Saproamanita

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Saproamanita
Amanita vittadini.jpg
Saproamanita vittadinii in grass in Italy
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Division:
Class:
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Genus:
Saproamanita

Redhead, Vizzini, Drehmel & Contu (2016)
Type species
Saproamanita vittadinii [1]
(Moretti) Redhead, Vizzini, Drehmel & Contu (2016)
Diversity
c. 23 species
Synonyms

Lepidella E.-J. Gilbert (1925)
Amanita subgen. Lepidella Beauseigneur (1925)
Aspidella E.-J. Gilbert (1940)
Amanita subgen. Aspidella E.-J. Gilbert (1941)
Amanita sect. Lepidella Corner & Bas (1962)
Amanita sect. Aspidella Pomerleau (1966)
Amanita subsect. Vittadinae Bas (1969)
Amanita ser. Vittadinae (Bas) Neville & Poumarat (2004)

The genus Saproamanita contains about 24 species of agarics and is one of six genera in the family Amanitaceae. The others are Amanita (which now includes the synonym Torrendia), Catatrama, Limacellopsis, Zhuliangomyces[2] and Limacella.[3][4] Saproamanita are the saprophytic species in the Tribe Amaniteae separately classified from the ectomycorrhizal species in the genus Amanita.

Saproamanita resemble Amanita and have a pileus, free lamellae, a central stipe, and an annulus with scales and rings below the annulus that are the remnants of the universal veil composed largely of cylindrical to slender clavate inflated hyphal cells mostly scattered in the central stipe region rather than the base. The spores are white and amyloid. DNA molecular evidence for the separation of the saprotrophic genus from the sister genus of symbiotic genus Amanita was first detected in a study of mushrooms and their families in 2002 when Saproamanita armillariiformis [under the name Amanita armillariiformis] appeared basal to Amanita.[5] Later studies supported by larger samplings of species and additional gene regions in investigations of the family Amanitaceae expanded the sampling of both groups of species that were all considered to be Amanita species[6][7][8] or separated into two genera under the names Aspidella and Amanita.[9] In that most detailed study of decomposition pathway enzymes that lends support for taxonomic separation[7], the subgeneric name Amanita subgen. Lepidella was misapplied to a group of species that did not include the type species of the subgenus. That subgeneric group of mycorrhizal species[7] is more correctly named Amanita subgen. Amanitina and not subgen. Lepidella.[3][10]

Saproamanita are known to inhabit grasslands, lawns, pastures, fens, and fields in Africa, Asia including the Indian subcontinent[11], Australia, Europe including Mediterranean islands, e.g. Cyperus[12], North America, the Caribbean[13], and South America[14] as well as glens in open canopy forests. Some species are known to form fairy rings. At least two of the species are invasive species expanding their ranges, S. inopinata in Europe and S. thiersii in North America.[15][16]

Taxonomy[edit]

The name refers to the saprotrophic life style and the generic relationship to its sister genus Amanita. In earlier studies the genus was ill defined and named Lepidella and later Aspidella. Both of these names are unusable because of earlier usage by biologists for other organisms, e.g. Aspidella E. Billings. The most recent adoption of the name Aspidella[9] was based on a molecularly and ecologically defined genus similar to the current circumscription.[3]

Currently there are two competing contemporary classifications, one that recognizes the two genera, Amanita and Saproamanita,[3][13][17] and the other that maintains both genera under the older name Amanita.<http://www.amanitaceae.org/>

Genome Sequencing[edit]

The genome of Saproamanita thiersii (as Amanita thiersii) and its cellulose degrading capability are the subject of a US Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute project. <http://jgi.doe.gov/why-sequence-cellulose-degrading-fungus-amanita-thiersii/>

Species[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Vizzini A, Redhead SA, Dovana F (2017). "Epitypification of Agaricus vittadinii (Basidiomycota, Amanitaceae)". Phytotaxa. 326 (3): 230–234. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.326.3.8.
  2. ^ Redhead SA (2019). "Zhuliangomyces". Index Fungorum. 385: 1.
  3. ^ a b c d Redhead SA, Vizzini A, Drehmel DC, Contu M (2016). "Saproamanita, a new name for both Lepidella E.-J. Gilbert and Aspidella E.-J. Gilbert (Amaniteae, Amanitaceae)". IMA Fungus. 7 (1): 119–129. doi:10.5598/imafungus.2016.07.01.07.[1]
  4. ^ Yang ZJ, Cai Q, Cui YY (2018). "Phylogeny, diversity and morphological evolution of Amanitaceae". Biosyst. Ecol. Ser. 34: 359–380.
  5. ^ Moncalvo JM, Vilgalys R, Redhead SA, Johnson JE, James TY, Catherine Aime M, Hofstetter V, Verduin SJ, Larsson E, Baroni TJ, Greg Thorn R, Jacobsson S, Clémençon H, Miller OK Jr (2002). "One hundred and seventeen clades of euagarics". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 23 (3): 357–400. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00027-1. PMID 12099793.
  6. ^ Justo A, Morgenstern I, Hallen-Adams HE, Hibbett DS (2010). "Convergent evolution of sequestrate forms in Amanita under Mediterranean climate conditions". Mycologia. 102: 675–688. doi:10.3852/09-191.
  7. ^ a b c Wolfe BE, Tulloss RE, Pringle A (2012). "The irreversible loss of a decomposition pathway marks the single origin of an ectomycorrhizal symbiosis". PLoS ONE. 7 (1): e39597. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039597. PMC 3399872. PMID 22815710.
  8. ^ Hess J & Pringle A (2014). "The natural histories of species and their genomes: asymbiotic and ectomycorrhizal Amanita.In: Advances in Botanical Research, Fungi (Martin F, ed.):". San Diego: Academic Press.
  9. ^ a b Vizzini A, Contu M, Ercole E, Voyron S (2012). "Rivalutazione e delimitazione del genere Aspidella (Agaricales, Amanitaceae), nuovamente separato da Amanita". Micologia e Vegetazione Mediterranea. 27 (2): 75–90.
  10. ^ Cui YY, Cai Q, Tang LP, Liu JW, Yang ZL (2018). "The family Amanitaceae: molecular phylogeny, higher-rank taxonomy and the species in China". Fungal Diversity. 91 (1): 5–230.
  11. ^ Verma RK, Pandro V (2018). "Diversity and distribution of Amanitaceous mushrooms in India, two new reports from Sal Forest of Central India". Indian Journal of Tropical Biodiversity. 26 (1): 42–54.
  12. ^ Loizides M, Bellanger JM, Yiangou Y, Moreau PA (2018). "Preliminary phylogenetic investigations into the genus Amanita (Agaricales) in Cyprus, with a review of previous records and poisoning incidents". Documents mycologiques. 37: 201–218.
  13. ^ a b Vizzini A, Angelini A, Bizzi A (2016). "Saproamanita manicata in Repubblica Dominicana". RMR, Boll. Amer. 2016 (2): 33–44.
  14. ^ Crous PW, Wingfield MJ, Burgess TI, Hardy GE, Gené J, Guarro J, Baseia IG, García D, Gusmão LF, Souza-Motta CM, Thangavel R, Adamčík S, Barili A, Barnes CW, Bezerra JD, Bordallo JJ, Cano-Lira JF, de Oliveira RJV, Ercole E, Hubka V, Iturrieta-González I, Kubátová A, Martín MP, Moreau P-A, Morte A, Ordoñez ME, Rodríguez A, Stchigel AM, Vizzini A, Abdollahzadeh J, Abreu VP, Adamčíková K, Albuquerque GM, Alexandrova AV, Álvarez Duarte E, Armstrong-Cho C, Banniza S, Barbosa RN, Bellanger JM, Bezerra JL, Cabral TS, Caboň M, Caicedo E, Cantillo T, Carnegie AJ, Carmo LT, Castañeda-Ruiz RF, Clement CR, Čmoková A, Conceição LB, Cruz RH, Damm U, da Silva BD, da Silva GA, da Silva RM, de A. Santiago AL, Déniel F, de Oliveira LF, de Souza CAF, Déniel F, Dima B, Dong G, Edwards J, Félix CR, Fournier J, Gibertoni TB, Hosaka K, Iturriaga T, Jadan M, Jany JL, Jurjević Ž, Kolařík M, Kušan I, Landell MF, Leite Cordeiro TR, Lima DX, Loizides M, Luo S, Machado AR, Madrid H, Magalhães OM, Marinho P, Matočec N, Mešić A, Miller AN, Morozova OV, Neves RP, Nonaka K, Nováková A, Oberlies NH, Oliveira-Filho JR, Oliveira TG, Papp V, Pereira OL, Perrone G, Peterson SW, Pham THG, Raja HA, Raudabaugh DB, Řehulka J, Rodríguez-Andrade E, Saba M, Schauflerová A, Shivas RG, Simonini G, Siqueira JP, Sousa JO, Stajsic V, Svetasheva T, Tan YP, Tkalčec Z, Ullah S, Valente P, Valenzuela-Lopez N, Abrinbana M, Viana Marques DA, Wong PT, Xavier de Lima V, Groenewald JZ (2018). "Fungal Planet description sheets: 716–784". Persoonia. 40: 240–395.
  15. ^ Kibby G (2005). "The invasion of Amanita inopinata continues!". Field Mycol. 6: 31. doi:10.1016/s1468-1641(10)60294-0.
  16. ^ Wolfe BE, Kuo M, Pringle A (2012). "Amanita thiersii is a saprotrophic fungus expanding its range in the United States". Mycologia. 104: 22–23. doi:10.3852/11-056. PMID 21914823.
  17. ^ Hawksworth DL (2016). "Sense and sensibility in naming". IMA Fungus. 7 (1): 1–2. [2]