Sapphire Rapids

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Sapphire Rapids
General information
LaunchedJanuary 10, 2023; 15 months ago (2023-01-10)
Marketed byIntel
Designed byIntel
Common manufacturer(s)
CPUID code806F6
Product code80713
Performance
Max. CPU clock rateUp to 4.8 GHz
QPI speeds16 GT/s
DMI speeds16 GT/s
Cache
L1 cache80 KB per core (32 KB instruction + 48 KB data)
L2 cache2 MB per core
L3 cacheUp to 112.5 MB (1.875 MB per core)
L4 cache64 GB HBM2a (Xeon Max only)
Architecture and classification
ApplicationServer
Workstation
Embedded
Technology nodeIntel 7 (previously known as 10ESF)
MicroarchitectureGolden Cove
Instruction setx86-64
InstructionsMMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, AVX2, FMA3, AVX-512, AVX-VNNI, TSX, AMX, AES-NI, CLMUL, RDRAND
Extensions
Physical specifications
Cores
  • 6-60 per socket
Memory (RAM)
  • Up to 4 TB per socket
  • Up to octa-channel DDR5-4800 with ECC support
Package(s)
Socket(s)
Products, models, variants
Product code name(s)
  • SPR
Model(s)
  • Sapphire Rapids-SP
  • Sapphire Rapids-WS
  • Sapphire Rapids-HBM
Brand name(s)
  • Xeon Bronze/Sliver/Gold/Platinum
  • Xeon Max Series
  • Xeon w3/w5/w7/w9
History
Predecessor(s)Ice Lake (workstations, 1S and 2S servers)
Cooper Lake (4S and 8S servers)
Successor(s)Emerald Rapids
Support status
Supported

Sapphire Rapids is a codename for Intel's server (fourth generation Xeon Scalable) and workstation (Xeon W-2400 and Xeon W-3400) processors based on the Golden Cove microarchitecture and produced using Intel 7.[1][2][3][4] Featuring up to 60 cores and an array of accelerators, it is the first generation of Intel server and workstation processors to use a chiplet design.

Sapphire Rapids is part of the Eagle Stream server platform.[5][6] In addition, it powers Aurora, an exascale supercomputer in the United States, at Argonne National Laboratory.[7]

History[edit]

Sapphire Rapids has been a long-standing Intel project along Alder Lake in development for over five years and has been subjected to many delays.[8] Sapphire Rapids was first announced by Intel at their Investor Meeting in May 2019 with the intention of Sapphire Rapids succeeding Ice Lake and Cooper Lake in 2021.[9][10] Intel again announced details on Sapphire Rapids in their August 2021 Architecture Day presentation with no mention of a launch date.[11] Intel CEO Pat Gelsinger tacitly blamed the previous Intel leadership as a reason for Sapphire Rapid's many delays.[8] One industry analyst firm claimed that Intel was having problems with yields from its Intel 7 node with yields of 50–60% on higher core-count silicon.[12] Sapphire Rapids was originally scheduled for a launch in the first half of 2022.[13] It was later scheduled for release in Q4 2022 but was again delayed to early 2023.[14] The specific announcement date of January 10, 2023 was not revealed by Intel until November 2022.[15] The server processor lineup was released on January 10, 2023, and the workstation processor lineup was released on February 15, 2023.[16] Nevine Nassif is a chief engineer for this generation.[17] Those processors were available for shipping on March 14 of that year.[18] Intel shipped millionth of this generation Xeon processors at 2023.[19]

Features[edit]

CPU[edit]

Accelerators[edit]

  • In-Field Scan (IFS), a technology that allows for testing the processor for potential hardware faults without taking it completely offline[24]
  • Data Streaming Accelerator (DSA), allows for speeding up data copy and transformation between different kinds of storage[25][26]
  • QuickAssist Technology (QAT), allows for improved performance of compression and encryption tasks[26]
  • Dynamic Load Balancer (DLB), allows for offloading tasks of load balancing, packet prioritization and queue management[26]
  • In-Memory Analytics Accelerator (IAA), allows accelerating in-memory databases and big data analytics[26]

Not all accelerators are available in all processor models. Some accelerators are available under the Intel On Demand program, also known as Software Defined Silicon (SDSi), where a license is required to activate a given accelerator that is physically present in the processor. The license can be obtained as a one-time purchase or as a paid subscription. Activating the license requires support in the operating system. A driver with the necessary support was added in Linux kernel version 6.2.[27][26]

I/O[edit]

Die configurations[edit]

Sapphire Rapids come in two varieties: the low-core-count variety uses a single die (MCC), and the high-core-count variety uses multiple dies on a single package (XCC).

XCC multi-die configuration[edit]

  • Multi-chiplet chip with four tiles linked by 2.5D Embedded Multi-die Interconnect Bridges. Each tile is a 400mm2 system on a chip, providing both compute cores and I/O.[30]
    • Each tile contains 15 Golden Cove cores, and a single UPI link
    • Each tile's memory controller provides two channels of DDR5 ECC supporting 4 DIMMs (2 per channel) and 1 TB of memory with a maximum of 8 channels, 16 DIMMs, and 4 TB memory across 4 tiles[31]
    • A tile provides up to 32 PCIe 5.0 lanes, but one of the eight PCIe controllers of a CPU is usually reserved for DMI, resulting in a maximum of 112 non-chipset lanes. This maximum is only reached in the W-3400 series processors, while the server processors have 80 (20 per tile).[32]

List of Sapphire Rapids processors[edit]

Sapphire Rapids-HBM (High Bandwidth Memory/Xeon Max Series)[edit]

Xeon Max processors contain 64 GB of High Bandwidth Memory.

Model
number
Cores
(threads)
Base
clock
Turbo Boost Smart
cache
TDP Maximum
scalability
Registered
DDR5
w. ECC
support
UPI
links
Release
MSRP
(USD)
All
core
Single
core
9480 56 (112) 1.9 GHz 2.6 GHz 3.5 GHz 112.5 MB 350 W 2S 4800 MT/s 4 $12980
9470 52 (104) 2.0 GHz 2.7 GHz 105.0 MB $11590
9468 48 (96) 2.1 GHz 2.6 GHz $9900
9460 40 (80) 2.2 GHz 2.7 GHz 97.5 MB 3 $8750
9462 32 (64) 2.7 GHz 3.1 GHz 75.0 MB $7995

Sapphire Rapids-SP (Scalable Performance)[edit]

With its maximum of 60 cores, Sapphire Rapids-SP competes with AMD's Epyc 8004/9004 Genoa with up to 96 cores and Bergamo with up to 128 cores. Sapphire Rapids Xeon server processors are scalable from single-socket configurations up to 8 socket configurations.[33][34]

Suffixes to denote:[35]

  • +: Includes 1 of each of the four accelerators: DSA, IAA, QAT, DLB
  • H: Database and analytics workloads, supports 4S (Xeon Gold) and/or 8S (Xeon Platinum) configurations and includes all of the accelerators
  • M: Media transcode workloads
  • N: Network/5G/Edge workloads (High TPT/Low Latency), some are uniprocessor
  • P: Cloud and infrastructure as a service (IaaS) workloads
  • Q: Liquid cooling
  • S: Storage & Hyper-converged infrastructure (HCI) workloads
  • T: Long-life use/High thermal case
  • U: Uniprocessor (some workload-specific SKUs may also be uniprocessor)
  • V: Optimized for cloud and software as a service (SaaS) workloads, some are uniprocessor
  • Y: Speed Select Technology-Performance Profile (SST-PP) enabled (some workload-specific SKUs may also support SST-PP)
  • Y+: Speed Select Technology-Performance Profile (SST-PP) enabled and includes 1 of each of the accelerators.
Model
number
Cores
(threads)
Base
clock
Turbo Boost Smart
cache
TDP Maximum
scalability
Registered
DDR5
w. ECC
support
UPI
links
Release
MSRP
(USD)
All
core
Single
core
Xeon Platinum (8400)
8490H 60 (120) 1.9 GHz 2.9 GHz 3.5 GHz 112.5 MB 350 W 8S 4800 MT/s 4 $17000
8488C 48 (96) 2.4 GHz 3.2 GHz 3.8 GHz 105.0 MB 385 W 2S ?
8487C 56 (112) 1.9 GHz ? 3.8 GHz 350 W ?
8481C 2.0 GHz 2.9 GHz ?
8480+ 3.0 GHz 4 $10710
8480C
8478C 48 (96) 2.2 GHz ? ?
8475B 2.7 GHz 3.2 GHz 97.5 MB ?
8474C 2.1 GHz ? ?
8473C 52 (104) 2.9 GHz 105.0 MB ?
8471N 1.8 GHz 2.8 GHz 3.6 GHz 97.5 MB 300 W 1S 4 $5171
8470Q 2.1 GHz 3.2 GHz 3.8 GHz 105.0 MB 350 W 2S $9410
8470N 1.7 GHz 2.7 GHz 3.6 GHz 97.5 MB 300 W $9520
8470 2.0 GHz 3.0 GHz 3.8 GHz 105.0 MB 350 W $9359
8469C 48 (96) 2.6 GHz 3.1 GHz 97.5 MB ?
8468V 2.4 GHz 2.9 GHz 330 W 3 $7121
8468H 2.1 GHz 3.0 GHz 105.0 MB 8S 4 $13923
8468 3.1 GHz 350 W 2S $7214
8465C 52 (104) 2.9 GHz ?
8462Y+ 32 (64) 2.8 GHz 3.6 GHz 4.1 GHz 60.0 MB 300 W 3 $5945
8461V 48 (96) 2.2 GHz 2.8 GHz 3.7 GHz 97.5 MB 1S 0 $4491
8460Y+ 40 (80) 2.0 GHz 105.0 MB 2S 4 $5558
8460H 2.2 GHz 3.1 GHz 3.8 GHz 330 W 8S $10710
8458P 44 (88) 2.7 GHz 3.2 GHz 82.5 MB 350 W 2S 3 $7121
8454H 32 (64) 2.1 GHz 2.7 GHz 3.4 GHz 270 W 8S 4 $6540
8452Y 36 (72) 2.0 GHz 2.8 GHz 3.2 GHz 67.5 MB 300 W 2S $3995
8450H 28 (56) 2.6 GHz 3.5 GHz 75.0 MB 250 W 8S $4708
8444H 16 (32) 2.9 GHz 3.2 GHz 4.0 GHz 45.0 MB 270 W $4234
8432C 40 (80) ? ? 3.8 GHz ? 350 W 2S ?
8422C 36 (72) ? ? ? ? ?
Xeon Gold (5400 and 6400)
6462C 32 (64) 3.3 GHz ? ? 60.0 MB ? 2S 4800 MT/s ?
6458Q 3.1 GHz 4.0 GHz 350 W 3 $6416
6456C 2.9 GHz 3.3 GHz 4.1 GHz 280 W ?
6454S 2.2 GHz 2.8 GHz 3.4 GHz 270 W 4 $3157
6448Y 2.1 GHz 3.0 GHz 4.1 GHz 225 W 3 $3583
6448H 2.4 GHz 3.2 GHz 250 W 4S $3658
6444Y 16 (32) 3.6 GHz 4.0 GHz 45.0 MB 270 W 2S $3622
6442Y 24 (48) 2.6 GHz 3.3 GHz 4.0 GHz 60.0 MB 225 W $2878
6438Y+ 32 (64) 2.0 GHz 2.8 GHz 205 W $3141
6438N 2.7 GHz 3.6 GHz $3351
6438M 2.2 GHz 2.8 GHz 3.9 GHz $3273
6434H 8 (16) 3.7 GHz 4.1 GHz 22.5 MB 195 W 4S $3070
6434 2S $2607
6430 32 (64) 2.1 GHz 2.6 GHz 3.4 GHz 60.0 MB 270 W 4400 MT/s $2128
6428N 1.8 GHz 2.5 GHz 3.8 GHz 185 W 4000 MT/s $3200
6426Y 16 (32) 2.5 GHz 3.3 GHz 4.1 GHz 37.5 MB 4800 MT/s $1517
6421N 32 (64) 1.8 GHz 2.6 GHz 3.6 GHz 60.0 MB 1S 4400 MT/s $2368
6418H 24 (48) 2.1 GHz 2.9 GHz 4.0 GHz 4S 4800 MT/s $2065
6416H 18 (36) 2.2 GHz 4.2 GHz 45.0 MB 165 W $1444
6414U 32 (64) 2.0 GHz 2.6 GHz 3.4 GHz 60.0 MB 250 W 1S 0 $2296
5420+ 28 (56) 2.7 GHz 4.1 GHz 52.5 MB 205 W 2S 4400 MT/s 3 $1848
5418Y 24 (48) 2.8 GHz 3.8 GHz 45.0 MB 185 W $1483
5418N 1.8 GHz 2.6 GHz 165 W 4000 MT/s $1664
5416S 16 (32) 2.0 GHz 2.8 GHz 4.0 GHz 30.0 MB 150 W 4400 MT/s $944
5415+ 8 (16) 2.9 GHz 3.6 GHz 4.1 GHz 22.5 MB $1066
5412U 24 (48) 2.1 GHz 2.9 GHz 3.9 GHz 45.0 MB 185 W 1S 0 $1113
5411N 1.9 GHz 2.8 GHz 165 W 3 $1388
Xeon Silver (4400)
4416+ 20 (40) 2.0 GHz 2.9 GHz 3.9 GHz 37.5 MB 165 W 2S 4000 MT/s 2 $1176
4410Y 12 (24) 2.8 GHz 30.0 MB 150 W $563
4410T 10 (20) 2.7 GHz 3.4 GHz 4.0 GHz 26.25 MB $624
Xeon Bronze (3400, 3500)
3508U 8 (8) 2.1 GHz 2.2 GHz 22.5 MB 125 W 1S 4400 MT/s 0 $415-$425
3408U 1.8 GHz 1.9 GHz 4000 MT/s

Sapphire Rapids-WS (Workstation)[edit]

With its maximum of 56 cores, Sapphire Rapids-WS competes with AMD's Threadripper PRO 5000WX Chagall with up to 64 cores.[36] Like Intel's Core product segmentation into i3, i5, i7 and i9, Sapphire Rapids-WS is labeled Xeon w3, w5, w7 and w9.[37] Sapphire Rapids-WS was unveiled in February 2023, and was made available for OEMs in March.[38][39] CPUs with "X" suffix have its multiplier unlocked for overclocking.[40]

  • No suffix letter: Locked clock multiplier
  • X: Unlocked clock multiplier (adjustable with no ratio limit)
  • Xeon W-2400 uses a monolithic design and supports up to 64 PCI Express 5.0 lanes, while Xeon W-3400 uses a multi-chip module design and supports up to 112 lanes. Both support 8 DMI 4.0 lanes.
Model Cores
(threads)
Clock rate (GHz) Smart
cache
Registered
DDR5
w. ECC
support
TDP Release
MSRP
(USD)
Base Turbo Boost Base Turbo
2.0 3.0
Xeon W-3400 (SPR-112L)
w9-3495X 56 (112) 1.9 4.6 4.8 105 MB 8-channel
4800 MT/s
4 TB
350 W 420 W $5889
w9-3475X 36 (72) 2.2 82.5 MB 300 W $3739
w7-3465X 28 (56) 2.5 75.0 MB 300 W 360 W $2889
w7-3455 24 (48) 67.5 MB 270 W 324 W $2489
w7-3445 20 (40) 2.6 52.5 MB $1989
w5-3435X 16 (32) 3.1 4.5 4.7 45.0 MB $1589
w5-3425 12 (24) 3.2 4.4 4.6 30.0 MB $1189
Xeon W-2400 (SPR-64L)
w7-2495X 24 (48) 2.5 4.6 4.8 45.0 MB 4-channel
4800 MT/s
2 TB
225 W 270 W $2189
w7-2475X 20 (40) 2.6 37.5 MB $1789
w5-2465X 16 (32) 3.1 4.5 4.7 33.75 MB 200 W 240 W $1389
w5-2455X 12 (24) 3.2 4.4 4.6 30.0 MB $1039
w5-2445 10 (20) 3.1 26.25 MB 175 W 210 W $839
w3-2435 8 (16) 4.3 4.5 22.5 MB 4-channel
4400 MT/s
2 TB
165 W 198 W $669
w3-2425 6 (12) 3.0 4.2 4.4 15.0 MB 130 W 156 W $529
w3-2423 2.1 4.0 4.2 120 W 144 W $359

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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