The Sanumá, also referred to as Sanema, Sanima Tsanuma, Guaika, Samatari, Samatali, Xamatari and Chirichano in the literature, are an indigenous people of Brazil and Venezuela They are related to the Yanomami. They number about 1500 and live on both sides of the border. In Venezuela they are found in the Caura River and Ventuari River basins where they live alongside the Ye'kuana. The Sanumá language is a Yanomam language.
On 24 October 2006, their reserve in Venezuela was invaded by miners who destroyed some of their villages. In retaliation the Venezuelan army killed 10 miners. This incident led to mass protests by non-Indians in Southern Venezuela.