Valle de los Caídos
The Valle de los Caídos (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈbaʎe ðe los kaˈiðos], "Valley of the Fallen") is a Catholic basilica and a monumental memorial in the municipality of San Lorenzo de El Escorial, erected at Cuelgamuros Valley in the Sierra de Guadarrama, near Madrid, conceived by Francisco Franco to honour and bury those who died in the Spanish Civil War. Franco claimed that the monument was meant to be a "national act of atonement" and reconciliation. The Valley of the Fallen, as a surviving monument of Franco's rule, and its Catholic basilica remain controversial, in part since 10% of the construction workforce consisted of convicts, who voluntarily, in exchange for a reduction of sentence, decided to collaborate.
The monument, considered a landmark of 20th-century Spanish architecture, was designed by Pedro Muguruza and Diego Méndez on a scale to equal, according to Franco, "the grandeur of the monuments of old, which defy time and memory." Together with the Universidad Laboral de Gijón, it is the most prominent example of the original Spanish Neo-Herrerian style, which was intended to form part of a revival of Juan de Herrera's architecture, exemplified by the royal residence El Escorial. This uniquely Spanish architecture was widely used in public buildings of post-war Spain and is rooted in international classicism as exemplified by Albert Speer or Mussolini's Esposizione Universale Roma.
The monument precinct covers over 3,360 acres (13.6 km2) of Mediterranean woodlands and granite boulders on the Sierra de Guadarrama hills, more than 3,000 feet (910 m) above sea level and includes a basilica, a Benedictine abbey, a guest house, the Valley, and the Juanelos — four cylindrical monoliths dating from the 16th century. The most prominent feature of the monument is the towering 150-metre-high (500 ft) cross erected over a granite outcrop 150 metres over the basilica esplanade and visible from over 20 miles (32 km) away.
Work started in 1940 and took over eighteen years to complete, with the monument being officially inaugurated on 1 April 1959. According to the official ledger, the cost of the construction totalled 1,159 million pesetas, funded through national lottery draws and donations.
The complex is owned and operated by the Patrimonio Nacional, the Spanish governmental heritage agency, and ranked as the third most visited monument of the Patrimonio Nacional in 2009. The Spanish social democrat government closed the complex to visitors at the end of 2009, citing safety reasons connected to restoration on the façade. The decision was controversial, as the closure was attributed by some people to the Historical Memory Law enacted during José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero's premiership, and there were claims that the Benedictine community was being persecuted. The works include the Pietà sculpture prominently featured at the entrance of the crypt, using hammers and heavy machinery. In November 2010, citing safety reasons, the Zapatero government closed down the Basilica for Mass. Mass was celebrated in the open for several weeks. Checkpoints were set up, according to socialist government sources, to prevent right-wing political manifestations such as Falange flags, in accordance with the Historical Memory Law. However, Catholic sources claimed that the government was simply trying to interfere with the celebration of the Mass. After Zapatero's electoral defeat and his leaving office on 21 December 2011, normal service at the Basilica resumed.
In 1999, the Valle de los Caídos was bombed by the Marxist terrorist organisation GRAPO.
Basilica, cross and abbey
One of the world's largest basilicas rises above the valley along with the tallest memorial cross in the world. The Basílica de la Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caídos (Basilica of the Holy Cross of the Valley of the Fallen) is hewn out of a granite ridge. The 152.4-metre-high (500 feet) cross is constructed of stone.
In 1960, Pope John XXIII declared the underground crypt a basilica. The dimensions of this underground basilica, as excavated, are larger than those of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. To avoid competition with the apostle's grave church on the Vatican Hill, a partitioning wall was built near the inside of the entrance and a sizeable entryway was left unconsecrated.
The monumental hieratic sculptures over the main gate and the base of the cross culminated the career of Juan de Ávalos. The monument consists of a wide explanada (esplanade) with views of the valley and the outskirts of Madrid in the distance. A long vaulted crypt was tunnelled out of solid granite, piercing the mountain to the massive transept, which lies exactly below the cross.
On the wrought-iron gates, Franco's neo-Habsburg double-headed eagle is prominently displayed. On entering the basilica, visitors are flanked by two large metal statues of art deco angels holding swords.
There is a funicular that connects the basilica with the base of the cross. There is a spiral staircase and a lift inside the cross, connecting the top of the basilica dome to a trapdoor on top of the cross, but their use is restricted to maintenance staff.
The Benedictine Abbey of the Holy Cross of the Valley of the Fallen (Spanish: Abadía Benedictina de la Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caídos), on the other side of the mountain, houses priests who say perpetual Masses for the repose of the fallen of the Spanish Civil War and later wars and peacekeeping missions fought by the Royal Spanish Army. The abbey ranks as a Royal Monastery.
Valley of the Fallen
The valley that contains the monument, preserved as a national park, is located 10 km northeast of the royal site of El Escorial, northwest of Madrid. Beneath the valley floor lie the remains of 40,000 people, whose names are accounted for in the monument's register. The valley contains both Nationalist and Republican graves.
In 1975, after Francisco Franco's death, the site was designated by the interim Government, assured by Prince Juan Carlos and Prime Minister Carlos Arias Navarro, as the burial place for Franco. According to his family, Franco did not want to be buried in the Valley, but in the city of Madrid. Nonetheless, the family agreed to the interim Government's request to bury him in the Valley, and has stood by the decision.
Before his death, nobody had expected that Franco would be buried in the Valley. Moreover, the grave had to be excavated and prepared within two days, forcing last minute changes in the plumbing system of the Basilica. Unlike the fallen of the Civil War who were laid to rest in special tombs behind the chapels on the sides of the basilica, Franco was buried behind the main altar, in the central nave. His grave is marked by a simple tombstone engraved with just his Christian name and first surname, on the choir side of the main high altar (between the altar and the apse of the Church; behind the altar, from the perspective of a person standing at the main door).
Franco is the only person interred in the Valley who did not die in the Civil War. The argument given by the defenders of his tomb is that in the Catholic Church the developer of a church can be buried in the church that he has promoted. Therefore, Franco would be in the Valley as the promoter of the basilica's construction.
Franco was the second person interred in the Santa Cruz basilica. Franco had earlier interred José Antonio Primo de Rivera, the founder of the Falange movement, who was executed by the Republican government in 1936 and was laid to rest by the Francoist government under a modest gravestone on the nave side of the altar. Primo de Rivera died on 20 November 1936, exactly 39 years before Franco. His grave is in the corresponding position on the other side of the altar. Accordingly, 20 November is annually commemorated by large crowds of Franco supporters and various Falange successor movements and individuals, flocking to the Requiem Masses held for the repose of the souls of their political leaders. On 24 August 2018, Spain's centre-left government approved legal amendments for the exhumation of Franco's remains from the mausoleum and reburial at another location, as yet undisclosed.
Presenting the monument in a politically neutral way poses a number of problems, not least the strength of opposing opinions on the issue. The Times quoted Jaume Bosch, a Catalan politician and former MP seeking to change the monument,[clarification needed] as saying: "I want what was in reality something like a Nazi concentration camp to stop being a nostalgic place of pilgrimage for Francoists. Inevitably, whether we like it or not, it's part of our history. We don't want to pull it down, but the Government has agreed to study our plan."
The charge that the monument site was "like a Nazi concentration camp" refers to the use of convicts, including Spanish Republican Army war prisoners, trading their labour for a reduction in time served. Although Spanish law at the time prohibited forced labour, it did provide for convicts to choose voluntary work on the basis of redeeming two days of conviction for each day worked. This law was in force until 1995. This benefit was increased to six days when labour was carried out at the basilica with a salary of 7 pesetas per day, a regular worker's salary for that time, with the possibility of the family of the convict benefiting from the housing and Catholic children's schools built in the valley for the other workers. Only convicts with a record of good behaviour would qualify for this redemption scheme, as the works site was considered to be a low security environment. The motto used by the Spanish Nationalist government was "el trabajo enoblece" ("Work ennobles"). It is claimed that by 1943, the number of prisoners who were working at the site reached close to six hundred. It is also claimed that up to 20,000 prisoners were used for the overall construction of the monument and that forced labour took place.
According to the official programme records, 2,643 workers participated directly in the construction, some of them highly skilled, as required by the complexity of the work. Only 243 of these were convicts. During the eighteen-year construction period, the official tally of workers who died as result of accidents during the building of the monument totalled fourteen.
The socialist Spanish government of 2004-2011 instituted a statewide policy of removal of Francoist symbols from public buildings and spaces, leading to an uneasy relationship with a monument that is the most conspicuous legacy from Franco's rule.
Political rallies in celebration of the former leader are now banned by the Historical Memory Law, voted on by the Congress of Deputies on 16 October 2007. This law dictated that "the management organisation of the Valley of the Fallen should aim to honour the memory of all of those who died during the civil war and who suffered repression". It has been suggested that The Valley of the Fallen be re-designated as a "monument to Democracy" or as a memorial to all Spaniards killed in conflict "for Democracy". Some organisations, among them centrist Catholic groups, question the purpose of these plans, on the basis that the monument is already dedicated to all of the dead, civilian and military of both Nationalist and Republican sides.
Expert Commission for the Future of the Valley of the Fallen
On 29 November 2011 the Expert Commission for the Future of the Valley of the Fallen, formed by the Socialist Party government of José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero on 27 May 2011 under the Historical Memory Law and charged to give advice for converting the Valley of the Fallen to a "memory centre that dignifies and rehabilitates the victims of the Civil War and the subsequent Franco regime," rendered a report recommending as its principal proposal for the Commission's stated end the removal of the remains of Francisco Franco from the Valley of the Fallen for reburial at a location to be chosen by his family, but only after first obtaining a broad parliamentary consensus for such action. The Commission based its decision upon Franco having not died in the Civil War and the aim of the Commission that the Valley of the Fallen be exclusively for those on both sides who had died in the Civil War. In regard to José Antonio Primo de Rivera, founder of Falange Española, the Commission recommended his remains should stay at the Valley of the Fallen, since a victim of the Civil War, but relocated within the Basilica mausoleum on equal footing with those remains of others who died in the conflict. The Commission further conditioned its recommendation for the removal of the remains of Franco from the Valley of the Fallen and the relocation of the remains of Primo de Rivera within the Basilica mausoleum upon the consent of the Catholic Church since "any action inside of the Basilica requires the permission of the Church." Three members of the twelve person commission gave a joint dissenting opinion opposing the recommendation for the removal of the remains of Franco from the Valley of the Fallen claiming such action would only further "divide and stress Spanish society." The Commission additionally proposed for its report creating a "meditation centre" in the Valley of the Fallen for those not of the Catholic faith, the names shown on the esplanade that leads into the Basilica mausoleum of all Civil War victims buried at the Valley of the Fallen who can be identified and an "interpretive centre" be built to explain how and why the Valley of the Fallen exists. The total cost of the proposed changes to the Valley of the Fallen was estimated by the Commission at 13€ million. On 20 November, nine days before the issuance of the report of the Commission and ironically on the 36th anniversary of the death of Francisco Franco, the conservative Popular Party won for the 2011 General Election absolute majorities in both Spain's lower house, the Congress of Deputies, and Senate.
On 17 July 2012, Soraya Sáenz de Santamaría, Vice-President and Spokesperson of the government stated during parliamentary questioning the Popular Party government of President Mariano Rajoy had no intention of following the recommendations of the Expert Commission for the Future of the Valley of the Fallen with respect to the removal of the remains of Francisco Franco from the Valley of the Fallen, the relocation of the remains of Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera within the Basilica or otherwise since the government considers the report to lack validity in that the Commission was "monocolor" for which the Popular Party was not invited or involved and that in light of Spain's present economic crisis, discussion and opinion as to the Valley of the Fallen would not be considered at this time.
On 10 October 2012 a motion of Basque Nationalist Party (PNV) Senator Iñaki Anasagasti placed before the full Senate calling for the removal of the remains of Francisco Franco from the Valley of the Fallen as recommended by the Expert Commission for the Future of the Valley of the Fallen was rejected by the Popular Party majority. Together with the motion to remove the remains of Franco, the Popular Party majority also voted down an amendment by the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party for the creation of a parliamentary committee to seek a consensus for the implementation of the recommendations of the Expert Commission for the Future of the Valley of the Fallen. In a speech at the time before the Senate in defence of his party's no votes Popular Party Senator Alejandro Muñoz-Alonso argued there was no consensus at present in Spain for implementing the recommendations of the Expert Commission for the Future of the Valley of the Fallen and even the Expert Commission unilaterally formed by the Zapatero government was not unanimous, and the matter was now totally exhausted for having been raised eight times before the Parliament; and, then closed for his remarks by quoting from the Bible saying, "let the dead bury the dead" for urging the Senate in light of Spain's economic crisis to return to addressing the "problems of the living."
On 8 July 2013 a motion before the Senate of Catalan Agreement of Progress (ECP) to implement all recommendations made unanimously by the Expert Commission for the Future of the Valley of the Fallen; that is, all recommendations with the exception only for the removal of the remains of Francisco Franco from the Valley of the Fallen, was voted down by the Popular Party majority.
On 5 August 2013 the Popular Party government by letter to Socialist Party deputy and former minister Ramón Jáuregui reaffirmed its position that the recommendations of the Expert Commission for the Future of the Valley of the Fallen would not be carried out since doing so absent in the view of the Popular Party government a consensus in Spain for such action would "needlessly reopen old wounds". In regard to the expenditure of nearly 300,000€ to restore the façade of the Basilica also questioned by former minister Jáuregui, the Rajoy government further stated for its correspondence such expenditures are justified since aimed at ensuring the monument is well preserved and to prevent deterioration and possible risks to visitors.
On 4 November 2013, Vice-President Soraya Sáenz de Santamaría again stated the Rajoy government will reject due to the lack of a consensus among Spaniards concerning the future of the Valley of the Fallen any legislation or request which would seek to remove the remains of Francisco Franco from the Valley of the Fallen for reburial at a location to be chosen by his family and further questioned the urgency for that legislation then presently introduced before the Parliament calling for the removal of the remains of Franco since during the entire seven-year term of the Zapatero government no attempt was made to so change the Valley of the Fallen.
On 23 November 2014, the government of Mariano Rajoy again re-affirmed its position that since a social and political consensus is absent for doing so there can be no changes or modifications to the Valley of the Fallen.
On 17 December 2014, Popular Party and Asturias Forum (FAC) members of the Committee for Culture of the Congress of Deputies together voted down a proposed law put forward by the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party to "redefine" the Valley of the Fallen to reflect a "culture of co-existence," and amendment of the United Left to exhume the remains of Francisco Franco and José Antonio Primo de Rivera, identify the remains of all Civil War victims buried in the basilica mausoleum, and address the claims of descendants whose ancestors were buried there without family consent. During parliamentary debate for the proposal of the PSOE, Popular Party deputy Rocío López argued "let the dead rest in peace" and the Valley of the Fallen is a church and cemetery conceived as a peaceful place "without political significance" for the meeting and reconciliation of both sides of the Civil War that should not be changed or modified, while in support of the proposal PSOE deputy Odón Elorza contended the monument is instead a "symbol of contempt and exclusion" to Spaniards.
On 9 February 2017 the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) introduced in the Constitutional Commission Committee of the Congress of Deputies a non-binding motion calling for the removal of the remains of Francisco Franco from the Valley of the Fallen and the creation of a "truth commission" to investigate the Franco years (1939-1975). On March 8. 2017 the Socialist Party motion was debated and voted on in committee with only the Popular Party voting no and Navarrese People's Union (UPN) abstaining, and all other parties voting yes. On April 3, 2017 the Constitutional Commission of the Senate rejected a motion presented by the PNV to re-designate the Valley of the Fallen to a centre for interpretation of the Civil War.
On 11 May 2017 a non-binding motion put forth by the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) calling for the removal of the remains of Francisco Franco from the Valley of the Fallen and relocation of the remains of José Antonio Primo de Rivera to a less prominent place within the Basilica mausoleum was approved in plenary session by the Congress of Deputies with 198 votes in favour, 1 against and 140 abstentions. Deputies of both the Popular Party and Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) abstained with the one no vote having been made in error by a Popular Party deputy. The motion further called for the creation of a truth commission, the declaration of November 11 as a day of remembrance for victims of Fascism, the government undertake necessary actions for the location and exhumation of graves and identification of the remains of victims of the Civil War and dictatorship, and the Valley of the Fallen be converted from a "Francoist and National-Catholic landmark" to instead a "space for reconciliation and collective and democratic memory, aimed at dignifying and recognizing the victims of the Spanish Civil War and of the dictatorship". The conservative Popular Party government of Mariano Rajoy responded it would not act on the PSOE motion as to the Valley of the Fallen because it considered the Valley of the Fallen to no longer be a Francoist monument since governed by rules generally applicable to places of worship and public cemeteries and by law acts are prohibited at the Valley of the Fallen of a political nature or exalt of the Civil War, its protagonists, or Franco and the Historical Memory Law does not contemplate or call for the disinterment of anyone.
On 18 June 2018 the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) government of Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez which came to power on 2 June 2018 following a successful motion of no-confidence against the Popular Party (PP) government of then Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy announced its intention to remove the remains of Francisco Franco from the Valley of the Fallen. Since the PSOE has only 85 deputies in a parliament of 350, any legislation to remove the remains of Franco will require the support of other groups. On 29 June 2018 the Archdiocese of Madrid warned the Spanish government against any plans to exhume the remains of Franco without first obtaining agreement from interested parties and formally stated it is against any move of Franco's remains without the consent of his family and before consultation with the Catholic Church. In addition for its statement, the Archdiocese of Madrid re-affirmed its position that although the Valley of the Fallen is officially a national monument, the Catholic Church must be consulted on burial-related matters under agreements between the Spanish state and the Vatican. The announcement of the Archdiocese of Madrid was made after Spanish Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez confirmed that it was his intention to remove the remains of Franco from the Valley of the Fallen by the end of July.
On 24 August 2018 the cabinet of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) government of Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez approved a decree that modifies two aspects of the 2007 Historical Memory law to permit the exhumation of the remains of Francisco Franco from the Valley of the Fallen. The decree to become law must be passed by a vote of the Congress of Deputies. The conservative Popular Party (PP) and the center-right party Ciudadanos have announced they will not support the decree. The Popular Party further stated it will appeal the measure to the Constitutional Court arguing using a decree to change the Historical Memory Law is not valid because the proposed modifications to the Historical Memory Law do not respond to a situation of urgent need. At the time the cabinet approved the decree Deputy Prime Minister Carmen Calvo stated the decree law requires the exhumation of the remains of Franco to take place between 30 days and 12 of months of passage by the Congress of Deputies and the family of Franco will have two weeks to designate a place for re-interment of his remains, and should they fail to do so, the Spanish government will then choose a “dignified and respectful” place for his remains to be re-interred.
On 13 September 2018 the Congress of Deputies approved by a vote of 176 in favor, 165 abstentions and 2 no votes the proposed decree of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) government to modify two aspects of the 2007 Historical Memory law to permit the exhumation of the remains of Francisco Franco from the Valley of the Fallen. All deputies of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, Podemos, Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC), Basque Nationist Party (PNV), Catalan European Democratic Party (PDeCAT), EH Bildu, Coalició Compromís and the Canarian Coalition (CC) voted in favor of the decree while all 165 abstention votes were cast by Popular Party (PP) and Citizens Party (C’s) deputies with 2 no votes of Popular Party deputies said to have been made “by mistake.” After the vote, the Popular Party re-affirmed it would appeal the legality of the decree on the grounds of lack of extraordinary and urgent need necessary for such a decree law to the Constitutional Court.
Closure and reopening of the monument
In November 2009, Patrimonio Nacional controversially ordered the closure of the basilica for an indefinite period of time, alleging preservation issues also affecting the Cross and some sculptures. These allegations were contested by experts and the Benedictine Order religious community that lives at the complex, and were seen by some conservative opinion groups as a policy of harassment against the monument. In 2010, the Pietà sculpture group started to be "dismantled" with hammers and heavy machinery, which the Juan de Ávalos trust feared could cause irreparable damage to the masterpiece. As a result, thereof, the trust filed several lawsuits against the Spanish government. At the time, several parallels were made by conservative and liberal groups between the dismantling of the Pietà under the Socialist Party government of Zapatero and the destruction of the Buddhas of Bamyan by the Taliban.
Following the November 2011 Spanish General Election, on June 1, 2012 the conservative Popular Party government of Mariano Rajoy reopened the monument to the public with the exception only of the base of the cross, in the past accessible by cable car or on foot, which will remain closed to ascent while the sculptures of the four apostles and the cardinal virtues forming part of the base of the cross are presently under engineering review and restoration for cracks and other deterioration. Beginning on June 1, 2012 the charge for entry to the monument had been 5 euros. The 5 euro entry fee was anticipated to generate around 2 million euros a year if the Valley of the Fallen once again attracted 500,000 visitors annually, the approximate number of annual visitors before closure of the monument in 2009 by the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party government of José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero. Starting on May 2, 2013, and over the strong objection of the Association for the Defense of the Valley of the Fallen, the entry fee for the monument was increased from 5 to 9 euros. Prior to its closure in 2009, the Valley of the Fallen was the third most visited site of the Patrimonio Nacional after only the Royal Palace of Madrid and El Escorial. For the accommodation of visitors a cafeteria restaurant located in the cable car building of the monument has been re-opened. The Valley of the Fallen attracted 254,059 visitors in 2015, 262,860 visitors in 2016 and 283,263 visitors in 2017.
In popular culture
The Valle de los Caídos appears in Richard Morgan's 2002 novel Altered Carbon, where it is being used as a base of operations for one of the major antagonists, Reileen Kawahara. It also appears in the 2010 Spanish comedy terror film The Last Circus (Spanish: Balada triste de trompeta). Graham Greene's 1982 novel Monsignor Quixote uses a visit to the Valle to illustrate the competing political and social attitudes to Franco's reign and the status of his tomb in modern Spain.
There is also a large reference to this monument and the labourers who built it in Victoria Hislop's book The Return. A number of rock crosses, free-standing outdoor stone crosses are to be found in Kerala churches of southern India, many of them from pre-Portuguese times that look exactly like the Valle de los Caídos rock cross but much smaller, of a height of 15–35 ft. But it is possible that these free standing pillars or Nazraney Sthambas employing the socket and cylinder technique to fit the shaft to the base piece and the arms to the shaft and finally the capital to the arms, altogether a four-piece work of precise architecture may have influenced the Spanish missionaries and scholars.
In 2013, Spain saw the release of the film All'Ombra Della Croce (A la Sombra de la Cruz) directed by the Italian filmmaker Alessandro Pugno. The film tells the secret story of the children of the chorus who sing every day in the mass. They live in a boarding school inside the monument and receive an education that tries to resist the drift towards secularism and scientism of contemporary Spain and of global society. The film has been awarded with the first prize for the best documentary at Festival de Málaga de Cine Español.
In 2016, Mayor of Madrid Manuela Carmena, proposed to change site's name from "El Valle de los Caídos" to "El Valle de la Paz" (The Valley of Peace).
The site is also featured in Dan Brown's 2017 book, Origin.
- El Ángel, Mexico.
- Monumento a la Revolución, Mexico.
- Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral
- Panteon San Fernando, Mexico City, Mexico.
- Panteón de los Próceres, Peru.
- Presbitero Maestro mausoleum and museum in Lima, Peru.
- Cathedral Basilica of St. John the Apostle and Evangelist, Lima
- Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral
- La Recoleta Cemetery, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
- La Chacarita cemetery, Buenos Aires, Argentina
- Los Ilustres Cemetery, Salvador.
- Cementerio General, Trujillo, Honduras.
- Guatemala City General Cemetery
- Cementerio General Occidental, Managua, Nicaragua.
- Cementerio General de Cochabamba, mausoleum of "general del pueblo" René Barrientos Ortuño, Bolivia
- San Diego Cemetery, Quito, Ecuador.
- Cathedral of La Plata
- Artigas Mausoleum (Uruguay)
- Altar de la Patria of Chile
- Cementerio General de Santiago, Chile
- National Pantheon of Venezuela
- National Pantheon of the Heroes
- Altar de la Patria (Dominican Republic)
- National Pantheon of the Dominican Republic
- Monument to the Independence of Brazil
- Cemitério de São João Batista, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
- San Salvador Cathedral
- Cathedral of Quito
- Anıtkabir, Mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (Turkey)
- Mazar-e-Quaid (Pakistan)
- Che Guevara Mausoleum (Cuba)
- Santa Ifigenia Cemetery (Cuba)
- Kwame Nkrumah Mausoleum (Ghana)
- Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum (China)
- Cihu Mausoleum, Chiang Kai-shek (Republic of China, Taiwan)
- Touliao Mausoleum, Chiang Ching-kuo (Republic of China, Taiwan)
- Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum (Vietnam)
- House of Flowers (mausoleum), Josip Broz Tito (Serbia)
- Lenin's Mausoleum (Russia)
- Les Invalides, Sarcophagus of Napoleon Bonaparte (France)
- Mausoleum of Mao Zedong (China)
- Georgi Dimitrov Mausoleum (Bulgaria)
- Kumsusan Palace of the Sun (North Korea)
- National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall (Republic of China, Taiwan)
- Türkmenbaşy Ruhy Mosque (Turkmenistan)
- Bourguiba mausoleum in Monastir (Tunisia)
- Unknown Soldier Memorial (Egypt) (Egypt)
- Mausoleum of Khomeini (Iran)
- Marcos Museum and Mausoleum (Philippines)
- Astana Giribangun (Indonesia)
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- Razón, La. "El Gobierno no exhumará a Franco del Valle de los Caídos". Retrieved 24 August 2018.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Valle de los Caídos.|
- WAIS Forum on Spain, 2003: "Spain: the Valley of the Fallen": includes quote from Franco's decree, 1 April 1940
- Abadía de la Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caídos: Official Website (in Spanish).
- El Valle de los Caídos: (in Spanish)
- Fundación Francisco Franco, Valle de los Caídos: from Franco's Memorial Trust (in Spanish)
- Valley of the Fallen: visitor information and photos
- Cruz de los Caídos drawings and plans from the architectural website skyscraperpage.com
- The Valley of the Fallen: History and Photos.
- "Manifesto for historians regarding the Valley of the Fallen" by Pío Moa, leading Spanish historian about the construction of the monument and the alleged government policy of harassment (in Spanish)