́bhyām ābhyā́m amū́bhyām tā́bhyām ā́bhyām amū́bhyām
G.L. táyos anáyos amúyos táyos anáyos amúyos
Case tad idam adas tad idam adas
N. te, tā́ni imé, imā́ni amī́, amū́ni tās imā́s amū́s
A. tā́n, tā́ni imā́n, imā́ni amū́n, amū́ni tā́s imā́s amū́s
I. taís ebhís amī́bhis tā́bhis ābhís amū́bhis
D. Ab. tébhyas ebhyás amī́bhyas tā́bhyas ābhyás amū́bhyas
G. téṣām eṣā́m amī́ṣām tā́sām āsā́m amū́ṣām
L. téṣu eṣú amī́ṣu tā́su āsú amū́ṣu

Possessive pronouns[edit]

asmad allows the following forms of possessive pronouns:

  • madīya-, māmaka-, māmakīna-
  • asmadīya-, asmāka-, asmākīna-

The feminines are in .

yuṣmad has these:

  • tvadīya-, tāvaka-, tāvakīna-
  • yuṣmadīya-, yauṣmāka-, yauṣmākīṇa-

tad and etad have tadīya- and etadīya- respectively.

The feminines are again in , except the -aka forms where it is -akī. These are all conjugated like regular a-, ā and ī-stem forms.[69][70]

Polite pronoun[edit]

Technically a noun, bhavant [ac] literally means 'Your Honour' and is treated like a third-person subject. It carries, however, a second person meaning and connotes politeness. This is declined very much like any vant-stem adjective.

This use of bhavant is common enough to suggest that the word should be treated as a polite variant of the second person pronoun, rather than as a more elaborate honorific construction. Bhavant declines like all stems ending in -ant.

In talking of someone not present, one may use tatrabhavant, and conversely for someone present, atrabhavant, whether being addressed or not.[71]

Enclitic pronouns[edit]

The enclitic pronoun enam is found only in a few oblique cases and numbers. It is unemphatic and mostly refers to persons.[72]

Singular Dual Plural
Masc. Neu. Fem. Masc. Neu. Fem. Masc. Neu. Fem.
Accusative enam enat enām enau ene enān enāni enāḥ
Instrumental enena
Genitive/locative enayos

The k-y-t series of interrogative, relative, and correlative pronouns[edit]

In Sanskrit, interrogative and relative pronouns are formed analogously to tat. The interrogative pronoun kim is declined like tat, replacing the initial t or s with k. The only exception to this rule is the neuter nominative/accusative singular form, which is kim rather than the expected *kat. The relative pronoun yat is declined like tat, without exception replacing the initial t or s with y.[73]

The demonstrative tat functions as a correlative pronoun when used in "independent clauses that 'complete' relative clauses to form complex sentences"—unlike in English (where one can say, for example, "The girl with whom you were speaking is my sister"), relative pronouns must be accompanied by correlative pronouns (which, if applied to the previous example, would be: "The girl with whom you are speaking, she is my sister").[74]

For a Sanskrit example of a complex sentence using corresponding relative and correlative pronouns, consider: yasmin vane vasati rāmas tasmin vane na vidyante rākṣasāḥ ('In the forest where Rāma lives, there are no demons'). In that example, the pronouns are alike in gender, number, and case, but matching relative–correlative pronouns need not be alike in case—for example: yena puruṣeṇa saha bhāṣate nṛpaḥ sa muniḥ ('The man with whom the king is speaking is a sage').[75]

Indefinite and absolute negative phrases[edit]

Aside from their primary uses, the interrogative and relative pronouns are also used to form indefinite phrases. The two ways of forming indefinite phrases are:

  • placing a relative pronoun before its corresponding interrogative pronoun, which in turn is followed by the particle api (for example: yat kim api, which means 'something or another'), and
  • placing one of api, cana, or cit after the interrogative pronoun (for example: kiṃcit, which means 'something').

As is evident in the examples, the first method of indicating indefiniteness is stronger, while the latter is more subtle and can simply be translated by an indefinite article in English. [76]

The absolute negative, semantically functioning as the negation of existential quantification, is formed by negating an indefinite phrase.[77]

Reflexive pronouns[edit]

There are a number of words in Sanskrit that function as reflexive pronouns. The indeclinable svayam can indicate reflexivity pertaining to subjects of any person or number, and—since subjects in Sanskrit can appear in the nominative, instrumental, or genitive cases—it can have the sense of any of these cases. The noun ātman ('self') and adjective svaḥ ('own'; cf. Latin suus) decline so as to express reflexivity in any case, person, and number. The former is always in the masculine, even when used in relation to a female subject, but the latter declines for gender.[78]

Pronominal adjectives[edit]

Several adjectives in Sanskrit are declined pronominally. That is, their declension differs from ordinary adjectival declension of a-stems and instead follows the declension of tat in certain respects.

  • anya ('other'), anyatara ('either'), itara ('other'), katara ('which of two?'), katama ('which of many?'), and ekatama ('one of many') all follow the tat paradigm exactly.
  • sarva ('every', 'all'), ubhaya ('both'), eka ('one'), and ekatara ('either') follow the tat paradigm except in the neuter nominative/accusative singular, ending in -m rather than -t.
  • pūrva ('prior', 'east'), avara ('posterior', 'west'), adhara ('inferior', 'west'), uttara ('subsequent', 'north'), dakṣiṇa ('south'), para ('subsequent', 'other', 'opposite'), apara ('other', 'inferior'), antara ('outer'), and sva ('own') follow the tat paradigm except (1) in the neuter nominative/accusative singular, ending in -am rather than -at; (2) in the masculine/neuter ablative and locative singular, sometimes (though not necessarily) ending in -āt and -e rather than -asmāt and -asmin; and (3) in the masculine nominative plural, sometimes (though not necessarily) ending in -āḥ rather than -e.
  • ardha ('half'), alpa ('little'), katipaya ('some'), prathama ('first'), carama ('last'), and dvaya/dvitaya ('twofold') generally follow the regular adjective declension for a-stems but sometimes (though not necessarily) follow tat in the masculine nominative plural, ending in -e rather than -āḥ.
  • dvitīya ('second') and tṛtīya ('third') optionally follow the declension of tat in the forms of the oblique cases in the singular.

Note that when any of these adjectives are at the end of a compound, they decline exactly like ordinary a-stem adjectives.[79]

Nominal derivation[edit]

Derivation or word-formation in Sanskrit can be divided into the following types:[80][81]

  1. Primary derivation – suffixes directly appended to roots[αα]
  2. Secondary derivation – suffixes appended to derivative stems[αβ]
  3. Word-compounding – combining one more word stems

Primary derivatives[edit]

The root usually undergoes some change of form first, typically to first-grade, or in some cases second-grade, strengthening. A final -n or -m may sometimes be lost, a short vowel may be first followed by a -t, a final palatal or h may revert to the corresponding guttural, and so on.[82][83]

a-suffix derivatives[edit]

A very large number of derivatives are formed under this category, with several semantic outcomes and with varying treatment of the root, including gradation, reduplication and no change.[84]

  1. With guṇa-grading, wherever possible
    • Action nouns
      • √grah- ⇒ gráha- [AU]
      • √i- ⇒ áya- [AV]
      • √vid- ⇒ véda- [AW]
      • √tṝ- ⇒ tára- [AX]
      • √sṛj- ⇒ sárga- [AY]
    • Agent nouns
      • √jīv- ⇒ jīvá- [AZ]
      • √sṛ- ⇒ sará- [BA]
      • √sṛp- ⇒ sarpá- [BB][a]
      • √kṣam- ⇒ kṣamá- [BC]
  2. With vṛddhi-grading, where the final outcome has an ā
    • Action nouns
      • √kam- ⇒ kā́ma- [BD]
      • √bhaj- ⇒ bhā́ga- [BE]
      • √tṝ- ⇒ tā́ra- [BF][ad]
    • Agent nouns
      • √gṛh- ⇒ grābhá- [BG][a]
      • √vah- ⇒ vāhá- [BH]
      • √ni- ⇒ nāyá- [BI]

ti-suffix derivatives[edit]

Another large class, mostly feminine action nouns, with some masculine agent nouns and adjectives. The root remains in zero-grade form, largely like past passive participles in -tá.[85]

  • √bhaj- ⇒ bhaktí- [BJ]
  • √stu- ⇒ stutí- [BK]
  • √pṝ- ⇒ pūrtí- [BL]
  • √gam- ⇒ gáti- [BM][a]
  • √man- ⇒ matí- [BN]
  • √dṛś- ⇒ dṛ́ṣṭi- [BO]
  • √vac- ⇒ úkti- [BP]
  • √vṛdh- ⇒ vṛ́ddhi- [BQ]

man-suffix derivatives[edit]

This is another productive category (PIE *-men), mostly of action-noun formations.[86]

tar-suffix derivatives[edit]

tṛ- or tar-suffix derivatives, mostly agent nouns (PIE *-tor, English -er).[87]

Several basic kinship nouns are classed under here.

tra-suffix derivatives[edit]

Typically nouns expressing the means of doing something.[88]

  • √pā- ⇒ pā́tra- [CG]
  • √man- ⇒ mántra- [CH]
  • √vas- ⇒ vástra- [CI]
  • √rāj- ⇒ rāṣṭrá- [CJ]

Secondary derivatives[edit]

This is used primarily to form words of adjectival meaning, and with the first vowel usually undergoing vṛddhi-grade strengthening.[89]

a-suffix derivatives[edit]

A very productive class, nouns or adjectives that denote a relationship. Patronymics are also derived in this manner.[90]

  • mánas- ⇒ mānasá- [CK][a]
  • bráhman- ⇒ brāhmaṇá- [CL]
  • Marút- ⇒ mā́ruta- [CM]
  • Mánus- ⇒ mā́nuṣa- [CN][a]

ya-suffix derivatives[edit]

Another very productive class. Closely related are -iya- and -īya- formations.[91]

-iya- is used after a consonant cluster:[92]

  • kṣatrá- ⇒ kṣatríya- [CT]
  • yajñá- ⇒ yajñíya- [CU]
  • índra- ⇒ indriyá- [CV]
  • kṣétra- ⇒ kṣetriyá- [CW]

tā and tva-suffix derivatives[edit]

These suffixes denote the quality of being, analogous to '-ness' and '-hood' in English. Cf Lat -tas (-ty), Slavic *-ьstvo. Coupled with the prefix a- 'un-', the sense of '-lessness' is derived.[93]

Compounds[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af also cognate
  2. ^ 'actors'
  3. ^ 'agent'
  4. ^ 'deed'/'object'
  5. ^ 'instrument'
  6. ^ 'bestowal'
  7. ^ lit. 'take off'
  8. ^ 'location'
  9. ^ cognate with Latin 'deus'; 'deity' & 'divine'
  10. ^ a b c d e f g accent shift away from ending
  11. ^ a b c d the historical form resurfaces in certain environments, e.g., dev·āṅs·ca, seemingly, and misleadingly, as if it were a sandhi rule[25]
  12. ^ cognate with Latin igni-ignition
  13. ^ a b fem either form
  14. ^ a common feature for i-, u- and ṛ-stem neuters
  15. ^ In the neuter
  16. ^ most kinship nouns take the guṇa form, while agental nouns always take the vṛddhi form
  17. ^ cognate with Lat. socius ⇒ 'social, society', etc.
  18. ^ s-dropping ī-stem only
  19. ^ short end vowel
  20. ^ compare cognates in Slavic *ràjь , Russian рай – 'paradise, heaven', Latin rēs, 'thing'
  21. ^ compare Slavic bogъ, bogatъ., 'god', 'wealthy'
  22. ^ cognate with Lat. magno-, Gk. mega-
  23. ^ cognate with Lat. gravis
  24. ^ The series has been carried to great lengths, particularly among the Jains and Buddhists – Burrow
  25. ^ cited in their theoretical form
  26. ^ This phonological irregularity does not carry over to pronouns analogous to tat such as etat, kim, and yat.
  27. ^ as a result of a general sandhi rule requiring the retroflexion of s in certain environments,[62][63]
  28. ^ both of these also form proximal pro-adverbs, for example, atra and iha both mean "here", and atas and itas both mean "in this way"[65]
  29. ^ probably deriving from bhagavant
  30. ^ cf avatāra-
  31. ^ cf Russian времен- vremen-
  32. ^ cf Latin nōmen
  33. ^ cf Russian ка́мень kaḿen
  34. ^ cf Lat. dator
  35. ^ lit. and cognate with im·pecu·nity

Glossary[edit]

  1. ^ a god
  2. ^ love
  3. ^ yoke
  4. ^ a fruit
  5. ^ fire
  6. ^ gait
  7. ^ water
  8. ^ enemy
  9. ^ cow
  10. ^ honey, mead
  11. ^ many
  12. ^ pure
  13. ^ giver, donor
  14. ^ father
  15. ^ mother
  16. ^ sister
  17. ^ lit. putter, placer
  18. ^ friend
  19. ^ army
  20. ^ girl
  21. ^ godess
  22. ^ bride, wed(ded)
  23. ^ wealth
  24. ^ cow
  25. ^ the moon
  26. ^ wind, wind-god
  27. ^ three-fold
  28. ^ mind
  29. ^ pouring, oblation
  30. ^ king
  31. ^ self
  32. ^ name
  33. ^ strong
  34. ^ connected with, possessed of, accompanied by
  35. ^ being
  36. ^ eating
  37. ^ pouring, sacrificing
  38. ^ cattle-having, 'pecunious'
  39. ^ god, wealthy
  40. ^ knowing, knowledgeable
  41. ^ having been
  42. ^ great, mega-
  43. ^ stable
  44. ^ heavy
  45. ^ long
  46. ^ that elephant
  47. ^ seize ⇒ seizure
  48. ^ go ⇒ movement
  49. ^ know ⇒ knowledge
  50. ^ cross ⇒ a crossing
  51. ^ emit ⇒ emission
  52. ^ live ⇒ living
  53. ^ flow ⇒ brook
  54. ^ creep ⇒ serpent
  55. ^ endure ⇒ patient
  56. ^ wish ⇒ love
  57. ^ deal/divide ⇒ share
  58. ^ cross ⇒ a crossing
  59. ^ take ⇒ a grab
  60. ^ carry ⇒ carrying
  61. ^ lead ⇒ leading
  62. ^ divide ⇒ division
  63. ^ praise ⇒ a praise
  64. ^ fill ⇒ fulfilment
  65. ^ go ⇒ gait
  66. ^ think ⇒ a thought
  67. ^ see ⇒ sight
  68. ^ speak ⇒ speech/utterance
  69. ^ grow ⇒ growth
  70. ^ do ⇒ deed
  71. ^ hold ⇒ rule
  72. ^ turn ⇒ track
  73. ^ name
  74. ^ worship
  75. ^ worshiper
  76. ^ stone
  77. ^ do ⇒ doer
  78. ^ give ⇒ giver
  79. ^ go ⇒ goer
  80. ^ offer ⇒ sacrificer
  81. ^ protect ⇒ father
  82. ^ mother
  83. ^ brother
  84. ^ milk, suckle ⇒ daughter
  85. ^ drink ⇒ cup
  86. ^ think ⇒ thought
  87. ^ clothe ⇒ clothing
  88. ^ rule ⇒ reign, kingdom
  89. ^ mind ⇒ mental
  90. ^ worship ⇒ priest
  91. ^ Maruts, wind-gods ⇒ of the wind-gods
  92. ^ Manu(s), man ⇒ descendant of Manu
  93. ^ a god ⇒ divine
  94. ^ world ⇒ worldly
  95. ^ male ⇒ manly
  96. ^ cow ⇒ bovine
  97. ^ is, essence ⇒ truth
  98. ^ might ⇒ mighty
  99. ^ offering, worship ⇒ reverend
  100. ^ Indra ⇒ Indran
  101. ^ field ⇒ of the field
  102. ^ deity, divinity
  103. ^ nudity
  104. ^ poverty in cattle, lit. cowlessness
  105. ^ cattlelessness
  106. ^ immortality
  107. ^ brotherhood, fraternity
  108. ^ enmity

Traditional glossary and notes[edit]

  1. ^ called sup or sub·anta by Pāṇini
  2. ^ vacana
  3. ^ eka·vacana
  4. ^ dvi·vacana
  5. ^ bahu·vacana
  6. ^ liṅga
  7. ^ puṃ·liṅga
  8. ^ strī·liṅga
  9. ^ napuṃsaka·liṅga
  10. ^ vibhakti
  11. ^ prātipadika – when any declinable has not yet been declined
  12. ^ "su·au·jas am·auṭ·śas ṭā·bʰyām·bʰis ṅe·bʰyām·bʰyas ṅasi·bʰyām·bʰyas ṅas·os·ām ṅi·os·sup" – Pāṇini IV 1.2. [14]
  13. ^ "iko'ci vibʰaktau" – Pāṇini VII 1.73
  14. ^ "nṛ ca" – Pāṇini VI 4.6
  15. ^ aṅga
  16. ^ pada
  17. ^ bha
  18. ^ 'saṃprasāraṇam'
  19. ^ sarva·nāman
  20. ^ vibhakti
  21. ^ vacana
  22. ^ liṅga
  23. ^ uttama·puruṣa
  24. ^ madhyama·puruṣa
  25. ^ kṛt
  26. ^ taddhita

References[edit]

  1. ^ Burrow, §4.1.
  2. ^ Fortson, §10.46.
  3. ^ Burrow, §5.2.
  4. ^ Bucknell, p. 11.
  5. ^ Bucknell, p. 12-16.
  6. ^ Whitney, §261–266.
  7. ^ Burrow, §4.2
  8. ^ Fortson, §6.43.
  9. ^ Burrow, §4.3
  10. ^ Fortson, §6.
  11. ^ "CSI: Man3". Chass.utoronto.ca. Retrieved 2008-11-06.
  12. ^ Scharfe, Hartmut (1977). Grammatical literature. History of Indian literature. Wiesbaden: O. Harrassowitz. p. 94. ISBN 978-3447017060.
  13. ^ S.C. Vasu, The Astadhyayi of Pāṇini
  14. ^ Kale, §56
  15. ^ MacDonell, III.71, p. 33.
  16. ^ Whitney, §164–179.
  17. ^ Whitney, §321–322.
  18. ^ Fortson, §10.46.
  19. ^ Burrow, §4.3–4.4.
  20. ^ Whitney, §326–331.
  21. ^ Bucknell, p. 19-22.
  22. ^ MM-W, p. 271, 492, 716,846.
  23. ^ Burrow, §4.3–4.4.
  24. ^ Whitney, §332.
  25. ^ Whitney, §208–209.
  26. ^ Whitney, §335–339.
  27. ^ Bucknell, p. 19-23.
  28. ^ Whitney, §335–342.
  29. ^ Bucknell, p. 19-24.
  30. ^ Whitney, §344.
  31. ^ Whitney, §369–373
  32. ^ Whitney, §343.
  33. ^ Whitney, §347, §362.
  34. ^ Whitney, §362–364.
  35. ^ Burrow, §5.8.
  36. ^ Whitney, §362–364.
  37. ^ Burrow, §5.8.
  38. ^ Whitney, §362.
  39. ^ Kale, §85–86.
  40. ^ Whitney, §377–434.
  41. ^ Burrow, §5.
  42. ^ Whitney, §420–440.
  43. ^ Whitney, §443–447.
  44. ^ Whitney, §452–453.
  45. ^ Whitney, §458–461.
  46. ^ Bucknell, p. 22.
  47. ^ Whitney, ch. 5.
  48. ^ Burrow, ch.6.1.
  49. ^ Coulson, p. 178.
  50. ^ Bucknell, p. 106.
  51. ^ Burrow, p. 262.
  52. ^ Coulson, p. 178.
  53. ^ Whitney, §490.
  54. ^ Bucknell, p. 11.
  55. ^ Bucknell, p. 32.
  56. ^ Kale, §132.
  57. ^ Goldman & Goldman, §4.46, pp. 71 – 3.
  58. ^ Whitney, §491.
  59. ^ Whitney, §494.
  60. ^ Coulson, pp. 62–3, 76–7.
  61. ^ Coulson, p. 46
  62. ^ Coulson, pp. 65 – 6.
  63. ^ Goldman & Goldman, §3.58, p. 43.
  64. ^ Coulson, pp. 62 – 3.
  65. ^ Coulson, p. 76.
  66. ^ Whitney, §495–503.
  67. ^ Kale, §135.
  68. ^ Bucknell, tb 13–14.
  69. ^ Whitney, §515
  70. ^ Kale, §146.
  71. ^ Coulson, ch. 9, pp. 116 – 7.
  72. ^ Coulson, p. 151.
  73. ^ Goldman & Goldman, §6.14, p. 103.
  74. ^ Goldman & Goldman, §6.3, pp. 97 – 8.
  75. ^ Goldman & Goldman, §6.15, pp. 103 – 4.
  76. ^ Goldman & Goldman, §§6.17 – 6.19, p. 105.
  77. ^ Goldman & Goldman, §6.20, p. 105.
  78. ^ MacDonell, III.115, p. 79
  79. ^ MacDonell, III.120, pp. 81 – 2.
  80. ^ Whitney, §1138.
  81. ^ Kale, §179, 337.
  82. ^ Whitney, §1143.
  83. ^ Bucknell, pp. 152–206.
  84. ^ Whitney, §1148.
  85. ^ Whitney, §1157.
  86. ^ Whitney, §1168.
  87. ^ Whitney, §1182.
  88. ^ Whitney, §1185.
  89. ^ Whitney, §1202.
  90. ^ Whitney, §1208.
  91. ^ Whitney, §1211.
  92. ^ Whitney, §1214.
  93. ^ Whitney, §1237–1239.

Bibliography[edit]