Saraswati (magazine)

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Former editorsMahavir Prasad Dwivedi (1903–1920), Padumlal Punnalal Bakshi, Thakur Srinath Singh, Devidutta Shukl
CategoriesLiterary magazine
PublisherIndian Press
FounderChintamani Ghosh
First issue1 January 1900 (1900-01-01)
Based inAllahabad

Saraswati was the first Hindi monthly magazine of India.[1][2] Founded in 1900, by Chintamani Ghosh, the proprietor of Indian Press, in Allahabad,[2][3] its success under the editorship of littérateur Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi (1903–1920), led to flourishing of modern Hindi prose and poetry especially in Khariboli dialect.[4] It became the most influential periodical in the Hindi literature during the first two decades of the 20th century.[5]


Based in Georgetown, Allahabad, Ghosh founded Indian Press in 1884, mainly to published educational books, though gradually shifted to publishing general interest books.[6] However, Ghosh didn't have much experience in publishing literary works. Thus in late 1899, he wrote to Nagari Pracharini Sabha in Varanasi, which worked for promotion of Devnagari script, seeking help with editor and writers for founding a literary Hindi magazine. Eventually, first issue of Saraswati was published on 1 January 1900.[7] The other famous Hindi publications of Indian press was children's magazine Balsakha, weekly newspaper "Deshdoot", magazines for farmers "Hal"[8] etc.

Indian Press was also the earliest promoters and publisher of Rabindranath Tagore's work, including Geetanjali, whose rights he held till 1922 before transferring it to Viswa Bharati University.[9] Dwivedi, the doyen of modern Hindi literature, remained its editors from 1903 to 1920, and provided a platform for upcoming writers in Hindi, where many writers of repute, including Premchand and Maithili Sharan Gupt got published.[4] Through the magazine, he not only gave a new direction to Hindi literature by bringing in his social reformist agenda, but also exerted his lasting influence of the formation of style and sensibility during this twenty-year period of Hindi literature. Today it is known as "Dwivedi Yuga" (Age of Dwivedi) after him.[10][11] Other eminent editors of Saraswati were Padumlal Punnalal Bakshi[12] of Rajnandgaon, Thakur Srinath Singh and Devidutt Shukl.[13]

In 2013, President of India, Pranab Mukherjee while unveiling a statue Ghosh at Jagat Taran Girls' Inter College, Allahabad, remembered his "great contribution towards promoting Hindi language and literature."[1][9]

After the interval of 40 years, i.e. after 1980, publication of saraswati was revived and it is now being published since 2020 by Indian Press. In 2020 Devendra Shukla was appointed its editor. In January 2022 Ravi Nandan Singh and Anupam Parihar were appointed editor of the magazine.


  1. ^ a b "Education will lay the foundation of India's future, says President". Press Information Bureau. 25 December 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
  2. ^ a b "President unveils statue of Chintamani Ghosh in Allahabad". India Today. 26 December 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
  3. ^ "History: Allahabad - Main Event". Official Website of Allahabad Nagar Nigam (Allahabad Municipal Corporation). Retrieved 19 September 2014.
  4. ^ a b Ruhela 2003, p. 85.
  5. ^ Freitag 1992, p. 191.
  6. ^ Mody 2008, p. 37-38.
  7. ^ "About Us-Saraswati". India Publishing House. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
  8. ^ "Hal". 1 January 1942. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
  9. ^ a b "The man who unveiled Tagore's genius before the world". The Times of India. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
  10. ^ Kumar 2005, p. 133.
  11. ^ Das 1995, p. 704.
  12. ^ Naiyara, Rameśa (2010). Padumalāla Punnālāla Bakhśī (Saṃskaraṇa 1. ed.). Dillī: Prabhāta Prakāśana. ISBN 9788173158889. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
  13. ^ Bjorkert, Suruchi Thaper. "Reconstructing the history of women's participation in the nationalist movement in India, 1905-1945" (PDF). Warwick. Retrieved 18 April 2016.