Santa Maria Formation

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Santa Maria Formation
Stratigraphic range: Anisian-Norian
~247.2–205.6 Ma
FormacaoX.PNG
Santa Maria Formation. Source: UFSM
Type Geological formation
Unit of Paraná Basin
Sub-units Passo das Tropas member, Alemoa Member
Underlies Caturrita Formation
Overlies Sanga do Cabral Formation
Location
Coordinates 29°41′42″S 53°47′43″W / 29.695042°S 53.795403°W / -29.695042; -53.795403Coordinates: 29°41′42″S 53°47′43″W / 29.695042°S 53.795403°W / -29.695042; -53.795403
Region Bandeira do Geoparque Paleorrota.JPG Paleorrota
 Rio Grande do Sul
Country  Brazil
Paleorrota3.PNG
Geopark of Paleorrota

The Santa Maria Formation is a sedimentary rock formation found in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It has a Late Anisian[1] to Early Norian age[2] (Early to Late Triassic), and is notable for its fossils of early dinosaurs, including the herrerasaur Staurikosaurus, the basal saurischian Teyuwasu, and the basal sauropodomorph Saturnalia.[3] It received this name because it was discovered first in the city of Santa María.

The distinguished English paleontologist Arthur Smith Woodward determined the age of Santa María Formation dated Mesozoic Era, Upper Triassic period (about 220 million years).[citation needed] A U-Pb (Uranium decay) dating of the Alemoa Member found that the Santa Maria Formation dated around 233.23±0.73 million years ago, putting that locality 1.5 million years older than the Ischigualasto Formation, and making the two formations approximately equal as the earliest dinosaur localities.[4]

The Santa Maria Formation is in the geopark of Paleorrota.[5][6]

Fauna[edit]

Vertebrates[edit]

An unnamed prosauropod species is present in Rio Grande do Sul.[3]

Vertebrates reported from the Santa Maria Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images
Aetobarbakinoides[7] A. brasiliensis Rio Grande do Sul Partial postcranial skeleton A stagonolepidid aetosaur
Bagualosaurus[8] B. agudoensis a skull, a lower jaw A sauropodomorph
Barberenachampsa B. nodosa A proterosuchid
Barberenasuchus[9] B. brasiliensis poorly preserved skull and axis vertebra[10] An Archosauriform of uncertain classification
Belesodon[11]

Rio Grande do Sul.[3]

Junior synonym of Chiniquodon

Brasinorhynchus[12] B. mariantensis Rio Grande do Sul

A complete skull, atlas, axis, third neck vertebra

a rhynchosaur
Buriolestes[13] B. schultzi parts of the skull, vertebrae, left forelimb, and left hindlimb A carnivorous sauropodomorph

Candelariodon[14]

C. barberenai[14]

Rio Grande do Sul.[14]

A partial mandible having some complete teeth.[14]

A cynodont.[14]

Cerritosaurus[15] C. binsfeldi A proterochampsid

Chanaresuchus[16]

C. bonapartei[16]

Rio Grande do Sul.[16]

Disarticulated cranial and postcranial elements.[16]

A proterochampsian.[16]

Chiniquodon

C. theotonicus

Several Skulls A synapsid.
Dagasuchus[17] D. santacruzensis Rio Grande do Sul an illium and a pair of ischia A pseudosuchian archosaur
Decuriasuchus[18]

D. quartacolonia

  • Alemoa Member (240-235)

A pretosuchid.

Exaeretodon[19]

E. riograndensis

Cranial material A traversodontid cynodont
Ixalerpeton[20] I. polesinensis parts or the skull, vertebral column, all limbs A Lagerpetid

Pampadromaeus[21]

P. barberenai[21]

Rio Grande do Sul.[21]

  • Upper (Alemoa Member)[21]

"ULBRA-PVT016, disarticulated partial skeleton... including most skull bones"[21]

A basal sauropodomorph dinosaur.

Polesinesuchus[22]

P. aurelioi[22]

An aetosaur.[22]

Procerosuchus[23] P. celer Rio Grande do Sul A rauisuchian
Protuberum[24]

P. cabralensis

Rio Grande do Sul ribs, vertebrae, partial articulated skeleton, skull A traversodontid cynodont

Santacruzodon[25]

S. hopsoni[25]

Rio Grande do Sul.[25]

Cranial remains.[25]

A traversodontid cynodont.[25]

Saturnalia[3]

S. tupinquim[3]

Rio Grande do Sul.[3]

  • Upper (Alemoa Member)[26]

"[Three] partial skeletons, dentary, adult."[27][28]

A basal sauropodomorph dinosaur.

Spondylosoma[3]

S. absconditum[3]

Rio Grande do Sul.[3]

"Various postcranial remains."[27]

An avemetatarsalian belonging to Aphanosauria

Staurikosaurus[3]

S. pricei[3]

Rio Grande do Sul.[3]

  • Upper (Alemoa Member)[27]

"Partial postcranial skeleton with mandible."[27]

A herrerasaurid dinosaur.

Teyuwasu[3]

T. barbarenai[3]

Rio Grande do Sul.[3]

  • Upper (Alemoa Member)

"Right femur and tibia."[27]

Might not be dinosaurian.[3]

Trucidocynodon[29]

T. riograndensis

A synapsid.

Formations[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Candelaria and Vera Cruz at Fossilworks.org
  2. ^ Santa Maria churchyard at Fossilworks.org
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Weishampel, David B; et al (2004). "Dinosaur distribution (Late Triassic, South America)." In: Weishampel, David B.; Dodson, Peter; and Osmólska, Halszka (eds.): The Dinosauria, 2nd, Berkeley: University of California Press. Pp. 527–528. ISBN 0-520-24209-2.
  4. ^ Langer, M.C.; Ramezani, J.; Da Rosa, Á.A.S. (2018). "U-Pb age constraints on dinosaur rise from south Brazil". Gondwana Research. X (18). Bibcode:2018GondR..57..133L. doi:10.1016/j.gr.2018.01.005. 
  5. ^ (in Portuguese) Formação Santa Maria Archived 2008-05-01 at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ (in Portuguese) Paleoformações[permanent dead link]
  7. ^ Julia B. Desojo, Martin D. Ezcurra and Edio E. Kischlat (2012). "A new aetosaur genus (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia) from the early Late Triassic of southern Brazil" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3166: 1–33. ISSN 1175-5334
  8. ^ Flávio A. Pretto; Max C. Langer; Cesar L. Schultz (2018). "A new dinosaur (Saurischia: Sauropodomorpha) from the Late Triassic of Brazil provides insights on the evolution of sauropodomorph body plan". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. in press. doi:10.1093/zoolinnean/zly028.
  9. ^ Mattar, L.C.B. 1987. Descrição osteólogica do crânio e segunda vértebrata cervical de Barberenasuchus brasiliensis Mattar, 1987 (Reptilia, Thecodontia) do Mesotriássico do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Anais, Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 61: 319–333
  10. ^ Randall B. Irmis, Sterling J. Nesbitt and Hans-Dieter Sues (2013). "Early Crocodylomorpha". In S.J. Nesbitt, J.B. Desojo and R.B. Irmis (eds). Anatomy, phylogeny and palaeobiology of early archosaurs and their kin. The Geological Society of London. pp. 275–302. doi:10.1144/SP379.24
  11. ^ Romer, A. S. The Brazilian cynodont reptiles Belesodon and Chiniquodon. Breviora, 1969a, 332, 1–16. Online: Biodiversity Heritage Library
  12. ^ Cesar Leandro Schultz; Max Cardoso Langer & Felipe Chinaglia Montefeltro (2016). "A new rhynchosaur from south Brazil (Santa Maria Formation) and rhynchosaur diversity patterns across the Middle-Late Triassic boundary". Paläontologische Zeitschrift. in press. doi:10.1007/s12542-016-0307-7
  13. ^ Cabreira, S.F.; Kellner, A.W.A.; Dias-da-Silva, S.; da Silva, L.R.; Bronzati, M.; de Almeida Marsola, J.C.; Müller, R.T.; de Souza Bittencourt, J.; Batista, B.J.; Raugust, T.; Carrilho, R.; Brodt, A.; Langer, M.C. (2016). "A Unique Late Triassic Dinosauromorph Assemblage Reveals Dinosaur Ancestral Anatomy and Diet". Current Biology. 26: 3090–3095. PMID 27839975. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.09.040
  14. ^ a b c d e Téo Veiga De Oliveira, Cesar Leandro Schultz, Marina Bento Soares and Carlos Nunes Rodrigues (2011). "A new carnivorous cynodont (Synapsida, Therapsida) from the Brazilian Middle Triassic (Santa Maria Formation): Candelariodon barberenai gen. et sp. nov" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3027: 19–28. ISSN 1175-5334. 
  15. ^ The Beginning of the Age of Dinosaurs: Faunal Change across the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary by Kevin Padian
  16. ^ a b c d e Tiago Raugust, Marcel Lacerda & Cesar Leandro Schultz (in press). "The first occurrence of Chanaresuchus bonapartei Romer 1971 (Archosauriformes, Proterochampsia) of the Middle Triassic of Brazil from the Santacruzodon Assemblage Zone, Santa Maria Formation (Paraná Basin)". In S.J. Nesbitt; J.B. Desojo & R.B. Irmis. Anatomy, phylogeny and palaeobiology of early archosaurs and their kin. The Geological Society of London. Bibcode:2013GSLSP.379..303R. doi:10.1144/SP379.22.  Check date values in: |year= (help)
  17. ^ Lacerda, M. B.; Schultz, C. L.; Bertoni-Machado, C. (2015). "First 'Rauisuchian' archosaur (Pseudosuchia, Loricata) for the Middle Triassic Santacruzodon Assemblage Zone (Santa Maria Supersequence), Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil". PLoS ONE. 10 (2): e0118563. PMC 4340915 Freely accessible. PMID 25714091. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0118563
  18. ^ Marco Aurélio G. França; Jorge Ferigolo; Max C. Langer (2011). "Associated skeletons of a new middle Triassic "Rauisuchia" from Brazil". Naturwissenschaften. 98 (5): 389–395. Bibcode:2011NW.....98..389F. doi:10.1007/s00114-011-0782-3. PMID 21445632. 
  19. ^ Liu, J. (2007). "The taxonomy of the traversodontid cynodonts Exaeretodon and Ischignathus" (PDF). Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia. 10 (2): 133–136. doi:10.4072/rbp.2007.2.07
  20. ^ Cabreira, S.F.; Kellner, A.W.A.; Dias-da-Silva, S.; da Silva, L.R.; Bronzati, M.; de Almeida Marsola, J.C.; Müller, R.T.; de Souza Bittencourt, J.; Batista, B.J.; Raugust, T.; Carrilho, R.; Brodt, A.; Langer, M.C. (2016). "A Unique Late Triassic Dinosauromorph Assemblage Reveals Dinosaur Ancestral Anatomy and Diet". Current Biology. 26: 3090–3095. PMID 27839975. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.09.040
  21. ^ a b c d e Cabreira, Sergio F.; Cesar L. Schultz; Jonathas S. Bittencourt; Marina B. Soares; Daniel C. Fortier; Lúcio R. Silva; Max C. Langer (2011). "New stem-sauropodomorph (Dinosauria, Saurischia) from the Triassic of Brazil". Naturwissenschaften. 98 (12): 1035–1040. Bibcode:2011NW.....98.1035C. doi:10.1007/s00114-011-0858-0. PMID 22083251. 
  22. ^ a b c Lúcio Roberto-da-Silva, Julia B. Desojo, Sérgio F. Cabreira, Alex S. S. Aires, Rodrigo T. Müller, Cristian P. Pacheco and Sérgio Dias-da-Silva (2014). "A new aetosaur from the Upper Triassic of the Santa Maria Formation, southern Brazil". Zootaxa. 3764 (3): 240–278. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3764.3.1. 
  23. ^ Gower, D. J. (2000). "Rauisuchian archosaurs (Reptilia:Diapsida): An overview" (PDF). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen. 218 (3): 447–488
  24. ^ Reichel, Míriam, Schultz , Cesar Leandro, & Soares , Marina Bento 2009 “A New Traversodontid Cynodont (Therapsida, Eucynodontia) from the Middle Triassic Santa Maria Formation of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil” Palaeontology 52(1):229-250
  25. ^ a b c d e F. Abdala & A. M. Ribeiro (2003). "A new traversodontid cynodont from the Santa Maria Formation (Ladinian-Carnian) of southern Brazil, with a phylogenetic analysis of Gondwanan traversodontids". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 139 (4): 529–545. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2003.00096.x. 
  26. ^ Langer, M.C., Abdala, F., Richter, M., and Benton, M. (1999). "A sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Upper Triassic (Carnian) of southern Brazil." Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, 329: 511-;517.
  27. ^ a b c d e f "Table 2.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 26.
  28. ^ "Table 12.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 235.
  29. ^ Oliveira, T.V.; Soares, M.B.; Schultz, C.L. (2010). "Trucidocynodon riograndensis gen. nov. et sp. nov. (Eucynodontia), a new cynodont from the Brazilian Upper Triassic (Santa Maria Formation)". Zootaxa. 2382: 1–71.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Weishampel, David B.; Dodson, Peter; and Osmólska, Halszka (eds.): The Dinosauria, 2nd, Berkeley: University of California Press. 861 pp. ISBN 0-520-24209-2.