Santander, Spain

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Santander
Palacio de La Magdalena
Hotel Real
Catedral de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción
Edificio del Banco Santander
Ayuntamiento
Galeones de Vital Alsar, en la península de La Magdalena
Bahía de Santander, vista desde la península de la Magdalena
Carrusel de los Jardines de Pereda
Playa de El Sardinero
Municipality
Flag of Santander
Flag
Coat of arms of Santander
Coat of arms
Santander is located in Cantabria
Santander
Santander
Location of Santander within Cantabria
Coordinates: 43°27′46″N 3°48′18″W / 43.46278°N 3.80500°W / 43.46278; -3.80500Coordinates: 43°27′46″N 3°48′18″W / 43.46278°N 3.80500°W / 43.46278; -3.80500
Country Spain
Autonomous community Cantabria
ProvinceCantabria
ComarcaBay of Santander
Judicial districtSantander
Founded26 BC, as Portus Victoriae Iuliobrigensium 9 January 1755, granting the title of city
CapitalSantander
Government
 • AlcaldeGema Igual (2016) (PP)
Area
 • Total35 km2 (14 sq mi)
Elevation15 m (49 ft)
Highest elevation108 m (354 ft)
Lowest elevation0 m (0 ft)
Population (2017)
 • Total172,000
 • Density4,900/km2 (13,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Santanderino/a, santanderense, pejino/a, chani
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code39001-39012
Official language(s)Spanish
WebsiteOfficial website

The port city of Santander (UK: /ˌsæntənˈdɛər, -tæn-/, US: /ˌsɑːntɑːnˈdɛər/;[1] Spanish: [santanˈdeɾ]; Cántabru: Sanander) is the capital of the autonomous community and historical region of Cantabria situated on the north coast of Spain. Located east of Gijón and west of Bilbao, the city has a population of 172,000 (2017). Santander houses the headquarters of multinational bank Banco Santander, and is the location of the founding of the namesake company.

History[edit]

Origins, Roman period and Middle Ages[edit]

The origin of the earliest human settlements in the current Santander is not easy to establish because there is little written and archaeological data. However, there would appear to be good practical reasons for ancient settlers to have chosen the north side of the bay, sheltered from it and safer from the storms of the Bay of Biscay, on the north side of the promontory of Somorrostro and along the ancient Becedo estuary. Moreover, the hillside provided good visibility for spotting potential attackers, making this the ideal place for the foundation of a stable settlement, which was to evolve throughout the Middle Ages.[2]

Although it is mentioned for the first time in 1068, in a draft document made by King Sancho II, in the 9th century Alfonso II the Chaste founded the Abbey of the Holy Bodies in the existing chapel on the hill of Somorrostro, housing as holy relics the heads of Saint Emeterius and Saint Celedonius and the graves of other unknown martyrs, giving the abbey its name.[3]

Santander, c. 1590 – by Joris Hoefnagel

During the 12th and 13th centuries the population was contained within the walls of two different pueblas. La Puebla, the oldest, on the hill overlooking the city facing the bay, included the old castle, the Abbey of the Holy Bodies and the cloister. It had three rows of houses, separated by Rua Carnicerias and Rua Mayor, where the homes of prominent people of the town were, as well as those of the Abbot's canons. Meanwhile, the Puebla Nueva contained the convent of Santa Clara and San Francisco, which gave its name to one of the main streets; other important streets were the Rua de la Sal, The cavalcade Palace, Ribera, Don Gutierre, Puerta de la Sierra, Gallows and the Arcillero Rua. The two pueblas were joined by a bridge over the river that divided Becedo and flowed down to the shipyards, which were ordered by the king to take timber from the Cantabrian forests for shipbuilding. The villa was required to give the monarchy a ship per year.[citation needed]

The city owes its existence to the excellent harbour of the Bay of Santander. Santander was an important port for Castile in the later Middle Ages, and also for trade with the New World. It officially became a city in 1755.[4]

Great fire of 1941[edit]

See also (Spanish): Incendio de Santander

Santander fell victim to a great fire[5] in 1941. Fanned by a strong south wind, the fire burned for two days. The fire started in Cádiz Street, next to the harbour, the Cathedral and the medieval quarter.[6] The fire destroyed the Old Town Hall, Jesús de Monasterio and Vargas streets and Atarazanas square buildings. It led to a major change in the architecture of Santander, away from the older small stone and wood buildings with balconies to the enormous blocks of flats built during the reconstruction.[citation needed]

There was only one casualty of the fire, a firefighter from Madrid killed in the line of duty, but thousands of families were left homeless and the city was plunged into chaos. The fire destroyed the greater part of the medieval town centre and gutted the city's Romanesque cathedral.[7]

Climate[edit]

Beach of El Sardinero

The city of Santander has an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb), the annual thermal oscillation of the average monthly temperatures reaching around 10°C (18°F).

Humidity is quite high throughout the year and sometimes reaches more than 80%. Average daily maximum temperatures vary from 24 °C (75 °F) in summer down to 13 °C (55 °F) in winter. Summer temperatures are much cooler than in the more southern large cities of Spain, but are typical of the Atlantic coastline. In general however, summers are warmer than further west on the northern coastline. The damp, mild winters are more typical of the mediterranean climate but the frequent precipitation in summer prevents Santander and the northern coast being classified as cool-summer mediterranean, despite having similar temperatures to many such areas. As regards to daytime temperatures, summers in Santander are similar to coastal areas of western France, such as La Rochelle, and coastal areas in the Pacific Northwest, such as Seattle.

The maximum temperature reached in Santander Airport was 37.8 °C (100 °F) on 27 June 2009, and the minimum temperature −5.4 °C (22 °F) on 21 January 1957. The warmest maximum daytime average for a month was in August 2003, with 27.1 °C (80.8 °F).[8] Subtropical months (mean above 22 °C (72 °F)) are however rare. Another weather station recorded 40.2 °C (104 °F) on 17 August 1943.[9]

Sunshine hours are very low by comparison with the rest of mainland and southern Spain. Even compared with other areas of northern Spain, such as Galicia, which have much more sunshine hours in coastal cities such as Vigo or Pontevedra. With just around 1650 hours of sunshine, Santander is about as sunny as London and Paris, and quite a bit less sunny than most of England's south coastal regions.

Climate data for Santander Airport (1981–2010) Record Temperatures (1954–2016)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 25.1
(77.2)
29.0
(84.2)
31.3
(88.3)
30.6
(87.1)
36.8
(98.2)
37.8
(100)
37.2
(99)
37.3
(99.1)
37.6
(99.7)
33.5
(92.3)
28.0
(82.4)
25.4
(77.7)
37.8
(100)
Average high °C (°F) 13.6
(56.5)
13.8
(56.8)
15.7
(60.3)
16.6
(61.9)
19.1
(66.4)
21.6
(70.9)
23.6
(74.5)
24.2
(75.6)
22.8
(73)
20.3
(68.5)
16.3
(61.3)
14.2
(57.6)
18.5
(65.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 9.7
(49.5)
9.8
(49.6)
11.3
(52.3)
12.4
(54.3)
15.1
(59.2)
17.8
(64)
19.8
(67.6)
20.3
(68.5)
18.6
(65.5)
16.1
(61)
12.5
(54.5)
10.5
(50.9)
14.5
(58.1)
Average low °C (°F) 5.8
(42.4)
5.7
(42.3)
7.0
(44.6)
8.3
(46.9)
11.1
(52)
13.9
(57)
16.0
(60.8)
16.4
(61.5)
14.4
(57.9)
11.8
(53.2)
8.7
(47.7)
6.7
(44.1)
10.5
(50.9)
Record low °C (°F) −5.4
(22.3)
−5.2
(22.6)
−3.0
(26.6)
0.6
(33.1)
2.6
(36.7)
5.6
(42.1)
6.0
(42.8)
6.0
(42.8)
2.8
(37)
1.4
(34.5)
−3.5
(25.7)
−5.2
(22.6)
−5.4
(22.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 106
(4.17)
92
(3.62)
88
(3.46)
102
(4.02)
78
(3.07)
58
(2.28)
52
(2.05)
73
(2.87)
83
(3.27)
120
(4.72)
157
(6.18)
118
(4.65)
1,129
(44.45)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 12 11 10 12 10 8 7 8 9 11 13 12 124
Average relative humidity (%) 72 72 71 72 74 75 75 76 76 75 75 73 74
Mean monthly sunshine hours 85 104 135 149 172 178 187 180 160 129 93 74 1,649
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[10]

Tourism[edit]

The bars and restaurants of the old town are popular with tourists, as well as the El Sardinero beach a couple of kilometres away.[11]

Politics and government[edit]

City Council

The PP were the leading party in the municipal elections of 1999, 2003 and 2007.[12]

Economy[edit]

As a service centre at the regional level, Santander contains important public institutions and private organisations with a large number of employees, including Marqués de Valdecilla University Hospital, the University of Cantabria and Grupo Santander. Activities related to culture, leisure and tourism are an important part of the city's economy, and the regional and municipal authorities look to augment the summer tourist trade with additional offerings, including conventions, conferences, cultural festivals and cruises. Banco Santander, Spain's largest bank and corporation, is headquartered here.[citation needed]

The city[edit]

Main sights[edit]

Building of Bank of Santander, where it originated and where it has its registered office.
First beach of El Sardinero. In the background the Sardinero Hotel located in the Plaza de Italia, which dominates the view of the sand.
  • The Cathedral of Santander:[13]
    • The lower temple, called "cripta del Cristo" was built around 1200 on other earlier Roman buildings. It is 31 meters long and 18 wide, organised into three naves. Its style is a transition from romanesque to gothic and is accessed by two doors of late romanesque. Here the remains of the Holy Martyrs (Emeterius and Celedonius) are kept, which reached Portus Victoriae (the ancient Roman Santander) by boat.
    • The upper church was built between the late 13th and 14th century. After it was completed the gothic cloister was built.
  • El Sardinero was in 1840 a rugged area of Santander environment.[14]
  • The Palacio de la Magdalena, eclectic style, English influenced, built in 1909 by public subscription as a gift for the Spanish Royal Family.[15]
  • El Hotel Real was opened in the summer of 1917, in a privileged location overlooking the bay and the open sea. It is a five-story building, with south porch on a high terrace. The style is modern with an air of eclecticism, by the architect González Riancho.[16]
  • The Gran Casino del Sardinero completed in 1916, has some relationship to El Hotel Real and is one of the symbols of the city. It has a terrace balcony which is accessed by a monumental staircase. The two-story central body is framed at the sides with two octagonal towers, covered by domes, whose edges involved, from top to bottom, shafts with capitals for each floor.[17]
  • The Lighthouse of Cabo Mayor presides over the entrance to the Bay of Santander.[18]
Monument to José María de Pereda in the gardens of the same name. The prints are seen around the bust of Pereda, depicting scenes from their works.

Streets, avenues and boulevards[edit]

  • Paseo de Pereda (The ancient pier is a promenade overlooking the bay and the towns of Somo and Pedreña. cafés can be found as old as "El Suizo" where, in the past, traders and military writers met, such as Pereda himself). The Gardens also have the same name (which, in turn, is the monument to the writer José María de Pereda, which contains references to his works).
  • Reina Victoria Avenue (location of chalets overlooking the bay. Through this street is access to the beach Los Peligros).
  • Paseo del General Dávila (El Alta) (former Meteorological Observatory of Santander, I.E.S. José María de Pereda, Conservatorio Jesús de Monasterio).
  • Paseo de Pérez Galdós.
  • Castelar Street. (Overlooking the bay, joins the Paseo de Pereda with Reina Victoria Avenue)
  • Calvo Sotelo Street (Ministry of Finance, Post).
  • Burgos Street (It is one of the oldest streets of the city. It may be considered part of the old part of town, although the first references to the street date from the mid-18th century. The title of Burgos Street was awarded in 1845. The pedestrian-only street has benefited the trade of the area and its residents. This street is the headquarters of the ONCE and the Plaza de Juan Carlos I).
  • San Fernando Street (Street with great traffic flow is the main gateway to the city center. The Plaza de las Cervezas is a pedestrian-only area which belongs to this street, named for the brewery (La Cruz Blanca) which stood there before its current disposition.)
  • Alameda de Oviedo (Paseo full of trees, runs from the streets of San Fernando and Vargas, parallel to them, between Cuatro Caminos and Numancia).
  • Avenida de los Castros (In this broad avenue are located most of the universities centres of the University of Cantabria)

Parks and gardens[edit]

Las Llamas Atlantic Park
  • Park of la Magdalena (Located on the Magdalena Peninsula, it is a major tourist spot thanks to the Palacio de la Magdalena, the tank seals and the old stables of the palace, where different college classes at UIMP are held.)
  • Las Llamas Atlantic Park (Open to the public on 11 May 2007, but today is still under construction. The park was initially budgeted at 22.5 million euros, but its price has risen 39.1% (8.8 million euros) for the incorporation of improvements).[19]
  • Piquío Gardens (so called because they are shaped like the beak of a ship that "enters" into the sea, referring to the views offered at the end of the garden).
  • La Marga Park (located on the outskirts of the city, at the end of Castilla Street, named for the old timber that was placed there.)

Squares[edit]

Plaza de Pombo has traditionally been a meeting place and focus of collectors and children, to exchange stamps or stickers from various collections.
Plaza de Italia
Magdalena Royal Palace
  • Plaza del Ayuntamiento (City Council Square).
  • Plaza de Pedro Velarde (Pedro Velarde Square) or Plaza Porticada.
  • Plaza de Pombo (Pombo Square)
  • Plaza de Atarazanas (Shipyards Square) or Plaza de la Catedral.

Smart city[edit]

Santander is pilot for a Smart city. It is embedded with 12,000 sensors.[20][21]

Education[edit]

First, the School of Navigation, part of the University of Cantabria, and in the background, the Palacio de Festivales de Cantabria.

Culture[edit]

Santander has a great tradition and cultural activity, with events that play an important role in cultural and social life of the city. UIMP is a major international summer university and organizes large festivals of music and dance. The Festival Internacional de Santander (FIS), Festival Internacional de Música de Órgano (FiMÓC), Encuentro de Música y Academia and the Paloma O'Shea International Piano Competition are main cultural events.

Festivals[edit]

Bahía Hotel, Santander
'Cantabria Child Day' in the campa of la Magdalena.

Santander is a city of many festivals and pilgrimages, distributed across the various neighborhoods and areas of the city. Worthy of mention is the existence of many feasts of neighborhood character, such as those of Mendicoague, Perines, etc. The best known festivals in Santander and more tourist attraction, are:[citation needed]

  • January 5: The Cavalcade of Magi covers a small part of the city, from the Palacio de Festivales to the Plaza del Ayuntamiento.
  • The first Sunday of June: Cantabria Child Day is celebrated on Magdalena. It is a 'Regional Tourist Interest', an exaltation of the native, organized by the "Association for the Defence of the Interests of Cantabria" (ADIC), an association founded by Miguel Ángel Revilla. In this event are shown, among other things, an exhibition of "Aluche" (Ancient Cantabrian Fighting) and types of rural sports like milkmaid racing, archery, salto pasiego and wood chopping.
  • Monday of Pentecost: Fiestas de la Virgen del Mar.
  • June 24: The Bonfires of Saint John is celebrated in El Sardinero, particularly in the second beach of Sardinero. This festival celebrates the arrival of summer with a bonfire and a pilgrimage. In other parts of the municipality bonfires are also made, as in la Albericia and the Barrio Pesquero neighborhoods.
  • July 25: Festivals of Saint James (Regional Tourist Interest).
  • August 30: Feasts of the Holy Martyrs (Emeterius and Celedonius). Santander patrons.
  • September 15: Fiestas de la Virgen de la Bien Aparecida, patroness of the Diocese of Santander and Cantabria ('Regional Tourist Interest'.)

Diet[edit]

Santander's cuisine is characteristic of Cantabria in that it is based mainly on seafood. Popular shellfish include almejas (clams) and navajas (razor clams); fish include seabream, red mullet, anchovies, seabass and sardines; and squid and cuttlefish are also commonly eaten.

Some typical dishes from the city of Santander are the fried calamari called rabas, double donuts, bean stew called cocido montañés, and seafood dishes ranging from seabass and sardine to products such as morguera.

Some of the popular locations to get food in the city include the Barrio Pesquero, Puertochico, El Sardinero, and Corbán.

Famous people[edit]

Historical Figures[edit]

19th Century[edit]

20th Century[edit]

Athletes[edit]

Sports[edit]

Sporting marina in Puertochico
Mataleñas municipal golf fields, in Cape Menor

In this city Racing de Santander, one of the historic and certainly that was one of the founders of La Liga, play their home games at the Campos de Sport de El Sardinero. Racing de Santander has been 40 seasons in first division and 32 in second. In the 1930/1931 season, it finished second level on points with Athletic Club Bilbao (champion) and the Real Sociedad (third), that time was the one that came closest to winning the league championship.

A long tradition in the city was handball, with CB Cantabria as a banner that has taken the name of Santander in Europe and the world with the achievement of several international titles, the European Cup in 1994,the Recopa in 1990 and 1998 and the EHF Cup in 1993. Currently, the club is dissolved. The only team that has an important place in the national scene at the moment is the Adelma Santander 2016, belonging to the Handball Club Sinfín. It competes in the category of the División de Honor Plata (second division).

Some elite teams of Santander:

Club Sport Ligue Stadium
Racing de Santander Football Segunda División B Campos de Sport de El Sardinero
GoFit Sinfín Handball Liga ASOBAL Pabellón Municipal de La Albericia
Cantbasket and CD Estela Basketball Liga EBA Palacio de Deportes de Santander
Balonmano Pereda Women's handball División de Honor B Pabellón de Numancia
Real Sociedad de Tenis de La Magdalena Field hockey Honour Division La Albericia
Señor Independiente Rugby Union Honour Division Mies de Cozada

Panoramic view[edit]

View of the city from the Bay of Santander.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jones, Daniel (2003) [1917], Peter Roach, James Hartmann and Jane Setter, eds., English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 3-12-539683-2
  2. ^ Fernández González, Lorena (2002). Santander una ciudad Medieval. Estvdio. ISBN 9788495742056.
  3. ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia: Santander". Newadvent.org. 1 February 1912. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
  4. ^ Ringrose, David R. (2005). Toward a contemporary city: Santander, 1755-1910. Ed. Universidad de Cantabria. p. 7. ISBN 9788481029772.
  5. ^ Aupí, Vicente (2005). El Incendio de 1941 en Santander. Guía del Clima en España. Omega. p. 75. Consultado el 16 de mayo de 2013. ISBN 84-282-1370-4
  6. ^ "Así ocurrió", El Diario Montañés (in Spanish), 12 February 2011, retrieved 14 December 2014
  7. ^ "Balance de la tragedia", El Diario Montañés (in Spanish), 13 February 2011, retrieved 14 December 2014
  8. ^ "Extreme values for Santander". Aemet.es. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  9. ^ "Extreme values for Santander, Ciudad". Aemet.es. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  10. ^ "Valores Climatológicos Normales. Santander / Aeropuerto". July 2011.
  11. ^ "Santander". Spain: Cantabria and Asturias. Rough Guides. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
  12. ^ "Resultados municipales: Santander". El Pais. PRISA. Archived from the original on 28 May 2007. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  13. ^ David de la Garma. "Catedral de Santander" (in Spanish). Arteguias.com. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
  14. ^ "City of Santander". Cantabriajoven.com. Archived from the original on 2 January 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
  15. ^ "Palace of La Magdalena, History".
  16. ^ "History Eurostars Hotel Real". Retrieved 2014-12-15.
  17. ^ "Gran Casino Sardinero". Retrieved 2014-12-15.
  18. ^ "Lighthouse of Cabo Mayor". Puertosantander.es. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
  19. ^ J. F. R./Santander (1 December 1997). "El Parque de Las Llamas quedará abierto al público el próximo viernes". Eldiariomontanes.es. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
  20. ^ Santander: The Smartest Smart City. Governing, May 2014
  21. ^ SmartSantander Website

Bibliography[edit]

See also: Bibliography of the history of Santander

External links[edit]