List of Joseph Smith's wives
Joseph Smith (1805–1844), the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, secretly taught and practiced polygamy during his ministry, and married multiple women during his lifetime. Smith and some of the leading quorums of his church publicly denied he taught or practiced it.
In 1852, leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) acknowledged that Smith had practiced plural marriage and produced a written revelation of Smith's that authorizes its practice. Smith's son Joseph Smith III, his lawful widow Emma Smith, and most members of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (RLDS Church) attempted for years to refute the evidence of plural marriages. They pointed to the historical record that Joseph Smith publicly opposed the practice of polygamy; the suggestion of the RLDS Church was that the practice of Mormon polygamy began in Utah under the leadership of Brigham Young.
The first publication of a list of women alleged to be Smith's plural wives was in 1887, by Andrew Jenson, an assistant church historian of the LDS Church. It included 27 women besides Emma Smith. Currently, there are 49 women on this list. However, historians disagree as to the number and identity of the plural wives which Smith had. Various scholars and historians, including Fawn M. Brodie, George D. Smith, and Todd Compton, have attempted to identify the women who married Smith. The discrepancy is created by the lack of documents to support some of the alleged marriages. As Compton has stated, for many of these marriages, "absolutely nothing is known of [the] marriage after the ceremony." Apart from his marriage to Emma, Smith's marriages were not solemnized under any civil authority and were therefore solely religious unions.
List of wives
|Plural wife's maiden name (married name)||Marriage Date||Age||Recognized by||Marital status at time of sealing||Notes|
|Emma Hale (Smith)
||January 17, 1827||22||Yes||Yes||Yes||N/A||The only woman legally wed to Smith, who he claimed publicly was his only spouse, and the only union known to have produced offspring. Continued church activity within the RLDS Church. Throughout life and on her deathbed she denied that her husband had plural wives. Claimed that the very first time she ever became aware of a polygamy revelation being attributed to Smith was when she read about it in Orson Pratt's periodical The Seer in 1853. Emma Hale and Joseph Smith were sealed together on May 28, 1843.|
|Fanny Alger||Early 1833||16||Yes||Yes||Single||According to George D. Smith, Alger's relationship with Smith was attested to by several people, including Emma Smith, Warren Parish, Oliver Cowdery, and Heber C. Kimball. Compton cites Mosiah Hancock's handwritten report of his father Levi's account of the marriage ceremony of Smith and Alger, and records his father's account of negotiations between Levi and Smith in procuring their respective wives. Compton also notes that nineteenth-century Mormons in Utah Territory, including Benjamin F. Johnson, Heber C. Kimball and Andrew Jenson, and former Mormons Chauncey Webb and Ann Eliza Webb Young, regarded the Smith–Alger relationship as a marriage. Historian Lawrence Foster asserts a claim that later Mormons may have falsely assumed there was a marriage where there was only a sexual relationship: he views the marriage of Alger to Smith as a "debatable supposition" rather than "established fact". As Richard Bushman has noted, Smith "never denied a relationship with Alger, but insisted it was not adulterous. He wanted it on record that he had never confessed to such a sin." The best statement Smith could obtain from Cowdery was an affirmation that Smith had never acknowledged himself to have been guilty of adultery. "That", wrote Bushman, "was all Joseph wanted: an admission that he had not termed the Alger affair adulterous." After Smith's death, when Alger's brother asked her about her relationship with Smith, she replied, "That is all a matter of my own. And I have nothing to communicate."|
|Lucinda Pendleton Morgan Harris||c. 1838||37||Yes||Yes||Yes||Married||Historians Richard Lloyd Anderson and Scott H. Faulring dismiss this claim as being based on "no solid evidence". Compton notes the following evidence: she is the third woman on Andrew Jenson's 1887 list of Smith's plural wives; Compton writes that "Sarah Pratt reported that while in Nauvoo Lucinda had admitted a long-standing relationship with Smith", though Compton admits that this statement is "antagonistic, third-hand, and late"; and that there is an "early Nauvoo temple proxy sealing to Smith". This marriage was polyandrous, as Lucinda lived with her husband George Washington Harris until about 1853. Compton believes the marriage occurred around 1838, when Smith was living with Lucinda and her husband.|
||April 5, 1841||26||Yes||Yes||Yes||Single||(February 7, 1815 – May 16, 1850). Though Mormon history and press indicate Beaman was not baptized until May 11, 1843, she had migrated with Mormons to Nauvoo in 1839 or 1840. She has been called the "first plural wife of the Prophet Joseph Smith".  After Smith's death, Beaman remarried, becoming the ninth wife of Brigham Young. Young and Beaman had five children together, all of whom predeceased Beaman, who died at age 35. Listed as a Smith plural wife by Joseph F. Smith, who noted an 1869 affidavit of Beaman's brother-in-law Joseph B. Noble, stating he officiated at the wedding. This would have been prior to her baptism. The marriage was done without informing Joseph's first wife Emma.|
|Zina Diantha Huntington (Jacobs)
||October 27, 1841||20||Yes||Yes||Yes||Married||Husband was Henry Bailey Jacobs, who was aware of her plural marriage to Smith. Jacobs wrote, "[W]hatever the Prophet did was right, without making the wisdom of God's authorities bend to the reasoning of any man." Sister of Presendia Huntington. After Smith's death, married Brigham Young while husband Jacobs was on mission to England.|
|Presendia Lathrop Huntington (Buell)
||December 11, 1841||31||Yes||Yes||Yes||Married||(September 7, 1810 in Watertown, New York – February 1, 1892 in Salt Lake City, Utah Territory). Sister of Zina. After Smith's death, married Heber C. Kimball.|
|Agnes Moulton Coolbrith (Smith)
||January 6, 1842||31||Yes||Yes||Yes||Widowed||Widow of Smith's brother Don Carlos. (1808–1876). After Don Carlos died in 1841, Coolbrith married Smith in 1842. Coolbrith was the mother of Ina Coolbrith, who became the first poet laureate of California.|
|Sylvia Porter Lyon
||February 8, 1842||23||Yes||Yes||Yes||Married||Daughter of David Sessions and Patty Bartlett Sessions, who married Smith one month after her daughter's marriage to him. On her deathbed, Sylvia informed her daughter Josephine Lyons that she was Smith's daughter, but genetic testing has contradicted this assertion.|
|Mary Elizabeth Rollins Lightner||January 17, 1842||23||Yes||Yes||Yes||Married||(April 9, 1818 in Lima, New York – December 17, 1913 in Minersville, Utah). Claimed that Smith had a private conversation with her in 1831 when she was twelve years old, |
Meanwhile, in 1835 she married another man, Adam Lightner a non-Mormon. They had two children and she was pregnant with her third at the time she was sealed to Joseph Smith in 1842. “I went forward and was sealed to him. Brigham Young performed the sealing, and Heber C. Kimball the blessing." After the sealing she continued to live with her first husband Adam. That summer they moved fifteen miles away at Pontoosuc. Following the death of Joseph Smith Mary went briefly back to Nauvoo. In the fall of 1844 Brigham Young and Heber Kimball offered themselves to Smith's widows as proxy husbands and Mary accepted Young's proposal. She was sealed to him for time in a proxy marriage on May 22, 1845: "I was also sealed to B Young as proxy for Joseph," she wrote, though she continued to live with Adam.
When Brigham Young and the church left Nauvoo to emigrate to Utah, Mary and Adam stayed behind. They eventually moved to Utah 17 years later settling in the town of Minersville 217 miles from Salt Lake City, the seat of the church and Brigham Young. In her later years she would often supplicate the church for monetary assistance appealing to them on the basis of her connection with Joseph and Brigham.
|Patty Bartlett (Sessions)
||March 9, 1842||47||Yes||Yes||Yes||Married||(February 4, 1795 in Bethel, Massachusetts (now Maine) – December 14, 1893 in Bountiful, Utah Territory). Her daughter Sylvia Porter Sessions Lyon, who had married Smith one month before, was present at Sessions' wedding to Smith.|
|Marinda Nancy Johnson (Hyde)
||April 1842||27 (16)||Yes||Yes||Yes||Married||(June 28, 1815 in Pomfret, Vermont – March 24, 1886 in Salt Lake City, Utah Territory). Wife of Orson Hyde; daughter of John Johnson.|
|Elizabeth Davis (Brackenbury Durfee)
||Before June 1842||50||Yes||Yes||Yes||Married||(March 11, 1791 in Riverhead, New York – December 16, 1876 in White Cloud, Kansas).|
According to Anderson and Faulring, this claim is based on Bennett and "an ambiguous statement attributed to Sarah Pratt by the hostile journalist Wyl." The statement made by Sarah Pratt was, "I don't think she was ever sealed to him, though it may have been the case after Joseph's death. . . At all events, she boasted here in Salt Lake of having been one of Joseph's wives" 
|Sally Ann Fuller||1842||26?||No||Yes||Yes||Unknown|
|Sarah Maryetta Kingsley (Howe Cleveland)
||Before June 29, 1842||53||Yes||Yes||Yes||Married||(1788 – April 20, 1856 in Plymouth, Illinois).|
Anderson and Faulring state that this is "only a guess" based on a claim "without any supporting data".
|Delcena Johnson (Sherman)
||Before July 1842||37||Yes||Yes||Yes||Single||(November 19, 1806 in Westfield, Vermont – October 21, 1854 in Salt Lake City, Utah Territory. Widow of Lyman R. Sherman). Married to Almon W. Babbitt after the death of Joseph Smith. Sister to Benjamin F. Johnson and Joel H. Johnson.|
|Eliza Roxcy Snow
||June 29, 1842||38||Yes||Yes||Yes||Single||Sister of Lorenzo Snow. Organized a petition in summer 1842, with a thousand female signatures, denying Smith a polygamist. As Secretary of the Ladies' Relief Society published a certificate in October 1842 denouncing polygamy. William Clayton said Smith told him in February 1843 that Snow was one of his plural wives. She was married to Brigham Young from 1844 until his death in 1877.|
|Sarah Ann Whitney
||July 27, 1842||17||Yes||Yes||Yes||Single||Whitney was born in Kirtland, Ohio on March 22, 1825 to Newel K. Whitney and Elizabeth Whitney. Joseph Smith Jr. and Newel Whitney had a very close friendship. According to Brodie, after her parents were introduced to the principle of plural marriage by Smith, the marriage of Sarah to Smith was arranged with her parents' consent. Compton claims this marriage is believed to have been performed for the purpose of creating a “dynastic” link between the Whitney and Smith families in the afterlife and to be “very much a family activity".
Nine months after her marriage to Smith, Sarah married Joseph C. Kingsbury in a civil ceremony. Joseph C. Kingsbury said he was "well aware" of this marriage. William Clayton listed her as one of Smith's wives whom he married in early May 1843. She was married to Heber C. Kimball from March 17, 1845 to June 22, 1868.
|Martha McBride (Knight)
||August 1842||37||Yes||Yes||Yes||Single||Widow of Vinson Knight; later sealed to Heber C. Kimball.|
|Ruth D. Vose (Sayers)||February 1843||34||Yes||Yes||Yes||Married|
|Flora Ann Woodworth||Spring 1843||16||Yes||Yes||Yes||Single||William Clayton listed her as one of Smith's wives whom he married in early May 1843.|
|Emily Dow Partridge
||March 4, 1843||19||Yes||Yes||Yes||Single||Daughter of Edward Partridge and sister of Eliza. After Smith's death, she married Brigham Young. William Clayton listed her as one of Smith's wives whom he married in early May 1843.|
|Eliza Maria Partridge
||March 8, 1843||22||Yes||Yes||Yes||Single||Daughter of Edward Partridge and sister of Emily. Eliza married after Smith's death, to Amasa M. Lyman, who was already husband to Eliza's older sister, Caroline. William Clayton listed her as one of Smith's wives whom he married in early May 1843.|
|Almera Woodward Johnson
||August 1843||30||Yes||Yes||Yes||Single||(October 12, 1812 in Westfield, Vermont – March 4, 1896 in Parowan, Utah). Widow of Samuel H. Prescott. Married to Reuben Barton (with who she had five children) in Nauvoo Illinois in 1845 after the martyrdom of Joseph Smith. Sister to Benjamin F. Johnson and Joel H. Johnson.|
|Lucy Walker||May 1, 1843||17||Yes||Yes||Yes||Single||Wrote about her plural marriage to Smith, |
|Sarah Lawrence||May 1843||17||Yes||Yes||Yes||Single||(May 13, 1826 in Pickering Township, Upper Canada – 1872) Sister of Maria.|
|Maria Lawrence||May 1843||19||Yes||Yes||Yes||Single||(December 18, 1823 in Pickering Township, Upper Canada – ? in Nauvoo, Illinois). Sister of Sarah. After Smith's death, Lawrence married Brigham Young, becoming his sixteenth plural wife. They divorced in 1845, but remarried the following year.|
|Helen Mar Kimball
||May 1843||14||Yes||Yes||Yes||Single||Daughter of Heber C. Kimball. At aged 14, Helen Mar Kimball wrote, |
William Clayton listed her as one of Smith's wives whom he married in early May 1843.
|Hannah Ells||1843||29||Yes||Yes||Unknown||Single||(March 4, 1813 in New York City, New York – 1844 in Nauvoo, Illinois)|
|Elvira Annie Cowles (Holmes)||June 1, 1843||29||Yes||Yes||Yes||Married||(November 23, 1813 in Unadilla, New York – March 10, 1871 in Farmington, Utah Territory).|
||June 12, 1843||58||Yes||Yes||Yes||Single||(August 8, 1784 in Framingham, Massachusetts – January 17, 1879 in Salt Lake City, Utah Territory). First cousin of Brigham Young, whom she married after Smith's death.|
|Desdemona Wadsworth Fullmer
||July 1843||32||Yes||Yes||Yes||Single||Born to Peter and Susannah on October 6, 1809, in Huntington, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania. Desdemona was baptized into the Church of the Latter Day Saints herself by John P. Greene in 1836. Desdemona was one of the church members that were present when a mob attacked Haun's Mill on October 30, 1838. She was "secreted in the woods near by", along with members of her family. In July 1842, Brigham Young officiated the marriage of Desdemona to Smith. as Smith took Desdemona as a plural wife and became part of an early group wives taken by Smith After Smiths death, Desdemona married Ezra T. Benson on January 26, 1846, in the Nauvoo Temple The marriage was only "for time", instead of being for "time and all eternity", meaning that Desdemona was sealed to Smith in the afterlife but would be married to Benson until one of them died. Upon her death, a few newspapers outside of Utah reported Desdemona's passing, remembering her as one of Joseph Smith's wives.|
|Olive Grey Frost||Summer 1843||27||Yes||Yes||Yes||Single||(July 24, 1816 in Bethel, Massachusetts (now Maine) – October 6, 1845 in Nauvoo, Illinois). After Smith's death, Frost became the eighteenth plural wife of Brigham Young. They married "for time only" on November 7, 1844, and she bore him no children.|
|Mary Ann Frost (Pratt)
||Summer 1843||34||No||Yes||Yes||Divorced||(January 14, 1809 in Groton, Vermont – August 24, 1891 in Pleasant Grove, Utah Territory). Sister of Olive Grey Frost. First married to Nathan Stearns in 1831 but he died about 18 months later. Baptized into Church of the Latter Day Saints in 1835 by David W. Patten. Married Parley P. Pratt on May 14, 1837, in Kirtland, Ohio. Moved to Missouri and Nauvoo with Pratt. Went on mission trip with Pratt to England in 1840. Returned from England without Pratt and was divorced soon after Pratt's return. According to NAUVOO, ENGLAND AND BACK TO NAUVOO by Jayne Fife and Roselyn Kirk  Mary Ann was married to Parley Pratt for time and Joseph Smith for eternity on February 6, 1846 (two years after Joseph Smith's death) by Heber C. Kimball in the Nauvoo Temple. Emigrated with the Harmon Cutler Company to Utah Territory in 1852. She obtained a divorce from Pratt in 1853. She was accompanied by her daughter Olivia Pratt (b. 1841) and son Moroni Llewellyn Pratt (b. 1844). They settled in Pleasant Grove.|
|Melissa Lott||September 20, 1843||19||Yes||Yes||Yes||Single||Daughter of early Mormon leader Cornelius P. Lott, who managed Smith's farm in Nauvoo.|
|Nancy Mariah Winchester||1842 or 1843||14||Yes||Yes||Yes||Single||Daughter of Stephen Winchester, Sr. of Vershire, Vermont (who was a member of the Danite militia and the Quorum of the Seventy) and his wife Nancy Case of Argyle, New York. Anderson and Faulring write that this claim is based on "unsupported information".|
|Fanny Young (Murray)||November 2, 1843||56||Yes||Yes||Yes||(November 8, 1787 in Hopkinton, Massachusetts – June 11, 1859). Wife of Roswell Murray|
|Mary Houston||Before 1844||No||Yes||Unknown||Unknown|
|Sarah Scott||Before 1844||No||Yes||Yes||Unknown|
|Olive Andrews||Before 1844||No||Yes||Yes||Unknown|
|Jane Tippets||Before 1844||78||No||Yes||Yes||Unknown|
|Sophia Sanburn||Before 1844||No||Yes||Unknown||Unknown|
|Phoebe Watrous (Woodworth)||Before 1844||Unknown||No||Yes||Yes||Unknown|
|Vienna Jaques||Before 1844||Unknown||No||Yes||Yes||Unknown|
|Clarissa Reed Hancock
||March 29, 1833||19||Yes|
|(Mrs Blossom)||Unknown||Yes||Wife of Edward Blossom|
|Cordelia Calista Morley||Unknown||Yes|
|Nancy Maria Smith||Unknown||Yes|
Allegations of children born to polygamous wives
Research by Ugo A. Perego, a geneticist and member of the LDS Church, has shown that a number of children of Smith's alleged polygamous relationships were not his genetic offspring. The following table lists some of the children born to Smith's alleged polygamous wives as well as those ruled out by genetic testing:
|Child||Date of birth||Mother||Father (traditionally assumed)||DNA testing status||DNA testing result||Notes|
|Oliver Buell||1838–39||Presendia Huntington Buell||Norman Buell||Complete (November 2007)||Negative||Historian Fawn Brodie speculated that Buell was a polygamous son of Smith.|
|John Reed Hancock||April 19, 1841||Clarissa Reed Hancock||Levi Hancock||Complete (July 2011)||Negative ||Only anecdotal evidence that Clarissa Reed Hancock was a plural wife of Smith.|
|Mosiah Hancock||April 9, 1834||Clarissa Reed Hancock||Levi Hancock||Complete (November 2007)||Negative||Only anecdotal evidence that Clarissa Reed Hancock was a plural wife of Smith.|
|Frank Henry Hyde||January 23, 1845, 1846?||Marinda Johnson Hyde||Orson Hyde||Incomplete||?|
|Orson Washington Hyde||November 9, 1843||Marinda Johnson Hyde||Orson Hyde||Not possible (died in infancy)||n/a|
|Zebulon Jacobs||January 2, 1842||Zina Huntington Jacobs||Henry Jacobs||Complete (May 2005)||Negative|
|George Algernon Lightner||March 22, 1842||Mary Elizabeth Rollins Lightner||Adam Lightner||Not possible (died in infancy)||n/a|
|Josephine Rosetta Lyon||February 8, 1844||Sylvia Porter Sessions Lyon||Windsor Lyon||Complete (June 2016)||Negative||Mother told Josephine on deathbed that she was Smith's daughter.|
|Moroni Pratt||December 7, 1844||Mary Ann Frost Stearns Pratt||Parley P. Pratt||Complete (May 2005)||Negative|
- Children of Joseph Smith
- List of Latter Day Saint practitioners of plural marriage
- List of Brigham Young's wives
- bound edition—"Notice", Times and Seasons, 5(3) (1 February 1844): 423: "As we have lately been credibly informed, that an Elder of the Church of Jesus Christ, of Latter-day Saints, by the name of Hiram Brown, has been preaching Polygamy, and other false and corrupt doctrines, in the county of Lapeer, state of Michigan."
- Roberts, B. H. (Brigham Henry) (1912), History of the Church, 6, Deseret News, pp. p. 411,
What a thing it is for a man to be accused of committing adultery, and having seven wives, when I can only find one..
- Millennial Star 4 [January 1844]: 144.
- Whitmer 1887
- Times and Seasons 5:474.
- Jenson, A. Historical Record 6 [May 1887]: 233–34.
- Smith 2010, p. 621
- Brodie 1971, p. 457
- Maxwell Institute Archived 2008-06-22 at the Wayback Machine, Brigham Young University.
- Compton 1997 and Newell & Avery 1994
- Wife recognized by Todd Compton (Compton 1997)
- Wife recognized by George D. Smith (Smith 1994, pp. 13–15)
- Wife recognized by Fawn Brodie. Unless otherwise noted, wives are listed in No Man Knows My History (Brodie 1971)
- History of the Church 6:410–11.
- Frequently Asked Questions Archived 2013-10-21 at Archive-It at official Community of Christ website.
- History of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints 3:55–56, Independence, Missouri, Herald House Publishing, 1967–, c1896–; ISBN 0-8309-0075-6.
- Saints' Herald 65:1044–45.
- Carol Cornwall Madsen, "'My Dear and Beloved Companion': The Letters of Joseph and Emma Smith", Ensign, September 2008.
- Smith 2010, pp. 38–43
- Compton 1997, pp. 25–32.
- Lawrence Foster, Review of In Sacred Loneliness: The Plural Wives of Joseph Smith" Archived 2006-03-23 at Archive.today, Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 33 (spring 2001): 184–86.
- Bushman, pg. 325
- Bushman, pg 327
- Anderson 1998
- Compton 1997, pp. 650
- Compton 1997, pp. 43–44
- History of the Church 5:385.
- Millennial Star 21:75.
- Compton 1997, pp. 58–59
- Boyack (1962, pp. 21, 29)
- Compton 1997, pp. 59–69
- Brigham Young's Wives and His Divorce From Ann Eliza Webb, Jerald and Sandra Tanner, Utah Lighthouse Ministry website.
- Historical Record 6:233.
- Smith, J.F. (1905) Blood Atonement and the Origin of Plural Marriage Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret News Press, 75)
- Van Wagoner, Richard S. "Mormon Polyandry in Nauvoo" (PDF). 18. Retrieved 8 January 2017. Cite journal requires
- Compton 1997, pp. 81–82
- Compton 1997, pp. 153
- "Just prior to my mothers death in 1882 she called me to her bedside … to tell me something which she had kept as an entire secret from me and from all others but which she now desired to communicate to me. She then told me that I was the daughter of the Prophet Joseph Smith." (Newell & Avery 1994, pp. 44, Compton 1997, pp. 183)
- Perego, Ugo A (11 June 2016). "Supplemental online material for 'Was Joseph Smith the biological father of Josephine Lyon? The genetic evidence' presented at the 2016 Mormon History Association Conference in Snowbird, Utah". Retrieved 12 June 2016.
- Perego, Ugo A (11 June 2016). "Table 7 - Smiths vs. Lyon". Was Joseph Smith the biological father of Josephine Lyon? The genetic evidence. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
- Newell & Avery 1994, pp. 65, link.
- Compton 1997
- Compton 1997, pg.205-222
- Carter, Kate (1962), Our Pioneer Heritage, Salt Lake City, UT: Daughters of Utah Pioneers, p. 308
- Compton 1997, pp. 175–79
- Compton 1997, pp. 701
- Times and Seasons 3 [August 1, 1842]: 869.
- Times and Seasons 3 [October 1, 1842]: 940.
- Clayton (1874, p. 225).
- Compton 1997, p. 343
- Brodie 1971, p. 471
- Her own sworn statement, giving the date as July 27, 1842, was published along with a confirming affidavit sworn by her mother, in Joseph F. Smith Jr.: Blood Atonement and the Origin of Plural Marriage. It is said that she was the first woman given in plural marriage "by and with the consent of both parents.”
- Compton 1997, p. 347
- Compton 1997, p. 351
- Kingsbury (1886, p. 226).
- Newell & Avery 1994, pp. 65
- Newell & Avery 1994
- Jensen, Andrew (1889). "Fullmer, Desdemona Wadsworth". The Historical Record, Volumes 5-8. A. Jenson. p. 235.
- Newell, Linda King (1994). Mormon Enigma: Emma Hale Smith. University of Illinois Press. p. 165. ISBN 9780252062919.
- "Utah News: Summarized from Territorial Papers". Millennial Star. 48 (10): 150–151. March 8, 1886.
- "Nauvoo Roots of Mormon Polygamy, 1841-46: A Preliminary Demographic Report*" (PDF). Dialogue Journal. Retrieved 9 February 2015.[permanent dead link]
- Bringhurst, Newell G. (1996). Reconsidering No man knows my history: Fawn M. Brodie and Joseph Smith in retrospect. Utah State University Press. p. 182. ISBN 9780874212143.
- Wilson, Sarah E. (1976). Follmers in Pennsylvania: descendants of Hans Jakob Vollmar, 1698-1762. Baltimore: Gateway Press. pp. 22–23. LCCN 76021955. OCLC 2681047.
- "Personal". The Times-Philadelphia. 28 February 1866.
- "Obituary". The Kinsey Graphic. 5 March 1886.
- "Around the World". Fayetteville Weekly Observer. 11 March 1886. Retrieved 2015-01-26.
- "Items of Interest". pg 3, last column, last paragraph: Brenham Weekly Banner. 4 March 1886. Retrieved 2015-02-06.
- http://jared.pratt-family.org/parley_family_histories/mary_ann_frost_fife-3.html[unreliable source?]
- http://jared.pratt-family.org/parley_family_histories/mary_ann_frost_obituary.html[unreliable source?]
- Brodie 1971, p. 335
- Perego, Myers & Woodward 2005
- "Research focuses on Smith family". Deseret News. 2005-05-28. Archived from the original on 2006-06-30.
- "DNA tests rule out 2 as Smith descendants: Scientific advances prove no genetic link". Deseret News. 2007-11-10. Archived from the original on 2007-11-13.
- De Groote, Michael (9 July 2011). "D NA solves a Joseph Smith Mystery". Deseret News. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
- Wife is not recognized by Compton 1997 or Smith 1994, pp. 13–15.
- Anderson, Richard Lloyd (1998), "The Prophet Joseph Smith and His Plural Wives", FARMS Review of Books, The Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship, 10 (2): 67–104, retrieved 2008-07-16.
- Boyack, Hazel Noble (1962), A Nobleman in Israel : A Biographical Sketch of Joseph Bates Noble, Pioneer to Utah in 1847 (PDF), Pioneer Printing Company, pp. 21, 29.
- Brodie, Fawn (1971), No Man Knows My History, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, ISBN 0-679-73054-0.
- Clayton, William (1874), "Affidavit", in Jensen, Andrew (ed.), The Historical Record, Andrew Jenson (published 1889), pp. 224–26.
- Compton, Todd (Summer 1996), "A Trajectory of Plurality: An Overview of Joseph Smith's Thirty-three Plural Wives", Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, 29 (2): 1–38, archived from the original on 2011-06-13, retrieved 2009-07-28.
- Compton, Todd (1997), In Sacred Loneliness: The Plural Wives of Joseph Smith, Salt Lake City: Signature Books, ISBN 1-56085-085-X.
- Johnson, Benjamin F. (1947), My Life's Review, Independence Missouri: Zion's Printing and Publishing Co., pp. 324–327, OCLC 13963082. Online reprint from the Book Of Abraham Project (BYU) at boap.org
- Kingsbury, Joseph C. (1886), "Affidavit", in Jensen, Andrew (ed.), The Historical Record, Andrew Jenson (published 1889), p. 226.
- Krakauer, Jon (2003), Under the Banner of Heaven: A Story of Violent Faith, New York: Doubleday, p. 90.
- Marquardt, H. Michael (2005), The Rise of Mormonism: 1816–1844, Grand Rapids, MI: Xulon Press, p. 632, ISBN 1-59781-470-9.
- Newell, Linda King; Avery, Valeen Tippetts (1994), Mormon Enigma: Emma Hale Smith (2d ed.), University of Illinois Press, pp. 89, 132, ISBN 0-252-06291-4. See also: Mormon Enigma: Emma Hale Smith
- Perego, Ugo A.; Myers, Natalie M.; Woodward, Scott R. (Summer 2005), "Reconstructing the Y-Chromosome of Joseph Smith Jr.: Genealogical Applications" (PDF), Journal of Mormon History, 32 (2), archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-07-25.
- Quinn, D. Michael (1994), The Mormon Hierarchy: Origins of Power, Salt Lake City: Signature Books.
- Smith, Andrew F. (1997), The Saintly Scoundrel: The Life and Times of Dr. John Cook Bennett, Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, p. 141, ISBN 978-0-252-02282-1.
- Smith, George D. (2010) , Nauvoo Polygamy: "...but we called it celestial marriage" (2nd ed.), Salt Lake City: Signature Books, ISBN 978-1-56085-207-0, LCCN 2010032062, OCLC 656848353, archived from the original on 2014-12-02.
- Van Wagoner, Richard S. (Summer 1986), "Sarah Pratt: The Shaping of an Apostate", Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, 19 (2): 69–99, archived from the original on 2009-02-21.
- Whitmer, David (1887), An Address to All Believers in Christ, Richmond, Missouri, retrieved 2006-12-30.
- Wymetal, Wilhelm Ritter von (1886), Joseph Smith, the Prophet, His Family, and His Friends: A Study Based on Facts and Documents, Salt Lake City, UT: Tribune Printing and Publishing Company, pp. 60–61.
- "Gospel Topics: Plural Marriage in Kirtland and Nauvoo". LDS.org. 2015.
- "The LDS Church and Joseph Smith's Polygamy" (Doug Fabrizio's interview of Assistant (LDS) Church Historian Richard Turley and scholars Patrick Q. Mason and Andrea G. Radke-Moss). KUER/RadioWest. December 4, 2014.
- Media related to Wives of Joseph Smith at Wikimedia Commons