Jump to content

Santa Cruz County, California

Coordinates: 37°02′N 122°01′W / 37.03°N 122.01°W / 37.03; -122.01
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Santa Cruz County, California
County of Santa Cruz
Images, from top down, left to right: The Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk in 2005, a walkway through redwood groves in Big Basin Redwoods State Park, the Roaring Camp and Big Trees Narrow Gauge Railroad in 2008, Downtown Watsonville in 2010, Davenport Beach in 2006
Flag of Santa Cruz County, California
Official seal of Santa Cruz County, California
Interactive map of Santa Cruz County
Location in the state of California
Location in the state of California
Coordinates: 37°02′N 122°01′W / 37.03°N 122.01°W / 37.03; -122.01
CountryUnited States
RegionCentral Coast
CSASan Jose-San Francisco-Oakland
IncorporatedFebruary 18, 1850[1]
Named forMission Santa Cruz and the city of Santa Cruz, both named after the Exaltation of the Cross
County seatSanta Cruz
Largest citySanta Cruz
 • TypeCouncil–CAO
 • BodyBoard of Supervisors
 • ChairZach Friend
 • Vice ChairJustin Cummings
 • Board of Supervisors[2]
  • Manu Koenig
  • Zach Friend
  • Justin Cummings
  • Felipe Hernandez
  • Bruce McPherson
 • County Administrative OfficerCarlos J. Palacios
 • Total607 sq mi (1,570 km2)
 • Land445 sq mi (1,150 km2)
 • Water162 sq mi (420 km2)
Highest elevation3,234 ft (986 m)
 • Total270,861
 • Density609/sq mi (235/km2)
Time zoneUTC−8 (Pacific Time Zone)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−7 (Pacific Daylight Time)
Area code831
FIPS code06-087
GNIS feature ID277308
Congressional districts18th, 19th

Santa Cruz County (/ˌsæntə ˈkrz/ ), officially the County of Santa Cruz, is a county on the Pacific coast of the U.S. state of California. As of the 2020 census, the population was 270,861.[4] The county seat is Santa Cruz.[5] Santa Cruz County comprises the Santa Cruz–Watsonville, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is also included in the San JoseSan FranciscoOakland, CA Combined Statistical Area. The county is on the California Central Coast,[6] south of the San Francisco Bay Area region. The county forms the northern coast of the Monterey Bay, with Monterey County forming the southern coast.


Santa Cruz County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. In the original act, the county was given the name of "Branciforte" after the Spanish pueblo founded there in 1797. A major watercourse in the county, Branciforte Creek, still bears this name. Less than two months later, on April 5, 1850,[7] the name was changed to "Santa Cruz" ("Holy Cross").

Mission Santa Cruz, established in 1791 and completed in 1794, was destroyed by the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake, but a smaller-scale replica was erected in 1931.


According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 607 square miles (1,570 km2), of which 445 square miles (1,150 km2) is land and 162 square miles (420 km2) (27%) is water.[8] It is the second-smallest county in California by land area and third-smallest by total area. Of California's counties, only San Francisco is smaller by land area.

The county is situated on a wide coastline with over 29 miles (47 km) of beaches.[9] It is a strip about 10 miles (16 km) wide between the coast and the crest of the Santa Cruz Mountains at the northern end of the Monterey Bay. It can be divided roughly into four regions: the rugged "north coast"; the urban City of Santa Cruz, Soquel, Capitola, and Aptos; mountainous Bonny Doon, San Lorenzo River Valley; and the fertile "south county", including Watsonville and Corralitos. Agriculture is concentrated in the coastal lowlands of the county's northern and southern ends. Most of the north coastal land comprises relatively flat terraces that end at steep cliffs like those shown in the photo below.

Santa Cruz County north coast

Flora and fauna[edit]

Santa Cruz County is home to the following threatened or endangered species:[10]

Historically, tule elk (Cervus canadensis nannodes) were native to the coastal grasslands of Santa Cruz County. Elk, sometimes confused with bison, were initially described by Miguel Costansó in his diary of the 1769 Portola Expedition near the mouth of the Pajaro River both on the way north on October 6, and on the way south on November 25.[24] Later, elk were also described by nineteenth century American hunters.[25] They were also described in Santa Cruz County by Jlli tribelet Awaswas Ohlone people, who utilized elk along with pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) and lived on the Jarro Coast (El Jarro Point is north of Davenport, California).[26][27] Additionally, there is a "Cañada del Ciervo" (ciervo is Spanish for elk) close to the boundary between Rancho de los Corralitos and Rancho San Andrés, near the present-day Larkin Valley Road. This "Elk Valley" place name was given by José Antonio Robles who rode down, roped, and killed elk there in 1831.[28][29] Lastly, elk remains dating from the Middle and Late Periods in Northern California were found in at least four late Holocene archeological sites in Santa Cruz County, all coastal: SCR-9 (Bonny Doon site) and SCR-20 (Brown site) on the western slope of Ben Lomond Mountain, SCR-93 (Sunflower site) a coastal terrace on the north shore of the San Lorenzo River in Santa Cruz, and SCR-132 (Scott Creek site) 4 miles inland.[30]

Pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) remains were found at the SCR-20 (Brown site) on the western slope of Ben Lomond Mountain dating to about 1500 A.D.[30]

Año Nuevo State Marine Conservation Area, Greyhound Rock State Marine Conservation Area and Natural Bridges State Marine Reserve are marine protected areas off the coast of Santa Cruz County. Like underwater parks, these marine protected areas help conserve ocean wildlife and marine ecosystems.

Adjacent counties[edit]

Counties and bodies of water adjacent to Santa Cruz County, California

Santa Cruz County borders four other counties: San Mateo to the northwest, Santa Clara to the north and east, Monterey to the south, and San Benito with a small border to the south.


Historical population
2023 (est.)261,547[31]−3.4%
U.S. Decennial Census[32]
1790–1960[33] 1900–1990[34]
1990–2000[35] 2010[36] 2020[37]

2020 census[edit]

Santa Cruz County, California - Demographic Profile
(NH = Non-Hispanic)
Race / Ethnicity Pop 2010[36] Pop 2020[37] % 2010 % 2020
White alone (NH) 156,397 145,551 59.61% 53.74%
Black or African American alone (NH) 2,304 2,850 0.88% 1.05%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH) 978 853 0.37% 0.31%
Asian alone (NH) 10,658 12,072 4.06% 4.46%
Pacific Islander alone (NH) 292 277 0.11% 0.10%
Some Other Race alone (NH) 612 1,649 0.23% 0.61%
Mixed Race/Multi-Racial (NH) 7,049 13,310 2.69% 4.91%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 84,092 94,299 32.05% 34.81%
Total 262,832 270,861 100.00% 100.00%

Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.


2010 Census[edit]

The county of Santa Cruz has experienced demographic fluctuations in recent history. Between 1990 and 2000, the population increased by 11.3%. This is primarily because of new births, rather than immigration or migration.[45]

The 2010 United States Census reported Santa Cruz County had a population of 262,382. The racial makeup of Santa Cruz County was 190,208 (72.5%) White, 2,766 (1.1%) African American, 2,253 (0.9%) Native American, 11,112 (4.2%) Asian, 349 (0.1%) Pacific Islander, 43,376 (16.5%) from other races, and 12,318 (4.7%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 84,092 persons (32.0%).[46]


As of the census[47] of 2000, there were 255,602 people, 91,139 households, and 57,144 families residing in the county. The population density was 574 people per square mile (222 people/km2). There were 98,873 housing units at an average density of 222 units per square mile (86 units/km2).

There were 91,139 households, out of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.0% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.3% were non-families. 25.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.25.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 23.8% under the age of 18, 11.9% from 18 to 24, 30.8% from 25 to 44, 23.5% from 45 to 64, and 10.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 99.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.8 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $53,998, and the median income for a family was $61,941. Males had a median income of $46,291 versus $33,514 for females. The per capita income for the county was $26,396. About 6.7% of families and 11.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.50% of those under age 18 and 6.30% of those age 65 or over.

Santa Cruz County residents tend to be well-educated. 38.3% of residents age 25 and older hold a bachelor's degree at least, significantly higher than the national average of 27.2% and the state average of 29.5%.[48][49]


Santa Cruz County was a Republican stronghold for most of the 19th and 20th centuries; from 1860 through 1980 the only Democrats to carry Santa Cruz were Woodrow Wilson in 1916, Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932 and 1936, Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964, and Jimmy Carter in 1976.[50] However, the opening of UCSC in 1965 caused the county's political landscape to dramatically change.

Today, it is a strongly Democratic county in presidential and congressional elections. The last Republican to carry the county was Ronald Reagan in 1980, and the last Republican to win a majority in the county was Richard Nixon in 1968.

United States presidential election results for Santa Cruz County, California[51]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 26,937 18.49% 114,246 78.44% 4,466 3.07%
2016 22,438 17.26% 95,249 73.26% 12,325 9.48%
2012 24,047 19.98% 90,805 75.43% 5,533 4.60%
2008 25,244 19.76% 98,745 77.30% 3,747 2.93%
2004 30,354 24.86% 89,102 72.98% 2,628 2.15%
2000 29,627 27.34% 66,618 61.48% 12,105 11.17%
1996 27,766 26.94% 58,250 56.52% 17,046 16.54%
1992 24,916 21.86% 66,183 58.06% 22,893 20.08%
1988 37,728 36.77% 63,133 61.53% 1,750 1.71%
1984 41,652 45.20% 49,091 53.27% 1,404 1.52%
1980 37,347 43.53% 32,346 37.70% 16,111 18.78%
1976 31,872 43.09% 37,772 51.06% 4,325 5.85%
1972 34,799 49.88% 32,336 46.35% 2,624 3.76%
1968 25,365 50.79% 20,492 41.03% 4,087 8.18%
1964 18,836 41.27% 26,714 58.53% 94 0.21%
1960 24,858 59.61% 16,659 39.95% 187 0.45%
1956 22,109 63.58% 12,574 36.16% 93 0.27%
1952 24,353 67.13% 11,536 31.80% 391 1.08%
1948 15,395 57.68% 9,862 36.95% 1,433 5.37%
1944 11,102 53.80% 9,357 45.34% 178 0.86%
1940 11,453 50.93% 10,683 47.51% 350 1.56%
1936 8,260 46.12% 9,326 52.08% 322 1.80%
1932 6,005 40.06% 8,246 55.01% 739 4.93%
1928 8,275 68.53% 3,688 30.54% 112 0.93%
1924 5,402 60.84% 801 9.02% 2,676 30.14%
1920 5,285 66.28% 1,957 24.54% 732 9.18%
1916 4,228 44.76% 4,511 47.76% 707 7.48%
1912 3 0.04% 2,875 40.20% 4,274 59.76%
1908 2,886 54.71% 1,643 31.15% 746 14.14%
1904 2,626 60.66% 1,105 25.53% 598 13.81%
1900 2,173 53.19% 1,635 40.02% 277 6.78%
1896 1,969 48.24% 1,960 48.02% 153 3.75%
1892 1,843 44.82% 1,512 36.77% 757 18.41%
1888 1,996 50.66% 1,750 44.42% 194 4.92%
1884 1,667 53.69% 1,365 43.96% 73 2.35%
1880 1,236 50.43% 1,102 44.96% 113 4.61%

The last Republican to represent a significant portion of Santa Cruz in Congress was Burt L. Talcott, who was defeated in 1976 by Leon Panetta.[52] Santa Cruz County is split between California's 18th and 19th congressional districts, represented by Zoe Lofgren (DSan Jose) and Jimmy Panetta (DCarmel Valley), respectively.[53]

In the State Assembly, Santa Cruz County is split between the 29th and 30th Assembly districts, represented by Democrat Robert Rivas and Democrat Dawn Addis, respectively. In the State Senate, Santa Cruz County is entirely within the 17th Senate District, represented by Democrat John Laird.

Voter registration[edit]

Cities by population and voter registration[edit]


The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense:

Cities by population and crime rates[edit]


In the 19th century, Santa Cruz's economy was based on milling lumber, making lime cement from limestone, and tanning leather. By the mid 19th century, Santa Cruz was the second largest manufacturing area in the state. As natural resources depleted, tourism became the more important economic sector in the area.[58]

In 1989, Santa Cruz was named as a surplus labor area by the U.S. Department of Labor.[59] A surplus labor area has an unemployment rate 20% higher than national unemployment. As of 2024, Watsonville city was still on this list.[60]

10% of jobs in Santa Cruz County are food producing/processing jobs. These employees make less than an average of $10 an hour.[45]

As of 2003, 21% of residents work outside of Santa Cruz County. This is down form the 28% outside employment rate of 1989.[45]

The agriculture businesses are significant enough to be prominent in local politics, where they influence issues of water, pesticide use, and labor.[45]

There are mandated living wages for Santa Cruz county, and individually in the cities of Watsonville and Santa Cruz. These occurred after The Santa Cruz Living Wage Coalition campaigned to set up ordinances.[45]

The low wage sector of Santa Cruz experiences workplace abuse. Data from 2015 show that in the county, 38% of Agricultural workers have experienced overtime pay violation, 14% of tipped workers reported tips stolen by their employers, and 50% of service sector workers reported violations on receiving breaks. It is California law for employers to make written workplace policies available. However, in a county wide survey, 30% of workers reported that they did not receive an employee handbook.[61]

Service sector laborers have a resource for navigating labor law through the Economic Justice Alliance of Santa Cruz County, a local organization that educates community members on issues of "sustainable wages and working conditions."[62]

Housing market[edit]

In 2002, the National Association of Realtors reported that Santa Cruz was the most unaffordable place to live in the United States.[45] This statement remains true with 2017 data that shows that Santa Cruz is the least affordable county for renters.[63]

In Santa Cruz County, 60% of residents rent and a median monthly rent is $3000. UCSC's No Place Like Home Project reports that in Santa Cruz County, 2.5 minimum wage jobs would be needed to afford renting a 2 bedroom apartment. UCSC's "No Place Like Home" project identifies four main rental markets: agricultural workers, UCSC students, Silicon Valley tech workers, and short term vacation rentals. Short term rentals in particular have been a rising concern to local politicians, who have proposed parking restrictions to discourage short term renters.[64]

Rent control has been attempted as a policy in Santa Cruz three times between the 1970s and 1980s, but it never passed. National policies since the 1980s have deregulated rental markets, which decreased the rights of tenants and exacerbated frustrations for renters all across the country as well as in Santa Cruz.[63]

27% of surveyed Santa Cruz County renters experience "overcrowding" in their homes, which is described as when there is more than one person per room of a house, which includes all rooms not just bedrooms.[63]

One of the constraints on Santa Cruz's development are environmental protections. The restrictions on land prevent development from responding to housing and employment demands, which is an issue particularly politically relevant in the Watsonville jurisdiction. This conflict between residents wanting to protect the environment and those wanting more housing is also racially divided, as most residents favoring environmental protection are white, while the population on the side of developing housing is more heavily Latino.[45] A 2010–2011 report by a Santa Cruz County grand jury states that Watsonville had no policy for assessing environmental hazards, and would give out land use and building permits without any investigations of the environmental conditions of the land in question.[65]

One of the housing solutions that residents have resorted to is the occupation of accessory dwelling units. Commonly known as "mother-in-law" units, these secondary housing spaces on residential property used to be illegal to build. In 2002, Santa Cruz leaders changed the law and encouraged construction with affordable mortgages. The goal was to contain urban sprawl while still finding housing alternatives for residents in light of the crisis that was exacerbated by UCSC growth and Silicon Valley encroachment.[66]

Land use[edit]

Debates about land use in Santa Cruz were particularly important after the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, which destroyed the central business district of Santa Cruz and led to the loss of an estimated 2,000 jobs.[58]

Already contentious debates about land were present in the area due to its large tourism industry and the relatively new UCSC campus, but after the quake both private interests and public servants had a stake in how rebuilding would go. This led to a necessary compromise, a public-private partnership that debated the how to rebuild the pacific garden mall space, with considerations of green space, timely implementation, and supporting local business and economy. Many constituents felt left out of this process, and reported that the political elite and economic elite were monopolizing control over the rebuilding movement.[58]

Top employers[edit]

According to Santa Cruz County's 2020-21 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[67] the top employers in the county are:

# Employer Product/Service # of Employees
1 University of California, Santa Cruz Education 1,000–4,999
2 Pajaro Valley Unified School District Education 1,000–4,999
3 County of Santa Cruz County Services 1,000–4,999
4 Dominican Hospital Hospital 1,000–4,999
5 Santa Cruz Governmental Center City Services 1,000–4,999
6 Graniterock Excavating Contractors 500–999
7 Plantronics Telephone Apparatus Mfg. 500–999
8 Watsonville Community Hospital Hospital 500–999
9 Source Naturals Vitamin Manufacturer 500–999
10 Santa Cruz Health Center Clinics 500–999
11 Monterey Mushrooms Agriculture 500–999
12 Larse Farms Inc Agriculture 500–999

Winemaking and wineries[edit]

Vineyard in the Santa Cruz Mountains

Winemaking—both the growing of the grapes and their vinting—is an important part of the economic and cultural life of Santa Cruz County. The wines of the David Bruce Winery and Ridge Vineyards were selected for tasting in the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976 (Tabor, p.167-169).


Four-year universities[edit]

Two-year college[edit]

K-12 education[edit]

School districts include:[69]





Major highways[edit]

County routes[edit]

Public transportation[edit]

Santa Cruz County is served by the Santa Cruz Metropolitan Transit District bus system.

An Amtrak Thruway "Highway 17 Express" bus between Santa Cruz and San Jose is jointly operated by Amtrak, the SCMTD and the Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority.


Watsonville Municipal Airport is a public general aviation airport. There are two air carriers based at the airport offering on-demand air charter:

  • AirMonterey, LLC[70] (corporate aircraft)
  • Specialized Helicopters, LLC[71] (helicopters)

There is a notable private airport, Monterey Bay Academy Airport, which is a former military base.

The nearest airports for scheduled commercial travel include San Jose International Airport, Monterey Regional Airport, San Francisco International Airport, and Oakland International Airport.



Census-designated places[edit]

Unincorporated communities[edit]

Population ranking[edit]

The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Santa Cruz County.[72]

county seat

Rank City/Town/etc. Municipal type Population (2010 Census)
1 Santa Cruz City 59,946
2 Watsonville City 51,199
3 Live Oak CDP 17,158
4 Scotts Valley City 11,580
5 Capitola City 9,918
6 Soquel CDP 9,644
7 Rio del Mar CDP 9,216
8 Interlaken CDP 7,321
9 Ben Lomond CDP 6,234
10 Aptos CDP 6,220
11 Pleasure Point CDP 5,846
12 Boulder Creek CDP 4,923
13 Twin Lakes CDP 4,917
14 Felton CDP 4,057
15 Amesti CDP 3,478
16 Day Valley CDP 3,409
17 Seacliff CDP 3,267
18 Freedom CDP 3,070
19 La Selva Beach CDP 2,843
20 Bonny Doon CDP 2,678
21 Aptos Hills-Larkin Valley CDP 2,381
22 Corralitos CDP 2,326
23 Brookdale CDP 1,991
24 Lompico CDP 1,137
25 Pasatiempo CDP 1,041
26 Mount Hermon CDP 1,037
27 Zayante CDP 705
28 Davenport CDP 408
29 Paradise Park CDP 389
30 Pajaro Dunes CDP 144

See also[edit]


  • Taber, George M. Judgment of Paris: California vs. France and the historic 1976 Paris Tasting that Revolutionized Wine. NY: Scribner, 2005.


  1. ^ Other = Some other race + Two or more races
  2. ^ Native American = Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander + American Indian or Alaska Native
  3. ^ a b Percentage of registered voters with respect to total population. Percentages of party members with respect to registered voters follow.


  1. ^ "Chronology". California State Association of Counties. Archived from the original on January 29, 2016. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
  2. ^ "Board Members | Santa Cruz County, CA - Official Website".
  3. ^ "Mount Bielewski". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved April 18, 2015.
  4. ^ "Santa Cruz County, California". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
  5. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  6. ^ "Central Coast". California State Parks. California Department of Recreation. Retrieved July 26, 2014.
  7. ^ "California: Consolidated Chronology of State and County Boundaries". The Newberry Library. Archived from the original on January 9, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2022.
  8. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved October 4, 2015.
  9. ^ "Fun Outdoor Things To Do In Santa Cruz". www.thingstodoinsantacruz.com. December 12, 2011. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
  10. ^ Libraries, Santa Cruz Public. "Endangered Species in Santa Cruz County – Santa Cruz Public Libraries". www.santacruzpl.org. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
  11. ^ "Species Profile California Clapper Rail". US Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved January 29, 2015.
  12. ^ "Species Profile California red-legged frog". US Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved January 29, 2015.
  13. ^ "Species Profile California tiger salamander". US Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved January 29, 2015.
  14. ^ "North-Central California Coast Recovery Program 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation of California Coastal Chinook Salmon ESU, Central California Coast Coho Salmon ESU" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 15, 2013. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
  15. ^ "Species Profile Marbled murrelet". US Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved January 29, 2015.
  16. ^ "Species Profile Mount Hermon June beetle". US Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved January 29, 2015.
  17. ^ "Species Profile Ohlone tiger beetle". US Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved January 29, 2015.
  18. ^ "Species Profile San Francisco garter snake". US Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved January 29, 2015.
  19. ^ "Species Profile Santa Cruz long-toed salamander". US Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved January 29, 2015.
  20. ^ "Species Profile Southern Sea Otter". US Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved January 29, 2015.
  21. ^ "North-Central California Coast Recovery Domain 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation of Central California Coastal Steelhead DPS Northern California Steelhead DPS" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2011. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
  22. ^ "Species Profile Yellow-billed cuckoo". US Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
  23. ^ "Species Profile Zayante band-winged grasshopper". US Fish and Wildlife Service. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |url= (help)
  24. ^ Miguel Costanso and Frederick J. Teggart (1911). "The Portola Expedition of 1769-1770. Diary of Miguel Costanso". Publications of the Academy of Pacific Coast History. 2 (4).
  25. ^ Evermann (April 1915). "An Attempt to Save California Elk". California Fish and Game. 1 (3): 89.
  26. ^ E. S. Harrison (1892). The History of Santa Cruz County. San Francisco, California: Pacific Press Publishing Company. p. 48.
  27. ^ "El Jarro Point". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior.
  28. ^ Donald Thomas Clark (1986). Santa Cruz County Place Names. Santa Cruz Historical Trust. p. 61. ISBN 9780940283008.
  29. ^ "Larkins Valley". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior.
  30. ^ a b Mark Gerald Hylkema (1991). Prehistoric native American adaptations along the central California coast of San Mateo and Santa Cruz counties (Thesis). San Jose State University. Retrieved March 24, 2020.
  31. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Counties: April 1, 2020 to July 1, 2023". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 26, 2024.
  32. ^ "Census of Population and Housing from 1790-2000". US Census Bureau. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  33. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved October 4, 2015.
  34. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 4, 2015.
  35. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved October 4, 2015.
  36. ^ a b "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2010: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Santa Cruz County, California". United States Census Bureau.
  37. ^ a b "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Santa Cruz County, California". United States Census Bureau.
  38. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates. U.S. Census website . Retrieved October 21, 2013.
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B02001. U.S. Census website . Retrieved October 26, 2013.
  40. ^ U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B03003. U.S. Census website . Retrieved October 26, 2013.
  41. ^ U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B01003. U.S. Census website . Retrieved October 21, 2013.
  42. ^ U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B19301. U.S. Census website . Retrieved October 21, 2013.
  43. ^ U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B19013. U.S. Census website . Retrieved October 21, 2013.
  44. ^ U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B19113. U.S. Census website . Retrieved October 21, 2013.
  45. ^ a b c d e f g Manuel, Pastor Jr.; Benner, Chris; Rosner, Rachel (May 2003). "An "option for the poor": A research audit for community-based regionalism in California's central coast". Economic Development Quarterly. 17 (2).
  46. ^ "2010 Census P.L. 94-171 Summary File Data". United States Census Bureau.
  47. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
  48. ^ Bookwalter, Genevieve (August 15, 2006). "Santa Cruz residents more educated than most". Santa Cruz Sentinel. Retrieved February 6, 2008. [dead link]
  49. ^ "Santa Cruz County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". January 2, 2008. Archived from the original on July 12, 2011. Retrieved April 22, 2008.
  50. ^ Menendez, Albert J.; The Geography of Presidential Elections in the United States, 1868–2004, pp. 152–155 ISBN 0786422173
  51. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
  52. ^ "Santa Cruz County Election Results, November 2004 (pdf)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 2, 2006. Retrieved May 4, 2006.
  53. ^ "California's 18th Congressional District - Representatives & District Map". Civic Impulse, LLC. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
  54. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q California Secretary of State. February 10, 2013 – Report of Registration Archived July 27, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved October 31, 2013.
  55. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Office of the Attorney General, Department of Justice, State of California. Table 11: Crimes – 2009 Archived December 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved November 14, 2013.
  56. ^ Only larceny-theft cases involving property over $400 in value are reported as property crimes.
  57. ^ a b c United States Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation. Crime in the United States, 2012, Table 8 (California). Retrieved November 14, 2013.
  58. ^ a b c Gendron, Richard Arthur (1998). Faultlines of power: The political economy of redevelopment in a progressive city after a natural disaster (Thesis). ProQuest 304420788.
  59. ^ Pascale, Celine-Marie (1995). The Public Response to Homelessness.
  60. ^ "United States Department of Labor". United States Department of Labor. 2024.
  61. ^ McCay, S., Espinoza, R., & Mora, S. C. (2015). Working For Dignity: The Santa Cruz County Low-wage Worker Study (Rep.).
  62. ^ "Economic Justice Alliance of Santa Cruz County". Economic Justice Alliance of Santa Cruz County. Archived from the original on February 8, 2018. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  63. ^ a b c "No Place Like Home". No Place Like Home UCSC. Archived from the original on May 1, 2018.
  64. ^ Gumz, Jodi (March 30, 2017). "Santa Cruz County supervisors want rules for hosted rentals". Santa Cruz Sentinel.
  65. ^ Santa Cruz Grand Jury Final Report 2010-2011. "City of Watsonville: Fastest Growing City Looking For Leadership and a Fire Truck" (PDF).{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  66. ^ Bernstein, Fred A. (February 6, 2005). "In Santa Cruz, Affordable Housing Without the Sprawl". The New York Times.
  67. ^ "Budget and Financial Reports" (PDF). www.co.santa-cruz.ca.us. December 22, 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 9, 2022. Retrieved July 31, 2022.
  68. ^ McCord, Shanna (June 14, 2011). "Bethany University will close: Private funding didn't materialize". Santa Cruz Sentinel. Archived from the original on June 16, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
  69. ^ "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Santa Cruz County, CA" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 25, 2022. - Text list
  70. ^ "flyairmonterey.com". flyairmonterey.com. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
  71. ^ "Home". Specialized Aviation. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
  72. ^ "Decennial Census by Decades". Retrieved July 10, 2016.

External links[edit]