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Map of Saraikistan
Population (2014)[1]
 • Total 73,098,278
Time zone PKT (UTC+5)
Main Language(s)
Other languages Pashto, Baluchi

Saraikistan (Saraiki: سرائیکستان) or Saraika (سرائیکہ) is a name coined by the Saraikistan Movement to denote a proposed administrative province of Pakistan comprising areas in central Pakistan historically associated with speakers of the Saraiki dialect of Western Punjabi (i.e., north Sindh, southern part of Punjab, south Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and north-east Balochistan).

Languages of Pakistan

Geographic distribution[edit]

Today, millions of people from North Sindh, South Punjab, and Eastern Balochistan province speak Saraiki.

The first national census of Pakistan to gather data on the prevalence of Saraiki was the census of 1981.[22] In that year, the percentage of respondents nationwide reporting Saraiki as their native language was 9.83. In the census of 1998, it was 10.53 out of a national population of 132 million, for a figure of 13.9 million Saraiki speakers resident in Pakistan. Also according to the 1998 census, 12.8 million of those, or 92%, lived in the province of Punjab.[29] Following is the distribution of Saraiki in the four provinces of Pakistan:

Punjab Sindh Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Balochistan
Multan Dadu Dera Ismail Khan Jafarabad
Bahwalpur Ghotki Tank Naseerabad
Dera Ghazi Khan Jacobabad Bannu Jhal Magsi
Lodhran Naushahro Feroze Musa Khel (as second language)
Muzaffargarh Kashmore Barkhan
Rahimyar Khan Shikarpur Sibi
Rajanpur Sukhar
Qamber Shahdadkot

  • Roh: means mountains, referred to the Sulaiman Mountains in Dera Ghazi Khan, Rajanpur, Barkhan, Musa khel, Tank, Bannu districts and Daroug, Rakni areas
  • Rohi: Cholistan Desert in Bahawalpur, Rahim yar khan
  • Thal: Thal Desert in Layyah, and Muzaffargarh districts
  • Daamaan: meaning the foothills, referred to the foothills of Sulaiman Mountains Dera Ghazi Khan. It may also referred to the plain areas around Multan Kashmore, Ghotki, Sukhar, Jacobabad, Shikarpur, Larkana, Naushahro feroz, Qambar shahdadkot, Dadu, Jafferabad, Naseerabad Jhalmagsi Sibi, and Kherpur districts. Saraikistan is the geographical location of saraiki Nation.
Saraiki group

Divisions and districts[edit]

[2] in Punjab, Pakistan.[3]

Sr. District Headquarters Area (km²) Population
(August 14, 2014)
Density (people/km²)
1 Bahawalnagar Bahawalnagar 8,878 2,061,447 232
2 Bahawalpur Bahawalpur 24,830 2,433,091 98
3 Bhakkar Bhakkar 8,114 1,051,456 129
4 Dera Ghazi Khan Dera Ghazi Khan 11,922 2,043,118 138
5 Dera Ismail Khan Dera Ismail Khan 7326 1,939,000 116 6 Jhang Jhang 8,809 2,834,545 322
7 Khanewal Khanewal 4,349 2,068,490 476
8 Khushab Jauharabad 6,511 905,711 139
9 Layyah Layyah 6,291 1,120,951 178
10 Lodhran Lodhran 2,778 1,171,800 422
11 Mianwali Mianwali 5,840 1,056,620 181
12 Multan Multan 3,720 5,116,851 838
13 Muzaffargarh Muzaffargarh 8,249 2,635,903 320
14 Pakpattan Pakpattan 2,724 1,286,680 472
15 Rahim Yar Khan Rahim Yar Khan 11,880 3,141,053 264
16 Rajanpur Rajanpur 12,319 1,103,618 90
17 Sahiwal Sahiwal 3,201 1,843,194 576
18 Sargodha Sargodha 5,854 4,557,514 455
19 Toba Tek Singh Toba Tek Singh 3,252 1,621,593 499
20 Vehari Vehari 4,364 2,090,416 479


The literacy rate has increased greatly over the last 30 years (see the table below). Saraikistan has the highest Human Development Index out of all of Pakistan's provinces.[4]

Public universities[edit]

Private universities[edit]

  • Akhuwat University, Dera Ghazi Khan
  • Swidish University, Rahim Yar Khan


Most areas in Saraikistan experience extreme weather with foggy winters, often accompanied by rain. By mid-February the temperature begins to rise; springtime weather continues until mid-April, when the summer heat sets in.

The route from Dera Ghazi Khan to Fort Munro

The onset of the southwest monsoon is anticipated to reach Punjab by May, but since the early 1970s the weather pattern has been irregular. The spring monsoon has either skipped over the area or has caused it to rain so hard that floods have resulted. June and July are oppressively hot. Although official estimates rarely place the temperature above 46 °C, newspaper sources claim that it reaches 51 °C and regularly carry reports about people who have succumbed to the heat. Heat records were broken in Multan in June 1993, when the mercury was reported to have risen to 54 °C. In August the oppressive heat is punctuated by the rainy season, referred to as barsat, which brings relief in its wake. The hardest part of the summer is then over, but cooler weather does not come until late October


Religions in Punjab
Religion Percent
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikhs, Parsis, Hindus .

The population of Saraikistan (Pakistan) is estimated to be 97.21% Muslim with a Sunni Hanafi majority and Shia Ithna 'ashariyah minority. The largest non-Muslim minority is Christians and make up 2.31% of the population. The other minorities include Ahmedi, Hindus, Sikhs, Parsis and Bahá'í.[5][dead link][citation needed]


Main article: Punjabi culture
Mausoleum of Sheikh Rukh-e-Alam, Multan (1320 AD)

Punjab has been the cradle of civilization since times immemorial. The ruins of Harappa show an advanced urban culture that flourished over 8000 years ago. Taxila, another historic landmark also stands out as a proof of the achievements of the area in learning, arts and crafts. The ancient Hindu Katasraj temple and the Salt Range temples are regaining attention and much-needed repair.

Arts and crafts[edit]

The crafts in the Punjab are of two types: the crafts produced in the rural areas and the royal crafts.


See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Punjab – World Gazetteer". Archived from the original on 10 December 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2012. 
  2. ^ "Quick Stats | Punjab Portal". 2014-01-16. Retrieved 2014-01-28. 
  3. ^ "Government of Punjab – Districts". 
  4. ^ [1][dead link]

External links[edit]