Saponification value (or "saponification number"/"Koettstorfer number", also referred to as "sap" for short) represents the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to saponify 1g of fat under the conditions specified. It is a measure of the average molecular weight (or chain length) of all the fatty acids present. As most of the mass of a fat/tri-ester is in the 3 fatty acids, the saponification value allows for comparison of the average fatty acid chain length. The long chain fatty acids found in fats have a low saponification value because they have a relatively fewer number of carboxylic functional groups per unit mass of the fat as compared to short chain fatty acids. If more moles of base are required to saponify N grams of fat then there are more moles of the fat and the chain lengths are relatively small, given the following relation:
Number of moles = mass of oil / average molecular mass
The calculated molar mass is not applicable to fats and oils containing high amounts of unsaponifiable material, free fatty acids (>0.1%), or mono- and diacylglycerols (>0.1%).
Handmade soap makers who aim for bar soap use NaOH (sodium hydroxide, lye). Because saponification values are listed in KOH (potassium hydroxide) the value must be converted from potassium to sodium to make bar soap; potassium soaps make a paste, gel or liquid soap. To convert KOH values to NaOH values, divide the KOH values by the ratio of the molecular weights of KOH and NaOH (1.403).
Unsaponifiables are components of an oily (oil, fat, wax) mixture that fail to form soaps when treated with sodium hydroxide (lye) or potassium hydroxide. Since saponifiable components of the original oil mixture do form soaps, the result of a soap making procedure is a mixture of soaps and other, frequently oily, materials.
Unsaponifiable constituents are an important consideration when selecting oil mixtures for the manufacture of soaps. Unsaponifiables can be beneficial to a soap formula because they may have properties such as moisturization, conditioning, vitamins, texture, etc. On the other hand, if the proportion of unsaponifiables is too high, or the specific unsaponifiables present do not provide significant benefits, a defective or inferior soap product can result.
Percentage of unsaponifiables
The percentage of unsaponifiable material varies with the substance:
- low percentage (<1%) : refined oils, refined shea butter, olive oil
- high percentage (6–17%): unrefined shea butter
- very high percentage (≥50%): beeswax
- unsaponifiable (~100%) mineral oil, paraffin wax
- "Koettstorfer number".
- "Saponification Value of Fats and Oils". Retrieved January 18, 2018.
- "Saponification value of Fat and Oil" (PDF). kyoto-kem.com. Retrieved July 8, 2016.
- Klaus Schumann, Kurt Siekmann (2005). "Soaps". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a24_247.
- Gunstone, Frank D.; Harwood, John L.; Padley, Fred B. The Lipid Handbook, Second Edition. CRC Press. p. 332. ISBN 9780412433207. Retrieved 24 June 2016.