|Native to||Pakistan, India|
|Region||mainly South Punjab|
|20 million (2013)|
|Persian alphabet, Laṇḍā scripts particularly Gurumukhi, Devanagari script, Langdi script|
|Regulated by||No official regulation|
Saraiki (سرائیکی Sarā'īkī) is a variety of Western Punjabi language. It is spoken by 20 million people (2013) across the South Punjab, southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and border regions of North Sindh and Eastern Balochistan, with some 70,000 migrants and their descendants in India, who migrated as a result of the partition of British India, as well as overseas, especially in the Middle East. Saraiki is also spoken by some Hindus in Afghanistan, though the number is unknown.
While regarded by many Punjabis as a dialect of the Punjabi language, it has supported a language movement and a claim for recognition as a separate language. Saraiki is to a high degree mutually intelligible with Standard Punjabi and shares with it a large portion of its vocabulary and morphology, while at the same time in its phonology it is radically different and has important grammatical features in common with Sindhi.
- 1 Name
- 2 Classification and related languages
- 3 Geographical distribution
- 4 Phonology
- 5 Writing system
- 6 Saraiki in academia
- 7 Arts and literature
- 8 Saraiki media
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 Bibliography
- 13 External links
The present extent of the meaning of sirāikī is a recent development, and the term most probably gained its currency during the nationalist movement of the 1960s. It has been in use for much longer in Sindh to refer to the speech of the immigrants from the north, principally Siraiki-speaking Baloch tribes who settled there between the 16th and the 19th centuries. In this context, the term can most plausibly be explained as originally having had the meaning "the language of the north", from the Sindhi word siro 'up-river, north'.
An alternative hypothesis is that Sarākī originated in the word sauvīrā, or Sauvira, a kingdom name in ancient India which was also mentioned in the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata. By adding adjectival suffix -kī to the word sauvīrā it became sauvīrakī. The consonant v with its neighboring vowels was dropped for simplification and hence the name became sarāiki. Another view is that sarāiki originates from the word sarai.
The most common rendering of the name is Saraiki. However, Seraiki and Siraiki have also been used in academia until recently. Precise spelling aside, the name was first adopted in the 1960s by regional social and political leaders. An organization named Saraiki Academy was founded in Multan on 6 April 1962 and gave the name of universal application to the dialect. Currently, Saraiki is the spelling used in universities of Pakistan (the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, department of Saraiki established in 1989, Bahauddin Zakariya University, in Multan, department of Saraiki established in 2006, and Allama Iqbal Open University, in Islamabad, department of Pakistani languages established in 1998), and by the district governments of Bahawalpur and Multan, as well as by the federal institutions of the Government of Pakistan like Population Census Organization and Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation.
In 1919, Grierson maintained that the dialects of what is now the southwest of Punjab Province in Pakistan constitute a dialect cluster, which he designated "Southern Lahnda" within a putative "Lahnda language". Subsequent Indo-Aryanist linguists have confirmed the reality of this dialect cluster, even while rejecting the name "Southern Lahnda" along with the entity "Lahnda" itself. Grierson also maintained that "Lahnda" was his novel designation for various dialects up to then called "Western Punjabi", spoken north, west, and south of Lahore. The local dialect of Lahore is the Majhi dialect of Punjabi, which has long been the basis of standard literary Punjabi. However, outside of Indo-Aryanist circles, the concept of "Lahnda" is still found in compilations of the world's languages (e.g. Ethnologue).
The historical inventory of names for the dialects now called Saraiki is a confusion of overlapping or conflicting ethnic, local, and regional designations. "Hindki" and "Hindko" – refer to various Saraiki and even non-Saraiki dialects in Punjab Province and farther north within the country, due to the fact they were applied by arrivals from Afghanistan. One historical name for Saraiki, Jaṭki, means "of the Jaṭṭs", a northern South Asian ethnic group; but Jaṭṭs speak the Indo-Aryan dialect of whatever region they live in. Only a small minority of Saraiki speakers are Jaṭṭs, and not all Saraiki speaking Jaṭṭs necessarily speak the same dialect of Saraiki. However, these people usually call their traditions as well as language as Jataki. Conversely, several Saraiki dialects have multiple names corresponding to different locales or demographic groups. When consulting sources before 2000, it is important to know that Pakistani administrative boundaries have been altered frequently. Provinces in Pakistan are divided into districts, and sources on "Saraiki" often describe the territory of a dialect or dialect group according to the districts. Since the founding of Pakistan in 1947, several of these districts have been subdivided, some multiple times. Until 2001, the territorial structure of Pakistan included a layer of divisions between a province and it's districts. The name dialect name "Derawali" is used to refer to the local dialects of both Dera Ghazi Khan and Dera Ismail Khan, but "Ḍerawali" in the former is the Multani dialect and "Derawali" in the latter is the Thaḷi dialect.
Status of language or dialect
In the context of South Asia, the choice between the appellations "language" and "dialect" is a difficult one, and any distinction made using these terms is obscured by their ambiguity. In one general colloquial sense, a language is a "developed" dialect: one that is standardised, has a written tradition and enjoys social prestige. As there are degrees of development, the boundary between a language and a dialect thus defined is not clear-cut, and there is a large middle ground where assignment is contestable.
There is a second meaning of these terms, in which the distinction is drawn on the basis of linguistic similarity. Though seemingly a "proper" linguistics sense of the terms, it is still problematic: methods that have been proposed for quantifying difference (for example, based on mutual intelligibility) have not been seriously applied in practice; and any relationship established in this framework is relative. Thus Multani is a "dialect" of Siraiki in the same way that Siraiki is a "dialect" of Lahnda, which is then a "dialect" of Punjabi, which in turn is a "dialect" of Indo-Aryan. In this sense both Siraiki and Standard Panjabi are "dialects" of a "Greater Punjabi" macrolanguage.
Since Saraiki, Sindhi, Punjabi, Urdu and Hindi are spoken in a region that has witnessed significant ethnic and identity conflict, all have been exposed to the dialect versus language question. Each of these languages possesses a central standard on which its literature is based, and from which there are multiple dialectal variations.
The development of the standard written language began after the founding of Pakistan in 1947, driven by a regionalist political movement. The national census of Pakistan has tabulated the prevalence of Saraiki speakers since 1981.
Today, 20 million people from North Sindh, South Punjab, South Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Eastern Balochistan province speak Saraiki.
The first national census of Pakistan to gather data on the prevalence of Saraiki was the census of 1981. In that year, the percentage of respondents nationwide reporting Saraiki as their native language was 9.83. In the census of 1998, it was 10.53 out of a national population of 132 million, for a figure of 13.9 million Saraiki speakers resident in Pakistan. Also according to the 1998 census, 12.8 million of those, or 92%, lived in the province of Punjab. Following is the distribution of Saraiki in the four provinces of Pakistan:
|Multan||Dadu||Dera Ismail Khan||Jafarabad|
|Dera Ghazi Khan||Jacobabad||Bannu||Jhal Magsi|
|Lodhran||Naushahro Feroze||Musa Khel (as second language)|
According to the Indian national census of 2001, Saraiki is spoken in urban areas throughout northwest and north central India by a total of about 70,000 people, mainly by the descendants of migrants from western Punjab after the independence of Pakistan in 1947. Some of these speakers went to Andhra Pradesh and settled there before the independence movement because of their pastoral and nomadic way of life, and these are Muslims. Out of these total speakers of the language, 56,096 persons report their dialect as Mūltānī and 11,873 individuals report their dialect as Bahāwalpurī. Another dialect of Saraiki that is spoken by Indian Saraikis is Derawali, spoken by Derawals in Derawal Nagar, Delhi, who migrated to India during the independence movement. The dialects of Saraiki spoken in India are Jafri, Siraiki Hindki, Thali and Riasati (Bahawalpuri, Bhawalpuri, Reasati). Saraiki is spoken in Karnal, Faridabad, Ballabhgarh, Palwal, Rewari, Sirsa, Fatehabad, Hisar, Bhiwani, Panipat districts of Haryana, some areas of Delhi and the Ganganagar district, Jaipur, Hanumangarh and Bikaner districts of Rajasthan.
In Afghanistan, Kandhari, a dialect of Multani Saraiki is a native language of the Hindki. Before the influx of Pathans into the region, the most common spoken dialect in Kandahar was Saraiki, namely the Kandhari or Jataki dialect.
Saraiki's consonant inventory is similar to that of neighbouring Sindhi. It includes phonemically distinctive implosive consonants, which are unusual among the Indo-European languages. In Christopher Shackle's analysis, Saraiki distinguishes up to 48 consonants and 9 monophthong vowels.
The "centralised"[a] vowels /ɪ ʊ ə/ tend to be shorter than the "peripheral" vowels /i ɛ a o u/. The central vowel /ə/ is more open and back than the corresponding vowel in neighbouring varieties. Vowel nasalisation is distinctive: /'ʈuɾẽ/ 'may you go' vs. /'ʈuɾe/ 'may he go'. Before /ɦ/, the contrast between /a/ and /ə/ is neutralised. There is a high number of vowel sequences, some of which can be analysed as diphthongs.
In its stop consonants, Saraiki has the typical for Indo-Aryan four-fold contrast between voiced and voiceless, and aspirated and unaspirated. In parallel to Sindhi it has additionally developed a set of implosives, so that for each place of articulation there are up to five contrasting stops, for example: voiceless /tʃala/ 'custom' ∼ aspirated /tʃala/ 'blister' ∼ implosive /ʄala/ 'cobweb' ∼ voiced /dʒala/ 'niche' ∼ voiced aspirate /jʰəɠ/ 'foam'.
There are five contrasting places of articulation for the stops: velar, palatal, retroflex, dental and bilabial. The dentals / t tʰ d dʰ/ are articulated with the blade of the tongue against the surface behind the teeth. The retroflex stops are post-alveolar, the articulator being the tip of the tongue or sometimes the underside. There is no dental implosive, partly due to the lesser retroflexion with which the retroflex implosive /ᶑ/ is pronounced. The plain voiced /ɖ/ and the implosive /ᶑ/ are mostly in complementary distribution although there are a few minimal pairs, like /ɖakʈəɾ/ 'doctor' ∼ /ɖak/ 'mail'. The palatal "stops" are realised as affricates.[better source needed] In casual speech some of the stops, especially /k/, /g/ and /dʒ/, are frequently rendered as fricatives – respectively [x], [ɣ] and [z].
Of the nasals, only /n/ and /m/ are found at the start of a word, but in other phonetic environments there is a full set of contrasts in the place of articulation: /ŋ ɲ ɳ n m/. The retroflex ɳ is a realised as a true nasal only if adjacent to a retroflex stop, elsewhere it is a nasalised retroflex flap [ɽ̃]. The contrasts /ŋ/ ∼ /ŋɡ/, and /ɲ/ ∼ /ɲdʒ/ are weak; the single nasal is more common in southern varieties, and the nasal + stop cluster is prevalent in central dialects. Three nasals /ŋ n m/ have aspirated counterparts /ŋʰ nʰ mʰ/.
The realisation of the alveolar tap /ɾ/ varies with the phonetic environment. It is trilled if geminated to /ɾɾ/ and weakly trilled if preceded by /t/ or /d/. It contrasts with the retroflex flap /ɽ/ (/taɾ/ 'wire' ∼ /taɽ/ 'watching'), except in the variety spoken by Hindus. The fricatives /f v/ are labio-dental. The glottal fricative /ɦ/ is voiced and affects the voice quality of a preceding vowel.
Phonotactics and stress
A stressed syllable is distinguished primarily by its length: if the vowel is peripheral /i ɛ a o u/ then it is lengthened, and if it is a "centralised vowel" (/ɪ ʊ ə/) then the consonant following it is geminated. Stress normally falls on the first syllable of a word. The stress will, however, fall on the second syllable of a two-syllable word if the vowel in the first syllable is centralised, and the second syllable contains either a diphthong, or a peripheral vowel followed by a consonant, for example /dɪɾ'kʰan/ 'carpenter'. Three-syllable words are stressed on the second syllable if the first syllable contains a centralised vowel, and the second syllable has either a peripheral vowel, or a centralised vowel + geminate, for example /tʃʊ'həttəɾ/ 'seventy-four'. There are exceptions to these rules and they account for minimal pairs like /it'la/ 'informing' and /'itla/ 'so much'.
Extended Perso-Arabic script
There are three writing systems for Saraiki, though very few Saraiki speakers—even those literate in other languages—are able to read or write Saraiki in any writing system. In the province of Punjab, Saraiki is written using the Urdu alphabet with the addition of seven diacritically modified letters to represent the implosives and the extra nasals. In Sindh the Sindhi alphabet is used.
The Devanagari and Gurmukhi scripts, written from left to right, were used by Sikhs and Hindus.[better source needed] Though not used in present-day Pakistan, there are still emigrant speakers in India who know Devanagari script for Saraiki. Historically, traders or bookkeepers wrote in a script known as Langdi, although use of this script has been significantly reduced in recent times. Likewise, a script related to the Landa scripts family, known as Multani, was previously used to write Saraiki. A preliminary proposal to encode the Multani script in ISO/IEC 10646 was submitted in 2011. Saraiki Unicode has been approved in 2005.
Saraiki in academia
Department of Saraiki, Islamia University, Bahawalpur was established in 1989 and Department of Saraiki, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan was established in 2006. Saraiki is taught as subject in schools and colleges at higher secondary, intermediate and degree level. Allama Iqbal open university Islamabad, and Al-Khair university Bhimbir have their Pakistani Linguistics Departments. They are offering M.Phil. and Ph.D in Saraiki. Associated Press of Pakistan has launched its site in Saraiki also.
Arts and literature
The beloved's intense glances call for blood
The dark hair wildly flows The Kohl of the eyes is fiercely black
And slays the lovers with no excuse
My appearance in ruins, I sit and wait
While the beloved has settled in Malheer I feel the sting of the cruel dart
My heart the, abode of pain and grief A life of tears, I have led Farid
—one of Khwaja Ghulam Farid's poems (translated)
Shakir Shujabadi (Kalam-e-Shakir, Khuda Janey, Shakir Diyan Ghazlan, Peelay Patr, Munafqan Tu Khuda Bachaway, and Shakir De Dohray are his famous books) is a very well recognized modern poet.
Famous singers who have performed in Saraiki include Attaullah Khan Essa Khailwi, Pathanay Khan, Abida Parveen, Ustad Muhammad Juman, Mansoor Malangi, Talib Hussain Dard, Kamal Mahsud, and The Sketches. Many modern Pakistan singers such as Hadiqa Kiyani and Ali Zafar have also sung Saraiki folk songs.
Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani on Monday said southern Punjab is rich in cultural heritage which needs to be promoted for next generations. In a message on the launch of Saraiki channel by Pakistan Television (PTV) in Multan, Prime Minister Gilani said the step would help promote the rich heritage of 'Saraiki Belt'.
|TV Channel||Genre||Founded||Official Website|
|Waseb TV (وسیب)||Entertainment||http://www.waseb.tv/|
|Kook TV (کوک)||Entertainment||http://kook.tv.com.pk/|
|Rohi TV (روہی)||Entertainment||http://www.rohi.tv/|
|PTV MULTAN (پی ٹی وی ملتان)||Entertainment||http://ptv.com.pk/ (presents programmes in Saraiki)|
|PTV National (پی ٹی وی نیشنل)||Entertainment||http://ptv.com.pk/ (presents programmes in Saraiki along with other regional languages)|
These are not dedicated Saraiki channels but play most programmes in Saraiki.
|Radio Channel||Genre||Founded||Official Website|
|Radio Pakistan AM1035 Multan||Entertainment||http://www.radio.gov.pk/|
|Radio Pakistan AM1341 Bahawalpur||Entertainment||http://www.radio.gov.pk/|
|Radio Pakistan AM1400 Dera ismaeel khan||Entertainment||http://www.radio.gov.pk/|
|FM105 Saraiki Awaz Sadiq Abad||Entertainment|
- Saraiki people
- Saraiki culture
- Christopher Shackle, Yuri Andreyevich Smirnov and George Abraham Grierson are Westerners who did research on Saraiki language.
- This article incorporates text from The cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia: commercial, industrial and scientific, products of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures, Volume 2, by Edward Balfour, a publication from 1885 now in the public domain in the United States.
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In Pakistan Saraiki is written with a version of Perso-Arabic alphabet, while in India the Gurmukhi and Devanagari alphabets are used, especially by Hindus.
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Seraiki is mainly spoken in the southern Punjab in Pakistan. It is also used by Seraiki community in India. Like Punjabi, it is also written in two mutually incomprehensible scripts, one being the Shahmukhi script used for Punjabi with addition of extra four characters given in Figure 1 and the other being Devanagari with additional characters that have been added in Devanagari Unicode chart for Sindhi language.
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- Preliminary Proposal to Encode the Multani Script in ISO/IEC 10646
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- Shakir Shujabadi
- uploader. "Associated Press Of Pakistan ( Pakistan's Premier NEWS Agency ) - PTV's Saraiki channel to promote area's culture: PM". app.com.pk.
- Asif, Saiqa Imtiaz. 2005. Siraiki Language and Ethnic Identity. Journal of Research (Faculty of Languages and Islamic Studies), 7: 9-17. Multan (Pakistan): Bahauddin Zakariya University.
- Awan, Muhammad Safeer; Baseer, Abdul; Sheeraz, Muhammad (2012). "Outlining Saraiki Phonetics: A Comparative Study of Saraiki and English Sound System" (PDF). Language in India. 12 (7): 120–136. ISSN 1930-2940. Retrieved 2016-10-21.
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- Gardezi, Hassan N. (1996). "Saraiki Language and its poetics: An Introduction". Archived from the original on 21 April 2009.
- Grierson, George A. (1919). Linguistic Survey of India. Volume VIII , Part 1, Indo-Aryan family. North-western group. Specimens of Sindhī and Lahndā. Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, India.
- HEC, Islamabad Pakistan.Letter No. 20-/R7D/09 -5243 Dated 20-01-2010.[vague]
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- Latif, Amna. Phonemic Inventory of Siraiki Language and Acoustic Analysis of Voiced Implosives (PDF). Center for Research in Urdu Language Processing, CRULP Annual Student Report, 2002-2003.
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|Saraiki dialect test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|