Santa, Ilocos Sur
|Municipality of Santa|
"Gateway to the Cordilleras"
Paspas Santa! (Faster Santa!)
|Anthem: Santa March|
Map of Ilocos Sur with Santa highlighted
|Region||Ilocos Region (Region I)|
|Barangays||26 (see Barangays)|
|• Type||Municipalities of the Philippines|
|• Mayor||Jesus Bello Bueno, Jr.|
|• Vice Mayor||Jeremy Jesus De Peralta Bueno II|
|• Electorate||9,523 voters (2016)|
|• Total||109.10 km2 (42.12 sq mi)|
|• Density||140/km2 (360/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (PST)|
|IDD : area code||+63 (0)77|
|Climate type||Tropical monsoon climate|
|Income class||4th municipal income class|
|Revenue (₱)||97,766,228.98 (2016)|
Due to Santa's natural setting (the ridge of Mount Tetas de Santa in the east; the winding Abra River and delta in the north and NW of Santa; and the South China Sea to the west), then Governor-General of the Philippines Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. on his visit in 1925 exclaimed: “The mountain in the east, the winding roping river in the north, and the immense sea in the west make Santa a poetic town.”
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Geography
- 3 History
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Places of interest
- 6 References
- 7 External links
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These are the probable origins of the municipality's name.
- A popular lore tells us that when the scribe of the Spanish explorers was naming the places where they already established settlements, the scribe had a difficult time of thinking of a Catholic Saint's name of saints to name the place (Santa Catalina, Santa Lucia, and Santa Maria were already taken), so the town was simply named "Santa." (Some versions of the story say that the scribe fell asleep or was drunk when he was writing a name for the town and just wrote "Santa".)
- The municipality of Santa was formerly called Santa Catalina de Alejandría, Virgen y Mártir, after the town's patron saint Saint Catherine of Alexandria. According to folk stories, after the devastation of the town by the first flood in 1852 (Layos Bungsot), the name was shortened to Santa Catalina de Alejandría. The present name of Santa came to be, after the second flood of 1905 (Layos Nawnaw). It was believed that by changing the name after the disasters would save the town from further devastation.
The municipality of Santa is triangular shape. Its northern border, forming the baseline of the triangular land and running in the east-west direction, follow the ever-changing course of the Abra River from the Banaoang Gap in the north-east corner of the town to the sea for about 18 kilometres (11 mi). Some islands of the river delta are settled by the people of Santa. The largest island, Brgy. Rancho, is connected by a bridge to the main town. Another island occupied by Brgys. Dammay and Oribi is only accessible by boat.
Santa is 386 kilometres (240 mi) north of Manila and 21 kilometres (13 mi) south of Vigan, the capital of the province. It can be reached by bus, jeepney and other motorized means of transport by way of the National Highway.
Santa has an area of 109.1 square kilometres (42.1 sq mi), which is distributed in twenty-six (26) barangays and constitutes almost 4.2% of the entire area of the province of Ilocos Sur. 
The topography of the municipality is undulating to rolling with slope ranging from 0-30%.
- Labut Norte
- Labut Sur
- Mabilbila Norte
- Mabilbila Sur
- Magsaysay District (Poblacion)
- Marcos (Poblacion)
- Quezon (Poblacion)
- Quirino (Poblacion)
- Sacuyya Norte
- Sacuyya Sur
Soil and vegetation
There are three types of soil in Santa, namely: clay loam which is used for crop production, clay on the eastern part of the town and sandy loam on the western part. Although Santa has fair type of soil, vegetative cover is good for rice, corn, vegetables and fruit-bearing trees.
Major mineral resources of the municipality are salt from the coast, and gravel and sand washed down the river banks of Abra River. Gravel and sand are gathered along the river bank and sold for construction. Salt-making is found along the coastal barangays of Santa with some of the residents engaged in the industry as their means of livelihood.
The type of climate in Santa is generally the same as the climate of all coastal towns of Ilocos Sur. There are two seasons in the region, wet and dry season. The dry season commences in the month of February and ends in the month of June while the wet season is during the rest of the year.
The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) data for the municipality gives the annual average temperature at 29 °C (84 °F). April and May were recorded as the hottest months with a temperature from 29 to 31 °C (84 to 88 °F) respectively while the coldest months are January and February with a temperature ranging from 24 to 21 °C (75 to 70 °F).
During the rainy season, Santa experience more or less 20 typhoons a year. Rainfall record of Santa is the same as the records of other municipalities of Ilocos Sur. Average monthly average during the wet season is estimated at 213 millimetres (8.4 in).
Natural and man-made risk areas
Because of its location, Santa has been plagued by disasters and calamities since the Spanish Colonial Period (See Destructive flooding below). During heavy rains, large amount of water coming down from the Central Cordillera Mountains flows down to the sea through the Abra River, the sixth largest river system in the Philippines, devastating Santa which traverses the western part of the municipality. Flood prone areas in the western part of the town include Barangays Pasungol, Tabucolan, Calungboyan, Casiber, Rancho, Oribi and Dammay. Even places located at the foot of the mountain are also prone to flash floods because of the denuded mountain east of the town. During the typhoon of June 5, 1999, the storm surge devastated Santa destroying residences along the coastal barangays.
Foundation of the pueblo
According to Augustinian maps of 1831 and 1834, Santa was founded in 1576. The Augustinian established missionary centers in the towns of Vigan in 1575 and Santa in 1576. On the founding of Bantay in 1591 as a pueblo, Santa was made its “visita” until 1713 when it became an independent vicariate. The prestige of the town was boosted in 1802 when the provisional diocese was established and was housed in the rectory of Santa until 1834.
The “Malong Revolt” disturbed the quiet life of the town in 1660-1661 when Andres Malong of Binalatongan (now San Carlos City in Pangasinan province) rose in arms to protest the abuses in the collection of tribute and in the conscription of men for “palo y servicios” (forced labor). Malong proclaimed himself “King of Pangasinan” and tried to extend his kingdom by sending his Count Pedro Gumapos to Ilocos.
Gumapos pursued the retreating Spaniards who sought refuge in Agoo in present-day La Union. The Spaniards and the loyalists made their last stand in Pideg, Santa. Pedro de la Peña, who was defending Pideg Pass, sheltered the great number of the rebels who camped in nearby Narvacan and offered them free passage across Pideg Pass.
Diego Silang revolt
On December 14, 1762, Diego Silang led the “caillianes” (common man or townsfolk) in the most obstinate insurrection against the Spaniards in the 18th century. He crystallized the discontent of the “caillianes” caused by the imposition of tribute and forced labor. He proclaimed a “Free Ilocos” and made Vigan its capital.
When the Spaniards failed to stop Diego Silang in combat, Miguel Vicos aided by Pedro Becbec who were both Silang's trusted friends, betrayed Diego Silang by shooting him in the back on May 26, 1763. Gabriela, the wife of Diego with the help of her uncle, Nicolas Cariño, continued her husband's fight and defeated the Spaniards and their soldiers in the battle of Banaoang, Santa on August 24, 1763.
A destructive flood called “Layos Bungsot” (literal: "Flood of Rotting") of 1852 eroded the first poblacion founded in 1576 and caused the town center to be transferred to a new site, which is about 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) south of the first site. Fr. Pedro Torrices started the new church in 1849-1855 and Fr. Luis Lagar finished it in 1875.
In 1905, another destructive flood, “Layos Nawnaw” (literal: "Dissolving Flood") motivated the people to transfer the poblacion to Pasungol in the southern part of the town in 1907. Don Domingo Bueno y Ramirez, the presidente municipal (town mayor), transferred the government, and the new poblacion was laid out. Circumferential roads were laid out in the shape of a spider web with the town plaza in the middle. A hermita made of bamboo and cogon grass was put up, and a one-storey primary school building was constructed.
American colonial period
The guerrilla activities of Gen. Manuel Tinio dominated the Philippine-American War in Ilocos. The civil government of Ilocos Sur began to function in 1889 with Don Mena Crisologo, the former Ilocos Sur delegate to the Malolos Congress, as the first Civil Governor.
World War II and thereafter
On December 19, 1941, the Imperial Japanese Army landed in Santa. The people fled to the mountains where they suffered from privations, hunger and diseases. The Japanese soldiers held a garrison at the south of Quirino Bridge and massacred 70 civilians in Barrio Rizal on January 26, 1945.
In 1945, local Filipino forces under the Philippine Commonwealth Army 1st and 12th Infantry Division, Philippine Constabulary 1st Constabulary Regiment and the USAFIP-NL 121st Infantry Regiment liberate the town of Santa and they defeats and fought against the Japanese Imperial forces and ended World War II. On the resumption of the Commonwealth Government after the war, Pres. Sergio Osmeña appointed Sixto Brillantes after being elected as assemblyman of the second district of Ilocos Sur.
|Population census of Santa|
|Source: Philippine Statistics Authority|
In the 2015 census, the population of Santa, Ilocos Sur, was 15,340 people, with a density of 140 inhabitants per square kilometre or 360 inhabitants per square mile.
Places of interest
The Banaoang Gap is a water gap about 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) long formed by the Abra River by cutting three consecutive tall mountain ridges in the Ilocos Range. It separates Santa and Bantay towns and stretches to San Quintin, Abra. The gap is spanned by the old and new Quirino Bridges connecting the two towns. A viewing deck is located in Brgy. Banaoang in Santa offering dramatic view of the bridge and the broad Abra River backdropped by Mount Tetas de Santa, Mount Binitalo and the other mountains in the Ilocos Range.
Northern Luzon Heroes Hill National Park
Located southeast of Santa and partly in Narvacan, Ilocos Sur, the Northern Heroes Hill National Park was established on July 9, 1963 by Proclamation No. 132 encompassing 1,316 hectares (3,250 acres) of beautiful mountain scenery.
Gabriela Silang Memorial Park
Located west of the national park along the National Highway is the Old Pideg Pass, the historic gateway to Santa, renamed Diego-Gabriela Silang Pass in 1976. The Gabriela Silang Memorial Park was erected here dedicated to Gabriela who was born in the old barrio of Caniogan in Santa on March 19, 1731 and is regarded as the first heroine of Ilocos.
- "Municipality". Quezon City, Philippines: Department of the Interior and Local Government. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- "Province: Ilocos Sur". PSGC Interactive. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
- Census of Population (2015). "Region I (Ilocos Region)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
- "Mount Tetas de Santa". Google Maps. Retrieved on 2012-03-26.
- "Profile of Santa". Paspas Santa! Official Website of Santa. Retrieved on 2012-03-26.
- "Santa, Ilocos Sur". Google Maps. Retrieved on 2012-03-26.
- (1990). "Ilocos Sur". National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved on 2012-03-26.
- "History". Official Website of Santa. Retrieved on 2012-03-26.
- "Gabriela Silang". National Historical Commission of the Philippines. Retrieved on 2012-04-05.
- Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Region I (Ilocos Region)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- Censuses of Population (1903–2007). "Region I (Ilocos Region)". Table 1. Population Enumerated in Various Censuses by Province/Highly Urbanized City: 1903 to 2007. NSO.
- "Province of Ilocos Sur". Municipality Population Data. Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
- "Mount Binitalo". Google Maps. Retrieved on 2012-04-05.
- "Banaong View Deck". Google Maps. Retrieved on 2012-04-04.
- "Northern Luzon Heroes Hill National Park". Google Maps. Retrieved on 2012-04-05.
- "Protected Areas in Region 1" Archived 2012-03-21 at the Wayback Machine. Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau. Retrieved on 2012-04-05.
- Teenee (2011-06-08). A historical marker. "Pasong Diego-Gabriela Silang (Santa, Ilocos Sur)". Visit Pilipinas. Retrieved on 2012-04-05.