Santa Rosa, Laguna

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Santa Rosa
Santa Rosa de Lima
City of Santa Rosa
9546Santa Rosa, Laguna Landmarks Attractions Roads 48.jpg
Enchanted kingdom entrance.jpg
SantaRosa,Lagunajf9604 11.JPG
9861Santa Rosa Laguna City Proper Landmarks 25.jpg
Cuartel de Santo Domingo.JPG
9577Barangays Santa Rosa Laguna Landmarks 17.jpg
(From left, clockwise): Santa Rosa Arch, Enchanted Kingdom, Santa Rosa de Lima Parish Church, Paseo Outlets, Cuartel de Santo Domingo, Downtown Santa Rosa
Flag of Santa Rosa
Official seal of Santa Rosa
Map of Laguna with Santa Rosa highlighted
Map of Laguna with Santa Rosa highlighted
OpenStreetMap
Santa Rosa is located in Philippines
Santa Rosa
Santa Rosa
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 14°19′N 121°07′E / 14.32°N 121.12°E / 14.32; 121.12Coordinates: 14°19′N 121°07′E / 14.32°N 121.12°E / 14.32; 121.12
CountryPhilippines
RegionCalabarzon
ProvinceLaguna
District Lone district
FoundedJanuary 18, 1792
CityhoodJuly 10, 2004
Named forSt. Rose of Lima
Barangays18 (see Barangays)
Government
[1]
 • TypeSangguniang Panlungsod
 • MayorArlene B. Arcillas
 • Vice MayorArnel DC. Gomez
 • RepresentativeDanilo Ramon S. Fernandez
 • City Council
Members
 • Electorate213,913 voters (2019)
Area
 • Total54.84 km2 (21.17 sq mi)
Elevation
70 m (230 ft)
Highest elevation
392 m (1,286 ft)
Lowest elevation
2 m (7 ft)
Population
 (2020 census) [3]
 • Total414,812
 • Rank2 out of 30 (in Laguna)
 • Density7,600/km2 (20,000/sq mi)
 • Households
94,323
Economy
 • Income class1st city income class
 • Poverty incidence2.37% (2015)[4]
 • Revenue₱4,427,463,016.31 (2020)
 • Assets₱12,112,633,246.19 (2020)
 • Expenditure₱3,690,870,306.46 (2020)
 • Liabilities₱1,928,784,593.78 (2020)
Service provider
 • ElectricityManila Electric Company (Meralco)
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
4026
PSGC
IDD:area code+63 (0)49
Native languagesTagalog
Websitewww.santarosacity.gov.ph

Santa Rosa, officially the City of Santa Rosa (Tagalog: Lungsod ng Santa Rosa), is a 1st class component city in the province of Laguna, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 414,812 people. [3]

It is the second largest local government unit in Laguna after Calamba. [3] On August 28, 2019, President Rodrigo Duterte signed Republic Act No. 11395,[5] which separated the city from the first district, allowing it to elect its separate representative beginning in the 2022 elections. However, for the purposes of electing Sangguniang Panlalawigan members, Santa Rosa will remain part of the province's first Sangguniang Panlalawigan District.

Santa Rosa was initially known for the Coca-Cola and Toyota manufacturing plants in its industrial estates. Recently, it has become popular for being the site of Enchanted Kingdom, a local theme park, and several housing developments.

History[edit]

2017 stamp of the Philippines dedicated to the 225th anniversary of Santa Rosa

In 1571, Spanish conquistador Juan de Salcedo, the grandson of Miguel López de Legazpi, founded the town of Biñan which was annexed as a barrio to Tabuco (now Cabuyao) while exploring the region of Laguna de Bay.

In 1688, Biñan, together with Barrio Bukol (Santa Rosa, before separation from Biñan) separated from Cabuyao. After a series of renaming and separating barrios to become independent towns, Barrio Bukol was politically emancipated as the municipality of Santa Rosa, which was named after Saint Rose of Lima. The municipality of Santa Rosa was founded on January 18, 1792.

During the revolutionary period in 1898, the town was instrumental in the proclamation of Philippine independence from Spain when the country signed the Act of Independence on June 12, 1898. Later on, the town's local revolutionaries fought alongside the forces of Pío del Pilar during the Philippine–American War.

On February 5, 1945, the town was abandoned by Japanese soldiers when the local guerrilla resistance movement, with support from the American and Filipino military contingent, entered the town, where skirmishes, torture, and deaths occurred.[clarification needed]

During the postwar era up until the 1970s, the townspeople primarily depended on basic agriculture and family-owned enterprises for their livelihood. The influence of industrialization grew in the 1980s with the entry of local and foreign investors who were responsible for the fast-paced economic and social transformation of the town and the province.

Cityhood and present[edit]

On July 10, 2004, Santa Rosa was converted into a city by Republic Act No. 9264,[6] which was approved by voters in the plebiscite. Leon Arcillas, who was sworn in for his third and final term ten days before, became its first city mayor.

Arcillas was assassinated at the former city hall by two gunmen. They were convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment in 2013. Jose Catindig Jr., who served as vice mayor, became mayor to serve out the remainder of his term. On May 14, 2007, Catindig, who ran for his full term as mayor, was defeated by Arcillas' daughter, Arlene B. Arcillas.

Geography[edit]

Santa Rosa's land area is approximately 54.13 square kilometers (20.90 sq mi). It is located west of Laguna de Bay.

The western half of the city occupies the numerous commercial, industrial, and business establishments, while the other is primarily composed of residential areas and subdivisions, schools, industrial zones, and various business establishments.

Barangays[edit]

Political map of Santa Rosa, Laguna

Santa Rosa is politically subdivided into 18 barangays:

  • Aplaya
  • Balibago
  • Caingin
  • Dila
  • Dita
  • Don Jose
  • Ibaba
  • Kanluran (Barangay Poblacion Uno)
  • Labas
  • Macabling
  • Malitlit
  • Malusak (Barangay Poblacion Dos)
  • Market Area (Barangay Poblacion Tres)
  • Pooc
  • Pulong Santa Cruz
  • Santo Domingo
  • Sinalhan
  • Tagapo

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Santa Rosa City, Laguna
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29
(84)
30
(86)
32
(90)
34
(93)
32
(90)
31
(88)
29
(84)
29
(84)
29
(84)
30
(86)
30
(86)
29
(84)
30
(87)
Average low °C (°F) 21
(70)
20
(68)
21
(70)
22
(72)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
23
(73)
22
(72)
21
(70)
23
(73)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 10
(0.4)
10
(0.4)
12
(0.5)
27
(1.1)
94
(3.7)
153
(6.0)
206
(8.1)
190
(7.5)
179
(7.0)
120
(4.7)
54
(2.1)
39
(1.5)
1,094
(43)
Average rainy days 5.2 4.5 6.4 9.2 19.7 24.3 26.9 25.7 24.4 21.0 12.9 9.1 189.3
Source: Meteoblue [7]

Demographics[edit]

The population of Santa Rosa is fast-growing with an intercensal growth rate of 7% from 1990 to 1995, exponentially increasing in subsequent decades (except between the 2007 and 2010 censuses).

Population census of Santa Rosa
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 7,339—    
1918 10,557+2.45%
1939 15,069+1.71%
1948 17,259+1.52%
1960 26,583+3.66%
1970 41,335+4.51%
1975 47,639+2.89%
1980 64,325+6.19%
1990 94,719+3.95%
1995 138,257+7.34%
2000 185,633+6.52%
2007 266,943+5.14%
2010 284,670+2.37%
2015 353,767+4.23%
2020 414,812+3.18%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[8][9][10]
Population density
Year Density
1990 1,730/km2
1995 2,520/km2
2000 3,400/km2
2007 4,900/km2
2010 5,200/km2
2015 6,500/km2

Some inhabitants of Santa Rosa today erroneously refer to themselves as "Rosanians"; since Santa Rosa is a Spanish name, the correct demonym should be "Rosaños".

Ethnic groups[edit]

Like other places in Metro Manila, the original settlers in Santa Rosa are Tagalogs. Throughout the centuries, there has been constant migration of Spaniards, Visayans, Bikolanos, Ilokanos, Chinese, and Americans.

Languages[edit]

The main language is Filipino, which is based on Tagalog. In addition, due to continuous development of the city, English is used in education, business and information technology.

Religion[edit]

Santa Rosa de Lima Parish Church, located at the city proper

Most people are Roman Catholics. Other religious groups represented include the Aglipayans (members of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente – a breakout group from the Catholic Church in 1902 headed by the Union Obrera Democratica), the Church of God International, the United Church of Christ in the Philippines, Jesus Is Lord Church, Baptist, Jehovah's Witness, and Iglesia Evangelica Unida de Cristo (Unida Evangelical Christian Church). In 1994, some migrants and expatriates have formed the Saint Nicholas Orthodox Church (under the canonical jurisdiction of The Orthodox Metropolitanate of Hong Kong/Philippines-Ecumenical Patriarchate) in Golden City Subdivision.

Economy[edit]

Santa Rosa is considered to be the premier city and hub of South Luzon. It is also known as the Lion City of South Luzon. According to the 2013 COA AFR report, the city has an annual income of 2.3 billion, surpassing the income of Calamba and Batangas City. Santa Rosa is now the richest city in Luzon outside of Metro Manila in terms of annual income.

Special economic zones and industrial parks in Santa Rosa include:

  • Laguna Technopark Inc.
  • Greenfield Automotive Park
  • Toyota Special Economic Zone
  • Lakeside Evozone Nuvali
  • Daystar Santa Rosa Industrial Park
  • Santa Rosa Commercial Complex
  • Meridian Industrial Complex

Banking[edit]

Major commercial banks in the Philippines operate in the city. Currently, the city hosts banking institutions that offer banking services to businesses and residents. Most of these are concentrated in barangays Balibago, Don Jose, Macabling, Pulong Santa Cruz, Santo Domingo, and Tagapo.

Car dealerships[edit]

A number of car brands have put up dealerships in Santa Rosa. Prominent car dealerships include Toyota, Chevrolet, Ford (Borromeo), Foton, Honda (ANC), Hyundai, Isuzu (Gencars), JMC, Kia, Mazda (Borromeo), MG Motor (Greenfield), Mitsubishi (Amcar), Nissan (Greenfield), Subaru (ANC), and Volkswagen (Greenfield).

Furthermore, the Borromeo's Ford and Mazda have recently set up shops while two of the six ANC Group brands, Honda and Subaru, have branches in Santa Rosa.

Shopping malls[edit]

SM City Santa Rosa

The city host various shopping malls: SM City Santa Rosa, Robinsons Place Santa Rosa, Ayala Malls Solenad, Walter Mart Santa Rosa, Walter Mart Santa Rosa Bel-Air, Victory Mall Santa Rosa, Vista Mall Sta. Rosa, Paseo Outlets (formerly and still commonly known as Paseo de Santa Rosa), and Target Mall.

Industries and manufacturing[edit]

Dubbed as the "Motor City of the Philippines" or "Detroit City of the Philippines", Santa Rosa is host to multinational automotive giants Nissan Motors Co., Ltd., Toyota Motor Corporation, and Mitsubishi – all contributing 95 percent of the country's automotive production. It is also the location for the headquarters of Santarosa Motor Works, Inc.

Food conglomerate Monde Nissin Corporation, which manufactures Lucky Me! instant noodles and Monde biscuits, has a plant here in its 14-hectare (35-acre) manufacturing facility. Santa Rosa is also home to the largest plant of The Coca-Cola Company in the Philippines, situated next to the Santa Rosa Exit of South Luzon Expressway. In 2018, Santa Rosa became the new home of HAMBURG Trading Corporation's 7,000-square-meter (75,000 sq ft) facility that houses the company's warehouse, administration office, and state-of-the-art demo kitchen – all in one roof.

Information technology[edit]

Santa Rosa is aiming to be the next hub for the BPO industry. It is currently ranked 82nd in the world for its competitiveness in the Information Technology and Business Process Outsourcing services (IT-BPO) by the leading strategic advisory firm, THOLONS. BPO companies present in Santa Rosa are IQor, KGB, Teletech, IBM, and Concentrix.

Infrastructure[edit]

Transportation[edit]

A jeepney plying the Santa Rosa Commercial Complex in Balibago

Santa Rosa is serviced by South Luzon Expressway (SLEX) and Cavite–Laguna Expressway (CALAX). Two exits of SLEX are located in the city: Santa Rosa Exit and Eton City (Malitlit) Exit. The city is also accessible through Greenfield City (Mamplasan) Exit in Biñan, which provides access to CALAX, SM City Santa Rosa, and the Santa Rosa city proper. Two exits of CALAX directly serve the city, namely: Sta. Rosa City Exit (located in Barangay Carmen, Silang, Cavite) and Laguna Boulevard Exit (located within the city). A four-lane national highway from Alabang, Muntinlupa up to Calamba, Laguna passes through the city. Another road, Santa Rosa-Tagaytay Road, acts as the main route for people going up to Tagaytay from Metro Manila, especially on weekends and vacation periods.

Public transportation within the city, like in most of the urban areas in the Philippines, is facilitated mostly using inexpensive jeepneys. Tricycles are also used for short distances. The Santa Rosa railway station is located in barangay Labas, near the city center. The city is also the location of the Santa Rosa Commercial Complex, a well-known intermodal transport and commercial hub in barangay Balibago, and the Santa Rosa Integrated Terminal, a provincial bus station serving Metro Manila and eventually other parts south of Metro Manila.

Utilities and communication[edit]

Santa Rosa's source of electricity is partly from Meralco. Its water supply is provided by the Laguna Water Inc., except for Vista Land Developments (including Sta. Elena City), which is provided by Primewater Infrastructure Corporation. Santa Rosa's communication system is powered by Philippine Long Distance Telephone (PLDT) and Globe Telecom, and the cellular network in the Philippines, particularly in metropolitan areas, is increasing due to the low cost of calls and text messaging. Globe Telecom and Smart Communications (PLDT), which has acquired Sun Cellular, and Dito Telecommunity provide cellular networks in Santa Rosa. Cable and satellite Television access is provided by SkyCable, G Sat, Cignal Digital TV, and Royal Cable. Internet Digital Subscriber Line or DSL coverage is provided by PLDT, cable internet is serviced by SkyCable's ZPDee and Global Destiny. Fiber Internet Wireless broadband is provided by Globelines Broadband and Smart Communications.

Health[edit]

The Santa Rosa Community Hospital is the primary public hospital of Santa Rosa. The city also hosts at least seven other private hospitals: New Sinai MDI Hospital and Medical Center, Marian Hospital, Balibago Polyclinic and Hospital, St. James Hospital in Dita, Sta. Rosa Hospital and Medical Center along RSBS Boulevard in Balibago, The Medical City South Luzon in Greenfield City, and QualiMed Hospital – Sta. Rosa in Nuvali.

City government[edit]

Santa Rosa City Hall

Santa Rosa City is governed primarily by the city mayor, the vice mayor, and the city councilors. The mayor acts as the chief executive of the city while the city councilors act as its legislative body. The vice mayor, besides taking on mayoral responsibilities in case of a temporary vacancy, acts as the presiding officer of the city legislature. The legislative body is composed of 10 regular members and representatives from the barangay and the youth council.

Santa Rosa City Officials (2019–2022)
Position Name Party
Mayor Arlene B. Arcillas PDP–Laban
Vice Mayor Arnel D.C. Gomez NPC
Councilors Sonia U. Algabre PDP–Laban
Mythor C. Cendaña PDP–Laban
Ina Clariza B. Cartagena PDP–Laban
Laudemer A. Carta PDP–Laban
Roy M. Gonzales PDP–Laban
Ma. Theresa C. Aala PFP
Rodrigo B. Malapitan PDP–Laban
Antonio M. Tuzon, Jr. PDP–Laban
Wilfredo A. Castro PDP–Laban
Jose Joel L. Aala PDP–Laban
Ex Officio City Council Members
ABC President Aldrin M. Lumague (Tagapo)
SK President Domel Jenson Ian M. Barairo (Ibaba)

Former mayors[edit]

The following is the list of chief executives of Santa Rosa, Laguna.[17]

  1. Francisco Arambulo (1890–1894)
  2. Basilio B. Gonzales (1899–1900)
  3. Pedro Teaño Perlas (1900–1901)
  4. Pablo Monsod Manguerra, Sr. (1900–1901)
  5. Celerino Castillo Tiongco (1905–1907)
  6. Feliciano Arambulo Gomez (1908–1911)
  7. Honorio Tiongco (1912–1916)
  8. Lorenzo Cartagena Tatlonghari (1916–1922)
  9. Jose Vallejo Zavalla (1922–1925)
  10. Aquilino Carballo (1925–1926)
  11. Felixberto Castro Tiongco (1926–1928)
  12. Benito Lijauco delos Reyes (1928–1931)
  13. Hermenegildo Regalado delos Reyes (1931–1937)
  14. Celso Gonzaga Carteciano (1938–1940)
  15. Valentin Regalado delos Reyes (1941–1942)
  16. Jose Alumno Alinsod (1942 – August 1943)
  17. Valentin Regalado delos Reyes (August–December 1943)
  18. Eduardo de Leon Marcelo (1944)
  19. Angel Z. Tiongco (1944 – March 6, 1945)
  20. Jose Alumno Alinsod (March 7, 1945)
  21. Francisco Gomez Arambulo Jr. (1946–1947)
  22. Felimon delos Trinos de Guzman (1948–1951)
  23. Gervacio Almira de Guzman (1952–1955)
  24. Angel Z. Tiongco (1960–1978)
  25. Cesar E. Nepomuceno (February 3, 1978 – December 3, 1987)
  26. Zosimo B. Cartaño (February 3 – December 3, 1987)
  27. Leo T. Bustamante (OIC, December 3, 1987 – February 2, 1988)
  28. Roberto R. Gonzales (1988 – June 30, 1998)
  29. Leon C. Arcillas (June 30, 1998 – May 10, 2005)
  30. Jose B. Catindig, Jr. (May 11, 2005 – June 30, 2007)
  31. Arlene B. Arcillas (June 30, 2007 – June 30, 2016)
  32. Danilo Ramon S. Fernandez (June 30, 2016 – June 30, 2019)
  33. Arlene B. Arcillas (June 30, 2019 – present)

Education[edit]

Schools/Colleges Location
San Geronimo Emiliani School (Somascan Fathers) Santa Rosa San Lorenzo South, Barangay Malitlit Santa Rosa
Our Lady of Fatima University – Santa Rosa Campus Barangay Macabling
University of Santo Tomas – Santa Rosa Campus (U/C) Sta. Elena City, Barangay Don Jose Sinalhan Integrated High School Purok 2 Barangay Sinalhan, Santa Rosa City University of the East – Laguna Campus (U/C) Eton City, Barangay Malitlit
Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Santa Rosa Campus Barangay Tagapo
Santa Rosa Science and Technology High School J.P Rizal Blvd., Barangay Market Area, Santa Rosa, Laguna
Laguna Eastern Academy of Santa Rosa, Inc. Ambrocia Subd. Barangay Ibaba, Santa Rosa Laguna
Laguna BelAir Science School Laguna BelAir 1, Barangay Don Jose
Seven Pillars Catholic School Laguna BelAir 2, Barangay Don Jose
Dominican College of Santa Rosa RSBS Boulevard, San Lorenzo South, Barangay Balibago
Holy Rosary College Bartolazo Compound., Barangay Tagapo
Holy Rosary College – Center for Child Development F. Gomez Street., Barangay Kanluran
Canossa School Zavalla Street., Barangay Kanluran
Our Lady of Assumption College, Santa Rosa RSBS Boulevard., San Lorenzo South, Barangay Malitlit
Santa Rosa Educational Institution Tatlong Hari St., Barangay Market Area
Green Fields Integrated School of Laguna San Lorenzo South, Villa Segovia, Barangay Dita
Colegio de Santa Rosa de Lima Rizal Boulevard, Barangay Labas
Asia Technological School of Science and Arts Barangay Dita, Santa Rosa, Laguna
Systems Technology Institute (STI) Balibago Complex, Santa Rosa, Laguna
Aplaya National High School Purok 3 Brgy Aplaya, Santa Rosa, Laguna
Emmanuel Christian School – Main campus San Lorenzo South, Barangay Malitlit
Emmanuel Christian School – Ciudad Grande Campus Ciudad Grande, Barangay Market Area
Meridian Educational Institute Golden City Subd. Barangay Dila
Dita SpEd Center Barangay Dita
Santa Rosa Central III SpEd Center Barangay Kanluran
Balibago SpEd Center Barangay Balibago
St. Ignatius Technical Institute of Business and Arts Inc. Balibago, Santa Rosa, Laguna
Child Formation Center Tagapo, Santa Rosa, Laguna
Blessed Christian School de Sta. Rosa Inc. – Main Pooc, Santa Rosa, Laguna
Blessed Christian School de Sta. Rosa Inc. – Annex Balibago, Santa Rosa, Laguna

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ City of Santa Rosa | (DILG)
  2. ^ "2015 Census of Population, Report No. 3 – Population, Land Area, and Population Density" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. Quezon City, Philippines. August 2016. ISSN 0117-1453. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 25, 2021. Retrieved July 16, 2021.
  3. ^ a b c Census of Population (2020). "Region IV-A (Calabarzon)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  4. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/City%20and%20Municipal-level%20Small%20Area%20Poverty%20Estimates_%202009%2C%202012%20and%202015_0.xlsx; publication date: 10 July 2019; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  5. ^ Republic Act No. 11395 (August 28, 2019), An Act Separating the City of Santa Rosa from the First Legislative District of the Province of Laguna to Constitute the Lone Legislative District of Santa Rosa (PDF)
  6. ^ Republic Act No. 9264 (March 10, 2004), An Act Converting the Municipality of Santa Rosa in the Province of Laguna into a Component City to be Known as the City of Santa Rosa
  7. ^ "Santa Rosa: Average Temperatures and Rainfall". Meteoblue. Retrieved May 11, 2020.
  8. ^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Region IV-A (Calabarzon)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
  9. ^ Censuses of Population (1903–2007). "Region IV-A (Calabarzon)". Table 1. Population Enumerated in Various Censuses by Province/Highly Urbanized City: 1903 to 2007. NSO.
  10. ^ "Province of Laguna". Municipality Population Data. Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
  11. ^ "Poverty incidence (PI):". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved December 28, 2020.
  12. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/NSCB_LocalPovertyPhilippines_0.pdf; publication date: 29 November 2005; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  13. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/2003%20SAE%20of%20poverty%20%28Full%20Report%29_1.pdf; publication date: 23 March 2009; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  14. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/2006%20and%202009%20City%20and%20Municipal%20Level%20Poverty%20Estimates_0_1.pdf; publication date: 3 August 2012; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  15. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/2012%20Municipal%20and%20City%20Level%20Poverty%20Estima7tes%20Publication%20%281%29.pdf; publication date: 31 May 2016; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  16. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/City%20and%20Municipal-level%20Small%20Area%20Poverty%20Estimates_%202009%2C%202012%20and%202015_0.xlsx; publication date: 10 July 2019; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  17. ^ "Local Chief Executive". City Government of Santa Rosa.
  18. ^ "Sister Dalisay Lazaga". November 2018.
  19. ^ "9 Kickass Women in Philippine History You've Never Heard Of". FilipiKnow. June 3, 2018. Retrieved February 6, 2021.
  20. ^ Pa-a, Saul. "Sta. Rosa, Laguna honors 1st Filipino soprano recording artist". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved February 6, 2021.

External links[edit]