Sarawak

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For the river, see Sarawak River. For the ship, see HMS Sarawak (K591).
Sarawak
State
Sarawak
Flag of Sarawak
Flag
Coat of Arms of Sarawak
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Bumi Kenyalang[1] (Land of the Hornbills)
Motto: "Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti"
"United, Striving, Serving"
Anthem: Ibu Pertiwiku (My Motherland)[2]
   Sarawak in    Malaysia
   Sarawak in    Malaysia
Capital Kuching
Divisions
Government[5][6]
 • Yang Di-Pertua Negeri Tun Pehin Sri Abdul Taib Mahmud
 • Chief Minister Tan Sri Datuk Patinggi Adenan Satem (BN)
Area[7]
 • Total 124,450 km2 (48,050 sq mi)
Population (2010)[7]
 • Total 2,471,140
 • Density 20/km2 (51/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Sarawakian
Human Development Index
 • HDI (2010) 0.692 (high) (11th)
Time zone MST[8] (UTC+8)
Postal code 93xxx[9] to 98xxx[10]
Calling code 082 (Kuching), (Samarahan)
083 (Sri Aman), (Betong)
084 (Sibu), (Kapit), (Sarikei), (Mukah)
085 (Miri), (Limbang), (Marudi), (Lawas)
086 (Bintulu), (Belaga)[11]
Vehicle registration QA & QK (Kuching)
QB (Sri Aman)
QC (Kota Samarahan)
QL (Limbang)
QM (Miri)
QP (Kapit)
QR (Sarikei)
QS (Sibu)
QT (Bintulu)
QSG (Sarawak State Government)[12]
Brunei Sultanate 15th century–1841[13]
Brooke dynasty 1841–1946
Japanese occupation 1941–1945
British Crown Colony 1946–1963
Self-government 22 July 1963[14][15][16][17]
Malaysia Agreement[18] 16 September 1963a[19]
Website www.sarawak.gov.my
a Despite the fact that the Federation of Malaysia only came into existence on 16 September 1963, 31 August is celebrated as the Independence day of Malaysia. Since 2010, 16 September is recognised as Malaysia Day, a patriotic national-level public holiday to commemorate the foundation of Federation of Malaysia that joints North Borneo, Malaya, Sarawak and (previously) Singapore as states of equal partners in the federation.[20]

Sarawak (Malay pronunciation: [saˈrawaʔ]) is one of the two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo. It is also one of the founding members of the Malaysian federation alongside North Borneo (now Sabah), Singapore (expelled in 1965) and the Federation of Malaya (Peninsular Malaysia or West Malaysia). This territory has a certain level of autonomy in administration, immigration, and judiciary which differentiates it from the rest of the Malaysian Peninsula states. It is also known as Bumi Kenyalang ("Land of the Hornbills").

Sarawak is situated on the northwest Borneo, bordering the state of Sabah to the northeast, Kalimantan Borneo to the south, and surrounding the independent state of Brunei. Capital city is Kuching. The city is also the economic centre of state and seat of Sarawak state government. Other cities and towns are Miri, Sibu, and Bintulu. As of the last census (2010), the state population was 2,471,140.[21] Sarawak has an equatorial climate with tropical rainforests and abundant animal and plant species. The state has several prominent cave systems at Gunung Mulu National Park. Rajang River is the longest river in Malaysia. Bakun Dam, one of the largest dams in Southeast Asia is located at one of the tributaries of the Rajang River. Mount Murud is the highest point in Sarawak.

Earliest human settlements in Sarawak was 40,000 years ago at Niah Caves. The state had a trading relationship with China during 8th to 13th century. It came under the influence of Bruneian Empire in the 16th century. The state was governed by the Brooke family for 100 years from 19th to 20th century. During World War II, the state was occupied by the Japanese for three years before ceded as British Crown Colony in 1946. On 22 July 1963, Sarawak was granted self-government by the British and later formed the federation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963. However, the federation was opposed by Indonesia and this led to Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation for three years. The state also experienced Communist Insurgency from 1960 to 1990.

The state is multi-ethnic, multi-cultural, and multi-lingual. The head of state is the Governor, also known as Yang di-Pertua Negeri while the head of government is Chief Minister. The government system is closely modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and has the earliest state legislature system in Malaysia. The state is divided into administrative divisions and districts. English and Malay are official languages of the state while there is no official religion. Sarawak State Museum is the oldest museum in Borneo. The state is known for its traditional musical instrument Sapeh. Rainforest World Music Festival (RWMF) is one of the premier music event in Malaysia. Sarawak is the only state in Malaysia to celebrate Gawai Dayak festival.

Sarawak has abundant natural resources and its economy is strongly export-oriented, mainly in oil and gas, timber, and oil palm. Other industries are manufacturing, energy, and tourism.

Etymology[edit]

The official explanation of the word Sarawak is that it is derived from Sarawak Malay word of serawak which means antimony. Another popular but unofficial explanation is that it is an acronym from the four Malay words purportedly uttered by Pangeran Muda Hashim, "Saya serah pada awak" (I surrender it to you) when he gave Sarawak to James Brooke in 1841. However, such explanation has several flaws because the territory already named Sarawak even before the arrival of James Brooke and the word awak never existed in the vocabulary of Sarawak Malay before the Malaysian federation.[22]

Prehistory[edit]

Main article: Prehistoric Malaysia
The main entrance to the Niah Caves.

The first foragers visited the West Mouth of Niah Cave (located 110 km southwest of Miri)[23] 50,000 years ago when Borneo was connected to the mainland of Southeast Asia. The landscape of Niah Cave was drier and more open than it is now. Prehistoric Niah Cave was surrounded by a mosaic of closed forests with bush, parkland, swamps, and rivers. The foragers were able to survive in the rainforests through hunting, fishing, mollusc collection, and plant gathering.[24] The earliest evidence of human population in the area dates back to 40,000 BC in Niah Cave at Paleolithic period. This is evidenced by the discovery of a Homo sapiens skull nicknamed "Deep Skull" in a deep trench uncovered by Tom Harrisson in 1958,[23][25] which is the oldest modern human skull in Southeast Asia.[26] The skull probably belongs to a 16- to 17-year-old adolescent girl.[24] Unfossilised Manis paleojavanica (Asian giant pangolin) bone dated back to 30,000 BC was also found in the proximity of the "Deep Skull",[27] as well as with the Mesolithic and Neolithic burial sites inside the Niah Caves.[28] The area around Niah Caves has been developed into Niah National Park.[29]

Other archaeological sites has since been discovered in central and southern regions of Sarawak. Another excavation by Tom Harrisson in 1949 have unearthed a series of Chinese ceramics at Santubong (near Kuching) that can be dated back to Tang dynasty and Song dynasty around 8th to 13th century A.D. Therefore, it is deduced that Santubong was an important seaport in Sarawak during the period and its importance has declined during Yuan dynasty and was deserted during Ming dynasty.[30] Other archaeological sites in Sarawak includes: Kapit, Song, Serian, and Bau districts.[31]

History[edit]

Bruneian empire[edit]

A west view of a river from the anchorage off Sarawak, Borneo circa 1800s. Painting from the National Maritime Museum of London.

During the 16th century, the area was under the influence of the Bruneian Empire and was self-governed under Sultan Tengah.[13] The eastern seaboard of Borneo was charted, though not settled, by the Portuguese in the early 16th century.[17] The area of Sarawak was known to Portuguese cartographers as Cerava.[17] By the early 19th century, Sarawak had become a loosely governed territory under the control of the Brunei Sultanate.[17] The Bruneian empire only had authority along the coastal regions of Sarawak held by semi-independent Malay chiefs. Meanwhile, the interior hinterland of Sarawak was mainly dominated by tribal wars fought by Iban, Kayan, and Kenyah people who were aggressive in their territorial expansions.[32] Following the discovery of antimony ore in Sarawak (now Kuching), Pangeran Indera Mahkota began to develop the area between 1824 to 1830. When antimony production increased, the Brunei Sultanate demanded higher taxes from Sarawak.[33] This led to a civil unrest and chaos in Sarawak.[17] Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II (1827–1852), the Sultan of Brunei, ordered Pangeran Muda Hashim in 1839 to restore order and it was during this time that James Brooke arrived in Sarawak.[17] Pangeran Muda Hashim initially requested assistance in the matter, but Brooke refused.[17] In 1841, Brooke paid another visit to Sarawak and this time he agreed to provide assistance. Pangeran Muda Hashim signed a treaty in 1841 surrendering Sarawak and Sinian to Brooke. On 24 September 1841,[34] Pangeran Muda Hashim bestowed the title Governor on James Brooke. Then in 1846, he effectively became the Rajah of Sarawak and founded the White Rajah Dynasty of Sarawak after the death of Pengeran Muda Hashim.[35][36]

Brooke dynasty[edit]

Main articles: Kingdom of Sarawak and White Rajahs

James Brooke was appointed Rajah by the Sultan of Brunei in August 1846. Brooke ruled the territory, later expanded, across the western regions of Sarawak around Kuching until his death in 1868. His nephew Charles Anthoni Johnson Brooke became Rajah after his death; he was succeeded on his death in 1917 by his son, Charles Vyner Brooke, with the condition that Charles should rule in consultation with his brother Bertram Brooke.[37] Territorial expansion of Sarawak were pursued by James and Charles Brooke by signing treaties with Brunei. In 1861, Bintulu region until Tanjung Kidurong was ceded to James Brooke. In 1883, Sarawak was extended to Baram River (near Miri). Limbang was acquired in 1885 and later added to Sarawak in 1890. Expansion of Sarawak completed in 1905 when Lawas was ceded to the Brooke government.[38][39] Sarawak was divided into five divisions, corresponding to territorial boundaries of the areas acquired by the Brookes throughout the years. Each division was headed by a Resident.[40] Sarawak was recognised as an independent state by the United States in 1850 and Great Britain in 1864. The state issued its first currency as Sarawak dollars in 1858.[41] However, in the Malaysian context, the Brooke is viewed as a colonialist (penjajah in Malay).[42]

An 1888 revenue stamp of Sarawak featuring the picture of Charles Brooke.

The Brooke dynasty ruled Sarawak for a hundred years as "White Rajahs". Sarawak was accorded a status of similar to Indian princely states in the British Empire.[43] The Brooke dynasty adopted the policy of paternalism to protect the interests of indigenous population and their overall welfare. The Brooke government established a Supreme Council consisting of Malay chiefs who advised on all aspects of governance to the Rajahs.[44] The first General Council meeting took place at Bintulu in 1867. It is also the oldest state legislative assembly in Malaysia.[45] Meanwhile, Ibans and other "Dayak" were hired as contingent militia.[46] The Brooke dynasty also encouraged the immigration of Chinese merchants for economic development in the state especially in mining and agricultural sectors.[44] Western capitalist were restricted to enter the state while Christian missionaries were tolerated.[44] Piracy, slavery, and headhunting were also banned.[47] Borneo Company Limited was formed in 1856. It was involved in wide range of businesses in Sarawak such as trade, banking, agriculture, mineral exploration, and development.[48]

The original residence of James Brooke was a Malay house built in Kuching. In 1857, Hakka Chinese gold miners from Bau, under the leadership of Liu Shan Bang, assaulted the Brooke's residence and it was burnt down. James Brooke escaped and organised Malayo-Iban assistance. He was able to defeat them later.[44] After that, the Brookes built a new government house by the Sarawak River at Kuching which is known today as The Astana.[49][50] An anti-Brooke faction at Brunei Court was defeated in 1860 at Mukah. Other notable oppositions that were successfully quashed by the Brookes include rebellions led by an Iban leader Rentap (1853-1863), and a Malay leader named Syarif Masahor (1860-1862).[44] As a result, a series of forts around Kuching were built to consolidate Rajah's power. This includes Fort Margherita which was completed in 1879.[50] In 1888, Sarawak, together with neighbouring North Borneo (present day Sabah), and Brunei became British protectorates where the foreign policies were handed over to the British in exchange for military protection.[51] In 1891, Charles Brooke, the second White Rajah of Sarawak, established the Sarawak Museum, the oldest museum in Borneo.[50][52]

In 1941, during a centenary celebration of Brooke rule in Sarawak, a new constitution was introduced to limit the power of the Rajah and to allow Sarawak people to play a greater role in government functions.[53] However, the draft constitution contained irregularities, including a secret agreement drawn up between Charles Vyner Brooke and British government officials, in which Vyner Brooke ceded Sarawak as British Crown Colony in return for a financial compensation to him and his family.[43][54]

Japanese occupation and Allied liberation[edit]

Japanese propaganda banner as seen in Kuching shortly after the surrender of Japan. Image taken on 12 September 1945.
Aerial view of Batu Lintang POW camp taken on or after 29 August 1945.

The Brooke government under the leadership of Charles Vyner Brooke, established several airstrips in Kuching, Oya, Mukah, Bintulu, and Miri for preparations in an event of a war. By 1941, the British had withdrawn its defending forces from Sarawak and returned to Singapore. With Sarawak left defenceless, the Brooke regime decided to adopt scorched earth policy where oil installations in Miri would be destroyed and Kuching airfield will be held as long as possible before being destroyed eventually. On the other hand, Japanese forces decided to seize British Borneo to guard their eastern flank of Malayan Campaign and to facilitate their invasion on Sumatra and West Java. A Japanese invasion force led by Kiyotake Kawaguchi landed Miri on 16 December 1941 (8 days into Malayan Campaign) and conquered Kuching on 24 December 1941. British forces led by Lieutenant Colonel C.M. Lane decided to retreat to Singkawang II in Dutch Borneo bordering Sarawak. After 10 weeks of fighting in Dutch Borneo, the Allied forces surrendered on 1 April 1942.[55] When the Japanese invaded Sarawak, Charles Vyner Brooke already left for Sydney, Australia while his officers were captured by the Japanese and interned at Batu Lintang camp.[56]

Sarawak became part of the Empire of Japan for three years and eight months. Sarawak together with North Borneo, and Brunei formed a single administrative unit named Kita Boruneo (Northern Borneo)[57] under Japanese 37th Army headquartered in Kuching. Sarawak was divided into three provinces namely Kuching-shu, Sibu-shu, and Miri-shu with each under their respective Japanese Provincial Governor. Basically, the Japanese retained pre-war administrative machinery and replaced important positions in the government with Japanese people. Administration of Sarawak's interior were left to native police and village headmen under Japanese supervision. Generally, the Malays were receptive of the Japanese while other indigenous tribes such as Iban, Kayan, Kenyah, Kelabit, and Lun Bawang were generally hostile against the Japanese because of policies such as compulsory labour, forced deliveries of foodstuffs, and confiscation of firearms. The Japanese also did not resort to strong measures in clamping down the Chinese population because the Chinese population in the state were generally apolitical. However, a considerable number of Chinese moved from urban areas into the less accessible interior to avoid contact with the Japanese.[58]

Allied forces later formed Z Special Unit to sabotage Japanese operations in Southeast Asia. Beginning March 1945, Allied commanders were parachuted into Borneo jungles and established several SEMUT bases in Sarawak. Hundreds of indigenous people were trained to launch offensives against the Japanese. Intelligence gathered from the operations had helped Allied forces in reconquering Borneo in May 1945 through Operation Oboe Six.[59] This led to the surrender of Japanese to the Australian forces on 10 September 1945 at Labuan.[60][61] Sarawak was immediately placed under British Military Administration until April 1946.[62]

British crown colony[edit]

Anti-cession demonstration in Sarawak.

After the war, the Brooke government did not have enough resources to rebuild Sarawak. Charles Vyner Brooke was also not willing to hand over his power to heir apparent, Anthony Brooke (his nephew, the only son of Bertram Brooke) because of serious differences between them.[32] Besides, Vyner Brooke's wife Sylvia Brett also tried to discredit Anthony Brooke while trying to install her own daughter to the throne. Therefore, Vyner Brooke decided to cede the sovereignty of Sarawak to the British Crown.[54] A Cession Bill was put forth in the Council Negri (now Sarawak State Legislative Assembly) and was debated for 3 days. The bill was passed on 17 May 1946 with a narrow majority (19 versus 16 votes). Supporters of the bill were mostly European officers while the Malays opposed the bill. This has caused hundreds of Malay civil servants resigning in protest, sparking anti-cession movement of Sarawak, and assassination of second colonial governor of Sarawak Sir Duncan Stewart by Rosli Dhobi.[63]

Anthony Brooke opposed the cession of the Rajah's territory to the British Crown. However, he was linked to anti-cessionist groups in Sarawak, especially after the assassination Sir Duncan Stewart.[64] Anthony Brooke continued to claim sovereignty as Rajah of Sarawak even after Sarawak became a British Crown colony on 1 July 1946.[54] For this he was banished from Sarawak by the colonial government[44] and was allowed to return only 17 years later for a nostalgic visit, when Sarawak became part of Malaysia.[65] In 1950, all anti-cession movements in Sarawak ceased after a clamp down by the colonial government.[32] In 1951, Anthony relinquished all his claims to the Sarawak throne after he used up his last legal avenues at the Privy Council.[65]

Self-government and the Federation of Malaysia[edit]

Tan Sri Datuk Amar Stephen Kalong Ningkan declaring the formation of the Federation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963.

On 27 May 1961, Tunku Abdul Rahman, the prime minister of Federation of Malaya announced his plan of forming a greater federation together with Singapore, Sarawak, Sabah, and Brunei which would be called Malaysia. Such plan has caused the local leaders in Sarawak to be wary of Tunku's intentions because of great disparity of socioeconomic development between Malaya and Singapore with the Borneo states. There was a general fear that without a strong political institution, the Borneo states would be subjected to Malaya's colonisation. Therefore, various political parties in Sarawak emerged to protect the interests of the communities they represented. On 17 January 1962, Cobbold Commission was formed to gauge the support of the Sarawak and Sabah towards the federation. Between February to April 1962, the commission met more than 4,000 people and received 2,200 memorandums from various groups. The Commission reported divided support among the Borneo population. However, Tunku interpreted the figures as 80% support for the federation.[66][67] Sarawak drafted 18-point agreement to safeguard its interests in the federation. On 26 September 1962, Sarawak Council Negri passed a resolution which supported the federation with a condition that the interests of Sarawak people will not be compromised. On 23 October 1962, five political parties in Sarawak formed a united front that supported the formation of Malaysia.[68] Sarawak was officially granted self-government on 22 July 1963,[14][15][16] and later formed the federation of Malaysia with Malaya, North Borneo, and Singapore on 16 September 1963,[69][70] despite the initial opposition from parts of the population.[71][72]

Sarawak Rangers comprising Ibans leap from a Royal Australian Air Force Bell UH-1 Iroquois helicopter to guard the Malay–Thai border from potential Communist attacks in 1965, two years before the starting of the second war against the Communist in Malay Peninsula on 1968.

The Malaysian federation had drawn opposition from the Philippines, Indonesia, Brunei People's Party, and Clandestine Communist Organisation (CCO). The Philippines and Indonesia claimed that the British would be "neocolonising" the Borneo states through the Malaya federation.[73] Meanwhile, leader of Brunei People's Party, A. M. Azahari instigated a Brunei Revolt in December 1962 to prevent Brunei from joining the Malaysian federation.[74] Azahari seized Limbang and Bekenu before being defeated by British military forces sent from Singapore. Claiming that Brunei Revolt as the solid evidence of the opposition to Malaysian federation, Indonesian President Sukarno ordered a military confrontation with Malaysia by sending armed volunteers and later military armed forces into Sarawak. Sarawak became a flashpoint during the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation between 1962 and 1966.[75][76] Such confrontation gained little support from local Sarawakians except for CCO. Thousands of CCO members went into Kalimantan and underwent training with Communist Party of Indonesia. During the confrontation period, around 10,000 to 150,000 British troops were stationed in Sarawak, together with Australian and New Zealand troops. When new President of Indonesia, Suharto replaced Sukarno, negotiations was restarted between Malaysia and Indonesia which led to an end of confrontation on 11 August 1966. In 1967, a new agreement was signed which required anyone who wished to cross the Sarawak-Kalimantan border to have a border pass endorsed at border control posts.[73]

After the formation of Peoples' Republic of China in 1949, the ideology of Maoism started to penetrate Chinese schools in Sarawak. The first communist group in Sarawak was formed in 1951. The group has its origins from Chung Hua Middle School in Kuching. The group was later succeeded by Sarawak Liberation League (SLL) in 1954 and later by Clandestine Communist Organisation (CCO). Its activities spread from schools into trade unions and farmers. CCO activities mainly concentrated in southern and central regions of Sarawak. It also successfully penetrated a political party named Sarawak United Peoples' Party (SUPP). CCO tried to realise a communist state of Sarawak through constitutional means but during the confrontation period, it resorted to armed struggle against the government.[32] Weng Min Chyuan and Bong Kee Chok were the two notable leaders of CCO. Following this, the Sarawak government started to establish New Villages along the Kuching-Serian road to prevent the community from helping the communists. CCO formally set up North Kalimantan Communist Party (NKCP) in 1970. In 1973, Bong surrendered to chief minister Abdul Rahman Ya'kub, which significantly reduced the strength of the communist party. However, Weng, who directed CCO from China since the mid-1960s, called for a continued armed struggle against the government. After 1974, armed struggle continued in Rajang Delta. In 1989, Malayan Communist Party (MCP) signed a peace agreement with the government of Malaysia. This has caused NKCP to reopen negotiations with Sarawak government which led to a peace agreement on 17 October 1990. Peace was restored in Sarawak after the final group of 50 communist guerrillas laid down their arms.[77][78]

Government and politics[edit]

Timeline of political parties in Sarawak.

The head of state of Sarawak is Yang di-Pertua Negeri (also known as TYT or State Governor) which is largely symbolic in nature, appointed by Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia.[79] TYT would appoint chief minister as the head of government. The chief minister post is usually filled by the leader of a party who commands the majority of Sarawak State Legislative Assembly. Elected representatives would be known as state assemblymen. The state assembly would be able to pass state laws which is not under the jurisdiction of the Parliament of Malaysia such as land administrations, employment, forests, immigration, merchant shipping, and fisheries. The state government is made up of chief minister with his cabinet ministers and assistant ministers.[80]

To protect the interests of Sarawak people in the Malaysian federation, special safeguards has been written into Constitution of Malaysia. Sarawak has the power to control the entry and residence of those who are non-Sarawakians and non-Sabahans. Only lawyers who are residents of Sarawak can practice law here. There is a High Court of Sarawak which is independent from High Court in Peninsular Malaysia. Chief minister of Sarawak must be consulted before the appointment of chief judge in Sarawak High Court. There are also Native Courts in Sarawak. Sarawak would receive special grants from the federal government and charge their own sales tax. Natives in Sarawak would be able to enjoy special privileges such as quotas and employment in public service, scholarships, university placements, and business permits.[81] Local governments in Sarawak are independent from the laws enacted by the Malaysian parliament.[82]

Major political parties in Sarawak generally can be divided into three categories: native non-Muslim, native Muslim, and non-native although each party do accept members from the other groups.[83] The first political party, Sarawak United Peoples' Party (SUPP) was established in 1959 followed by Parti Negara Sarawak (PANAS) in 1960, and Sarawak National Party (SNAP) in 1961. Other major political parties later appeared by 1962.[32] Sarawak has been a political stronghold of ruling Alliance Party and later Barisan Nasional (BN) coalition since its independence in 1963. Stephen Kalong Ningkan (SNAP) was the first Chief Minister of Sarawak from 1963 to 1966 following his landslide winnings of three tier system of local council elections. He was later ousted in 1966 by Tawi Sli (PESAKA) with the help of Malaysian federal government, causing 1966 Sarawak constitutional crisis.[32] Sarawak political climate was stable until 1987 Ming Court Affair. It was a political coup initiated by Abdul Taib Mahmud's uncle to topple the Taib led Sarawak BN coalition. However, the coup was unsuccessful and Taib was able to retain his chief minister post.[84]

The year 1970 saw the completion the first Sarawak state election where members of Council Negri (now Sarawak State Legislative Assembly) was directly elected by the voters. This election also marks the beginning of ethnic Melanau domination in Sarawak politics at first by Abdul Rahman Ya'kub and followed by his nephew Abdul Taib Mahmud. In the same year, North Kalimantan Communist Party (NKCP) was formed which mounted guerilla warfare against the newly elected Sarawak state government. The party was dissolved after the signing of peace agreement in 1990.[78] The year 1973 saw the birth of Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu (PBB) following a merger of several parties.[85] This party would later become the backbone of Sarawak BN coalition. Meanwhile, a Dayak-based party, Sarawak National Party (SNAP) was fragmented into several splinter parties since 1983 due to recurrent leadership crisis.[86][87] Sarawak originally held state elections together with national parliamentary elections. However, during the tenure of chief minister Abdul Rahman Ya'kub, he delayed the dissolution of state assembly by one year to prepare for the challenges posed by opposition parties and to solve the seat allocations for the newly admitted SNAP party into Sarawak BN.[88] This makes Sarawak the only state in Malaysia to hold state elections separately from the national parliamentary elections since 1979.[89]

In 1978, Democratic Action Party (DAP) was the first Peninsular-based party to open its branches in Sarawak.[85] This party derived majority of its support from urban centres since 2006 state election and become the largest opposition party in Sarawak.[90] In 2010, it forms Pakatan Rakyat coalition with Parti Keadilan Rakyat (PKR) and Parti Islam Se-Malaysia (PAS) where the latter two parties entered Sarawak only between 1996 and 2001.[91] Sarawak is the only state in Malaysia where Peninsular-based component parties in BN coalition especially UMNO has not entered Sarawak.[92]

Subdivisions[edit]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Unlike other states in Malaysia, Sarawak is divided into divisions rather than districts. Each division is headed by one resident. Currently, the state been divided into 12 divisions:[79][93]

  Miri
  Kapit
  Sibu
  Mukah
  Betong
  Serian

Administrative districts[edit]

The divisions are further divided into districts, each of which is headed by a district officer; and each district is divided into sub-districts, which every sub-districts headed by a Sarawak Administrative Officer (SAO). Currently, there are around 32 districts in the state. There is also one Development Officer at each Division and District to implement development projects. Under each district, the state government would appoint a village headman (known as ketua kampung/penghulu) for each village.[79][93] Meanwhile, the 23 local governments in Sarawak are put under the jurisdiction of Sarawak Ministry of Local Government and Community Development.[94]

Division District Subdistrict
Kuching Kuching Siburan, Padawan
Bau
Lundu Sematan
Samarahan Kota Samarahan
Asajaya
Simunjan Sebuyau
Serian[3] Serian Siburan
Tebedu
Sri Aman Sri Aman Lingga, Pantu
Lubok Antu Engkilili
Betong Betong Pusa, Spaoh, Debak, Maludam
Saratok Roban, Kabong, Budu
Sibu Sibu
Kanowit
Selangau
Mukah Mukah Balingian
Dalat Oya
Daro Belawai
Matu Igan
Miri Miri Subis, Niah-Suai,Bario Kelabit
Marudi Beluru, Long Lama
Bintulu Bintulu Sebauh
Tatau
Limbang Limbang Ng. Medamit
Lawas Sundar, Trusan
Sarikei Sarikei
Meradong
Julau
Pakan
Kapit Kapit Nanga Merit
Song
Belaga Sungai Asap

Security[edit]

Ninth Schedule of the Constitution of Malaysia stated that Malaysian federal government is solely responsible for foreign policies and military forces in the country.[95][96] The earliest para-military armed forces in Sarawak was founded by the Brooke regime in 1862. It was known as Sarawak Rangers regiment.[97] The regiment had helped the Brookes to pacify the state, took part in guerilla warfare against the Japanese, and took part in Malayan Emergency and Sarawak Communist Insurgency against the communists. The regiment is famed for its jungle tracking skills. Following the formation of Malaysia, the regiment was absorbed into Malaysian military forces and is now known as Royal Ranger Regiment.[98] Sarawak State Security Unit was formed in 2002 to enable formulation of policies that is suitable with the security in Sarawak.[99]

Geography[edit]

Rajang River is the longest river in Malaysia.

Having land area of 124,450 square kilometres (48,050 sq mi) spanning between latitude 0° 50′ and 5°N and longitude 109° 36′ and 115° 40′ E, Sarawak makes up 37.5% of the total Malaysian land area.[100] It also contains large tracts of tropical rainforest with abundant plant and animal species[17]

The state of Sarawak has 750 kilometres (466 mi) of coastline, interrupted in the north by about 150 kilometres (93 mi) of Bruneian coast. Sarawak is separated from Kalimantan Borneo by ranges of high hills and mountains that are part of the central mountain range of Borneo. These get higher to the north and reaches the highest point near the source of the Baram River with the steep Mount Batu Lawi, Mount Mulu and Mount Murud as the highest point in Sarawak.[17] Lambir Hills National Park is known for its various waterfall formations.[101] The world's largest underground chamber, the Sarawak Chamber, is present inside the Gunung Mulu National Park. Other attractions in the park includes Deer Cave (world's largest cave passage)[102] and Clearwater Cave (longest cave system in Southeast Asia).[103][104] The national park is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[105]

Sarawak can be divided into three natural regions. The coastal region is rather low lying and flat with large extents of swamps and other wet environments. Examples of beaches in Sarawak are: Pasir Panjang[106] and Damai beaches in Kuching,[107] Tanjung Batu beach in Bintulu,[108] Tanjung Lobang[109] and Hawaii beaches in Miri.[110] The hill region provides most of the inhabited land. Cities and towns are built in this region. The ports of Kuching and Sibu are built some distance from the coast on rivers. Bintulu and Miri are close to the coastline where the hills stretch right to the South China Sea. The third region is the mountainous region along the Kalimantan Borneo border and with the Kelabit (Bario), Murut (Ba'kelalan) and Kenyah (Usun Apau Plieran) highlands in the north.[17]

The major rivers in Sarawak are: Sarawak River, Lupar River, Saribas River, and Rajang River. Sarawak river is the main river flowing through Kuching. Rajang River is the longest river in Malaysia measuring 563 kilometres (350 mi) when its tributary Balleh River adds to the total length of the river. To the north, Baram River, Limbang River, and Trusan River drains into the Brunei Bay.[17]

Sarawak is a tropical country with an equatorial climate. It experiences two monsoon seasons: Northeast monsoon and Southwest monsoon. Northeast monsoon occurs between November and February and usually brings heavy rain but Southwest monsson is usually drier. Sarawak climate is stable throughout the year except for the two monsoon changes. Average daily temperature varies between 23 °C in the morning and 32 °C in the afternoon, with Miri having the lowest average temperatures when compared with other major towns in Sarawak. Miri also has the longest hours of sunshine (more than 6 hours a day) when compared to other parts of Sarawak (5 to 6 hours daily). Humidity is usually high, exceeding 68%, with annual rainfall varies between 330 cm and 460 cm, spanning 220 days a year.[100] Lothosols and lithosols are the two types of soil that make up 60% of the Sarawak land area, while Podzol made up 12% of Sarawak land area. Alluvium are found at the coastal and riverine regions while 12% of Sarawak land area are covered with peat swamps.[100]

Sarawak can be divided into two geological regions. Sunda Shield extends southwest from the Batang Lupar River (near Sri Aman) forming the southern tip of Sarawak. Meanwhile, Geosyncline region extends northeast to the Batang Lupar river, forming central and northern regions of Sarawak. The oldest rock in southern Sarawak is Schist rock which was formed during Carboniferous and Lower Permian times. While the youngest Igneous rock in this region is Andesite lava at Sematan. For central and northern regions of Sarawak, geological formation started during the late Cretaceous period. Types of stones that can be found here are: shale, sandstone, and chert.[100]

Biodiversity[edit]

Rhinoceros hornbill is the state bird of Sarawak.

Sarawak coastline is covered by mangrove and nipah forests. It forms 2% of he total forested area in Sarawak, most commonly found in the estuarine areas of Kuching, Sarikei, and Limbang. Main tree species that can be found here are: Bako (Rhizophora), Nipah palm (Nypa fruticans), and Nibong (Oncosperma tigillarium). Peat swamp forests covers 16% of forested land, most commonly found in southern Miri and lower Baram Valley. The main tree species in peat swamp forests are: Ramin (Gonystylus bancanus), Meranti (Shorea spp), and Medang Jongkong (Dactylocladus stenostachys). Kerangas forest occupies 5% of total forest area while hill Dipterocarpaceae forests occupies mountainous area.[100] Several plant species have been studied for its medicinal properties.[111]

Sarawak rainforest has one of the highest concentration of species per unit area in the world. The state has about 185 species of mammals, 530 species of birds, 166 species of snakes, 104 species of lizards, and 113 of amphibians. It also has 19% of the mammals, 6% of the birds, 20% of the snakes and 32% of the lizards as endemic species. These species are largely found in Totally Protected Areas. In case of flora species, there are 2,000 tree species, 1000 species of orchids, 757 species of ferns, and 260 species of palm.[112] The state is also the habitat of endangered animals, including borneo pygmy elephant, proboscis monkey, orangutans and rhinoceroses.[113][114][115][116][117] Matang Wildlife Centre, Semenggoh Nature Reserve, and Lanjak Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary[118] are notable for their orang utan protection programmes.[119][120] Talang-Satang National Park is notable for its turtle conservation.[121] Birdwatching can be done in various national parks such as Gunung Mulu National Park, Lambir Hills National Park,[122] and Similajau National Park.[123] Miri-Sibuti National Park is known for its coral reefs.[124] Gunung Gading National Park is known for its Rafflesia flowers.[125] Bako National Park is the oldest national park in Sarawak. The national park is known for its 275 species of proboscis monkeys.[126] Padawan Pitcher Garden is known for its various carnivorous pitcher plants.[127] Rhinoceros hornbill is the state bird of Sarawak.[128]

The state government has enacted several laws to protect the forests and endangered wildlife species in Sarawak such as Forests Ordiance 1958,[129] Wild Life Protection Ordinance 1998,[130] and Sarawak Natural Parks and Nature Reserves Ordinance.[131] Examples of protected species are: orang utan, green turtle, flying lemur, and piping hornbill. Under Wild Life Protection Ordinance 1998, Sarawak natives are given permissions to hunt for restricted range of wild animals in the jungles but should not possess more than 5 kg of meat.[132] Sarawak Forest Department was established in 1919 to conserve forest resources in the state.[133] Following international criticisms of logging industry in Sarawak, the state government decided to downsize Sarawak Forest Department and created Sarawak Forestry Corporation in 1995.[134][135] Sarawak Biodiversity Centre was set up in 1997 to initiate conservation, protection, and sustainable development of biodiversity in the state.[136]

Conservation issues[edit]

A logging camp along the Rajang River.

The percentage of current forest cover in Sarawak has been controversial. Sarawak chief minister Abdul Taib Mahmud claimed that the state has 70% forest cover in 2011 and 48% in 2012.[137] Meanwhile, his cabinet minister claimed of 80% forest cover in 2012[137] and to maintain 60% forest cover in the coming years.[138] Meanwhile, Sarawak Forest Department claimed of 80% forest cover in Sarawak in 2012.[139] On the contrary, foreign media asserted that Sarawak has lost 90% of its forest cover[140][141] with 3% to 5% remaining intact.[142] According to Wetlands International, 10% of all Sarawak forests and 33% of peat swamp forests were cleared from 2005 to 2010, which is 3.5 times higher than the total rate of deforestation in Asia and 11.7 times more than peat swamp deforestation in Asia.[143][144]

Sarawak's rainforests have been gradually depleted by the demand driven by the logging industry and the introduction of palm oil plantations,[145] which links to corruption by chief minister Abdul Taib Mahmud and his family.[146][147][148][149] The issue of human rights of Penan and deforestation in Sarawak became an international environmental issue when Swiss activist Bruno Manser entered Sarawak from 1984 until 2000.[150] Deforestation has affected the life of indigenous tribes especially Penan whose livelihood are heavily depended on forest produce. This led to several blockades by indigenous tribes during the 1980s and 1990s against logging companies encroaching their lands.[151] There are also cases where Native Customary Rights (NCR) lands are given to timber and plantation companies without the permission of the inhabitants.[152] The indigenous people has resorted to legal means to reinstate their NCR rights. In 2001, High Court of Sarawak fully reinstated NCR land claimed by Rumah Nor people but was overturned partially in 2005. However, this case has served as the reference which led to more NCR rights being upheld by the high court in the coming years.[153][154] Sarawak mega dams policy such as Bakun Dam and Murum Dam projects has submerged thousands hectares of forests and displaced thousands of indigenous people.[155][156] Currently, the proposed Baram Dam project is delayed due to ongoing protests from local indigenous tribes.[157] Since 2014, the Sarawak government under new chief minister Adenan Satem has started to clamp down illegal logging in the state and to diversify economy of the state away from logging businesses.[158]

Economy[edit]





Circle frame.svg

Sarawak GDP Share by Sector (2013)[159]

  Services (37.2%)
  Manufacturing (26.6%)
  Mining & Quarrying (21.5%)
  Agriculture (11.4%)
  Construction (3.1%)
  Import Duties (0.3%)
A LNG port at Bintulu, Sarawak.

Sarawak has abundant natural resources. Primary sectors such as mining, agriculture, and forestry accounted for 32.8% of the state economy in 2013.[159] Manufacturing industry of Sarawak mainly consisting of food and beverages, wood-based and rattan products, basic metal products, and petrochemical products.[7] Services industry mainly contributed by cargo transportation services, air transport, and tourism.[159] Sarawak had an average annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate of 5.0% from 2000 to 2009.[160] Annual GDP growth was volatile from 2006 to 2013, ranging from -2.0% (2009) to 7.0% (2010) with standard deviation of 3.3%. Sarawak contributed 10.1% of the national GDP for the last 9 years until 2013, behind only to Selangor (22.2%) and Kuala Lumpur (13.9%) [159] Sarawak GDP has grown from RM 527 million in 1963 to RM 58 billion in 2013, a 110 times increase. At the same time, GDP per capita has jumped from RM 688 to RM 46,000, a 60 fold increase.[161] Sarawak has the third highest GDP per capita (RM 44,437) in Malaysia; after Kuala Lumpur and Labuan.[162] Sarawak state government is able to maintain fiscal surpluses over seven years until 2013, supported by oil and gas industry which accounted for 34.8% of the state's revenue. Sarawak also attracted RM 9.6 billion in foreign investments where 90% of the investments went to Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy (SCORE). SCORE is the second largest economic corridor in Malaysia.[159]

Sarawak economy is strongly export oriented, therefore susceptible to global commodity prices. Total exports as a percentage of GDP is more than 100% in 2013 while total trade exceeds 130%. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) exports accounted for more than half of the state's total exports while crude petroleum exports accounted for 20.8%. Meanwhile, palm oil, saw logs, and sawn timber accounted for 9.0% of the total exports.[159] Sarawak currently receives 5% oil royalty from Petronas over oil explorations in Sarawak territorial waters.[163] Majority of the oil and gas deposits are located offshore next to Bintulu and Miri at Balingian basin, Baram basin, and around Luconia Shoals.[164] Sarawak is also one of the world's largest exporters of tropical hardwood timber, constituted 65% of total Malaysian log exports in 2000. The last UN statistics estimated Sarawak's sawlog exports at an average of 14,109,000 cubic metres (498,300,000 cu ft) per year between 1996 and 2000.[165] Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation (OCBC Bank) was the first foreign bank to open its branches in Sarawak in 1955. Apart from domestic banks, Sarawak currently has local branches of 18 European, 10 Middle Eastern, 11 Asian, and five North American banks.[166] There are also several Sarawak-based companies involved in various economic sectors such as Cahya Mata Sarawak Berhad (CMSB), Naim Holdings, Rimbunan Hijau, Ta Ann, Shin Yang, Samling, WTK, and KTS.[167]

Sarawak consumer price index (CPI) is highly correlated with Malaysian CPI, with inflation averaging between 2.5 to 3.0% in the last 4 years until 2013 with a high in 2008 (10.0%) and a low in 2009 (-4.0%).[159] Income inequality in Sarawak has not shown any significant changes from 1980 to 2009, with Gini coefficient fluctuating between 0.4 to 0.5.[168][169] Sarawak saw a reduction in poverty rate from 56.5% (1975) to less than 1% (2015).[170] Unemployment rate also reduced from 4.6% (2010)[171] to 3.1% (2014).[170]

Energy[edit]

Turbines inside the Bakun Dam power house. The dam is the main source for electric energy in Sarawak.

Sarawak Energy Berhad (SEB) is responsible for generation, transmission, and distribution of electrical power throughout Sarawak.[172] There are currently three operational dams in Sarawak as of 2015: Batang Ai Dam,[173] Bakun Dam,[174] and Murum Dam[175] with several others under feasibility study and planning.[173] Sarawak also derived its electrical energy from coal fired power plant and thermal power station using Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG).[172][176] The total capacity of the state power generation is expected to reach 7,000 MW by 2025.[177] Alternative energy sources such as biomass, tidal, solar, wind, and micro-hydroelectric dams are also being explored for their potential of power generation.[178]

Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy (SCORE) was established in 2008 and planned for further development until 2030 to exploit the abundant energy resources in the state (Murum Dam, Baram Dam, Baleh Dam, and coal fired power plants)[179] and to develop 10 high priority industries[180] such as aluminium, glass, steel, oil, fisheries, livestock, timber, and tourism.[181] Regional Corridor Development Authority (RECODA) is the government agency responsible for managing SCORE.[182] The entire central region of Sarawak would be covered under SCORE which would include major areas such as Samalaju (near Bintulu), Tanjung Manis, and Mukah.[183] Samalaju would be developed as an industrial park,[184] with Tanjung Manis as Halal food Hub,[185] and Mukah as administrative centre for SCORE with focus on resource-based research and development.[186]

Tourism[edit]

French Gypsy band performing during Rainforest World Music Festival (RWMF) 2006.

Tourism plays a major role in the economy of the state. Sarawak Tourism Board is responsible for tourism promotion in the state under the purview of Sarawak Ministry of Tourism. Meanwhile, private tourism sectors are united under Sarawak Tourism Federation. Sarawak Convention Bureau is responsible for attracting conventions, conferences, corporate events to be held in Borneo Convention Centre Kuching.[187] Number of tourists visiting Sarawak has been steadily rising from 3.3 million (2010) to 4.8 million tourists (2014), both international and domestic, contributing to 17% of state GDP, amounting to RM 10.6 billion. Most of the foreign visitors come from Brunei, Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore, and China.[188] The Sarawak Hornbill Tourism Award is held every two years to recognise the best in the tourism sector of the state.[189] Rainforest World Music Festival (RWMF) is the region's premier "world music" event, attracting more than 20,000 music fans yearly.[190] Other events that are held regularly in Sarawak are: ASEAN International Film Festival, Asia Music Festival, Borneo Jazz Festival, Borneo Cultural Festival, and Borneo International Kite Festival.[187] Major shopping complexes in Sarawak are: The Spring, Boulevard, Hock Lee Centre, City One shopping malls in Kuching,[191] Bintang megamall, Boulevard, Imperial Mall, and Miri Plaza shopping malls in Miri.[192] Sarawak capital of Kuching has been mentioned as one of the retirement destinations in Malaysia.[193][194][195]

Sarawak Tourist Arrival Statistics[188]
Key Tourism Indicators 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Foreign Arrivals (millions) 1.897 2.343 2.635 2.665 2.996
Domestic Arrivals (West Malaysia & Sabah) (millions) 1.373 1.452 1.434 1.707 1.862
Total Arrivals (millions) 3.271 3.795 4.069 4.372 4.858
Total Tourism Receipts, billions (RM) 6.618 7.914 8.573 9.588 10.686

Infrastructure[edit]

The overall infrastructure in Sarawak are less developed when compared to Peninsular Malaysia.[196] Sarawak Ministry of Infrastructure Development and Communications (MIDCom) is responsible for infrastructure and telecommunication developments in Sarawak.[197] Sarawak has 21 industrial estates, with four main agencies responsible for its implementation and development.[198] In 2009, 94% of urban areas and 67% of rural areas has electrical supply.[199] In 2014, 91% of the rural areas has electrical supply.[200] In terms of telecommunication, fixed line penetration rate in Sarawak was 25.7% and mobile phone penetration rate was 93.3% in 2013. Computers usage was only 45.9% in the same year. Internet usage was 58.5% in urban areas and 29.9% in rural areas.[201] State-owned Sacofa Sdn Bhd is responsible for constructing telecommunication towers in Sarawak.[202] Sarawak Information Systems Sdn Bhd (SAINS) is responsible for implemetation and development of Information technology (IT) in Sarawak.[203] In 2012, Sarawak has 63 post offices, 40 mini post offices, and five mobile post services.[204] Mail delivery coverage in rural areas was 60% in 2015.[205]

Kuching Water Board (KWB) and Sibu Water Board (SWB) are responsible for the management of water supply in their respective areas. Meanwhile, state-owned LAKU Management Sdn Bhd manages water supply for Miri, Bintulu, and Limbang.[206] Rural Water Supply Department manages water supply for the remaining areas.[207] In 2014, 82% of the rural areas has fresh water supply.[200]

Transportation[edit]

Kuching International Airport terminal building.
Bintulu International Container Terminal (BICT) at Bintulu seaport.

Sarawak has a total of 32,091 km of connected roadways in 2013, with half of these (18,003 km) being paved state routes, 8,313 km of dirt tracks (built by timber and plantation companies), 4,352 km of gravel roads, and 1,424 km of paved federal highway. The primary route in Sarawak would be Pan Borneo Highway, connecting from south-western tip of Sematan, Sarawak through Brunei until the north-eastern end of Tawau, Sabah.[208] However, the road condition is unsatisfactory. Therefore, a federal budget has been allocated to upgrade the roads in Sarawak. Under SCORE economic corridor, more roads were built to the major hydroelectric dams, Bintulu, and Kapit.[208] Major cities and towns in Sarawak also provides public transportation services such as buses, taxis, and limousine. Bus services are also available for travelling to neighbouring state of Sabah, Brunei, and Pontianak, Indonesia.[206] Sarawak uses dual carriageway with left-hand traffic rule.[209] It also allows motorists to "turn left when the exit is clear".[210]

Kuching International Airport is the main gateway to Sarawak. Meanwhile, Miri Airport serves a limited number of international flights. Other smaller airports such as Sibu Airport, Bintulu Airport, Mukah Airport, Marudi Airport, Mulu Airport, and Limbang Airport provide services to Kuala Lumpur and other domestic destinations in Sarawak. There are also a number of remote airstrips serving rural communities in the state.[208] There are three airlines serving flight routes in Sarawak: Malaysia Airlines, Air Asia, and MASwings.

Sarawak has four primary ports at Kuching, Sibu, Bintulu, and Miri.[206] The Bintulu seaport is placed under the jurisdiction of Malaysian federal government. It is also the busiest port in Sarawak, mainly handling LNG products and standard cargo shipping. The remaining ports are placed under respective state port authorities. Other ports in Sarawak includes Samalaju Industrial Port and Tanjung Manis Industrial Port (TIMP). The combined throughput of the four primary ports was 61.04 million freight weight tonnes (FWT) in 2013.[208] Sarawak has 55 navigable river networks with combined length of 3,300 kilometres (2,100 mi). For centuries the rivers of Sarawak have been a primary means of transport as well as provided a route for timber and other agricultural goods moving downriver for export at the country's major ports. Sibu port is the main hub along the Rajang River, located 113 kilometres (70 mi) from its mouth. The port mainly handles timber products. However, due to opening of Tanjung Manis Industrial Port (TIMP) further downriver, the total throughput of Sibu port has declined.[208] Express boats are an important means of transport along the rivers of Sarawak.[206]

No railways are built in Sarawak because of logistical challenges and dispersed population in the state.[208]

Healthcare[edit]

Sarawak has three major government hospitals: Sarawak General Hospital, Sibu Hospital, and Miri Hospital.[211] There are also district hospitals,[212] public health clinics, 1Malaysia clinics, and rural clinics.[213] Besides government-owned hospitals and clinics, there are several private hospitals in Sarawak[214] such as Normah Medical Specialists Centre, Timberland Medical Specialists Centre,[215] and Sibu Specialist Medical Centre. Sarawak is also a medical tourism destination for Brunei and Indonesian visitors.[216] Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) is the only government university that produces medical graduates in the state.[213] Sarawak Hospice Society was set up in 1998 to promote hospice care in home settings.[217] Hospital Sentosa is the only mental hospital in Sarawak.[218]

However, access to good quality healthcare is still a challenge to the rural communities.[219] For villages located outside the operational areas of health clinics, flying doctor service (FDS) is available once a month. Village health promoters are stationed among remote villages where they are provided with 3 weeks of first aid and basic health care training. A variety of traditional medicinal practices are still being used by the various communities in Sarawak.[220]

In 2015, the doctors:patient ratio in the state was 1:1,104 which is lower than World Health Organisation (WHO) recommendation of 1 doctor to 600 patients. There are 2,237 doctors in Sarawak, where 1,759 are serving in public sector and 478 in private sector.[221] There were also 248 specialists, 942 medical officers, and 499 house officers in the state.[212]

Education[edit]

Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) chancellory building.

Sarawak overall literacy rate was 25% in 1960.[222] Today, the state has 90% literacy rate. Malaysian Ministry of Education is responsible for primary and secondary education in Sarawak.[223] The oldest schools that are established in Sarawak are: St. Thomas’s School Kuching (1848), St Mary’s School Kuching (1848), and St Joseph’s School Kuching (1882).[224] In 2012, Sarawak has 185 government secondary schools, four international schools,[225] and 14 Chinese independent schools.[226] Sarawak government also emphasises on pre-school education in the state.[225] Sarawak has three public universities: Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) Kota Samarahan campus, and Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Campus. Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM) also set up several off-campus study centres in Kuching and Sibu. Sarawak also has two private universities: Curtin University Sarawak and Swinburne University of Technology Sarawak Campus.[223] Vocational traning is also given priority to supply skilled workforce for SCORE economic corridor. There are also several community colleges in the state.[225] There are four Teachers' Training Colleges in Sarawak.[227] Batu Lintang Teachers' Training College is the third oldest of its kind in Malaysia.[228] In 2015, the total teaching workforce in Sarawak was 40,593.[229]

Sarawak State Library (also known as PUSTAKA) is the largest library in the state. Public libraries and village libraries are found in respective towns and cities.[230]

Demographics[edit]

As of the 2010 census, the population of Sarawak was 2,471,140, making it the 4th most populous state in Malaysia.[7] However, due to the large area of Sarawak, it has the lowest population density in Malaysia, which stands at 20 people per km2. Average population growth rate per year from 2000 to 2010 was 1.8%.[7] In 2014, 58% of the population are staying in urban areas while 42% of the population are staying in rural areas.[231] As of 2011, crude birth rate in Sarawak was 16.3 per 1000 population, crude death rate was 4.3 per 1000 population, and infant mortality rate was 6.5 per 1000 live births.[232]

Ethnic groups in Sarawak[233]
Ethnic Percentage
Iban
  
31%
Chinese
  
28%
Malay
  
20%
Bidayuh
  
8%
Melanau
  
6%
Orang Ulu
  
5%
Others
  
2%

People from Sarawak are called Sarawakians.[234] Sarawak has more than 40 sub-ethnic groups, each with its own distinct language, culture and lifestyle. Cities and larger towns are populated predominantly by Malays, Melanaus, Chinese, and a smaller percentage of Ibans and Bidayuhs who have migrated from their home villages for employment opportunities.[235] Generally, Sarawak has six major ethnic groups: Iban, Chinese, Malay, Bidayuh, Melanau, and Orang Ulu.[235] Several minor ethnic groups include: Kedayan, Javanese, Bugis, Murut, and Indian.[236] Sarawak has 150,000 registered migrant workers working in plantation, manufacturing, construction, services, agriculture, and as domestic workers.[237] However, total number of illegal immigrants may reach 320,000 to 350,000 people.[238]

The term Dayak is commonly referred to the Iban people and the Bidayuh. The term is often used in nationalistic contexts.[239] In 2015, Malaysian federal government recognises the usage of the term in official forms.[240] Bumiputera (son of the soil) refers to the Malays and other indigenous groups in the Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak and Sabah. This group of people generally enjoy special privileges in education, jobs, finance, and political positions.[241] Meanwhile, Orang Asal refers to all the indigenous groups in Malaysia excluding Malays.[242]

Iban[edit]

Main article: Iban people
A traditional Iban longhouse.

Sarawak has the highest number of Ibans in Borneo. They are also known as Sea Dayaks. The large majority of Ibans practise Christianity. The Ibans originally inhabited the areas around Rajang basin but following Brooke's military expeditions, they gradually moved into northern regions of Sarawak. Iban settlements are usually in the form of a longhouse. The longhouse was a defensive unit when headhunting was prevalent in the past but today it remains as a symbol of ritual well being among its households. In the past, the Ibans recognised status hierarchy such as "raja berani" (the rich and the brave), "orang mayuh" (ordinary people), and "ulun" (slaves). However, during the Brooke era, Iban society was restructured into formal offices such as "tuai rumah" (headman), "penghulu" (regional chief), and "temenggong" (paramount chief).[243] They still observe many of their traditional rituals and beliefs today such as Gawai Dayak (Harvest Festival) and Gawai Antu (festival of the dead).[244]

Chinese[edit]

Main article: Malaysian Chinese
A Chinese paifang in Kuching.

The Chinese first came to Sarawak as traders and explorers in the 6th century. The Chinese population today consists of communities built from immigrants of the 19th and early 20th centuries during the Brooke era.[17] These migrants first worked as labourers inside gold mines at Bau, Sarawak. They organised themselves economically. The Sarawak Chinese belong to a wide range of dialect groups such as Cantonese, Foochow, Hakka, Hokkien, Teochew, and Henghua (Putian people). They celebrate major cultural festivals such as Chinese New Year and the Hungry Ghost Festival. The Sarawak Chinese are predominantly Buddhists and Christians.[43] In Kuching, most of the Chinese settled near the Sarawak River which would later form Chinatown.[245] In 1901, Wong Nai Siong brought his clansmen to settle in Sibu, near the Rajang River.[246] The Chinese later went to work at coal mines and oil fields in Miri·[245] Sarawak Chinese has been influenced by Kuomintang and later Communist Party of China before subscribed to the ideology of Sarawak nationalism after the formation of Malaysia in 1963.[247]

Malay[edit]

Main article: Sarawak Malay
A Sarawak Malay traditional house.

The Malays are traditionally fishermen. They choose to build settlements (Malay kampung/village) along the river banks. Today, they migrated to urban areas and work in public and private sectors. They are notable for their wood carvings, silver/brass craftings, and textiles.[17] Examples of Malay kampungs (villages) are located along the riverside near Fort Margherita, behind the Kuching Mosque, and at the foot of Mount Santubong.[248] There has been several theories about the origins of the Malays in Sarawak. James Brooke purportedly applied the term for the first time on the coast-dwelling indigenous Muslims in Sarawak. However, not all Muslims in Sarawak are Malays. Most of the Melanau tribe are also practising Islam.[73] Other theories claimed that the Malays came from Malay Archipelago such as Java or Sumatra, Arabs from the Middle East, or through cultural and religious conversions of indigenous people of Sarawak.[249]

Melanau[edit]

Main article: Melanau

The Melanaus are the original settlers of Sarawak. Most of them come from the coastal town of Mukah.[250] They traditionally stay in tall houses but after adopting a Malay lifestyle, they stay in kampungs (villages). They worked as fishermen, boat-builders, and craftsmen. The Melananus originally practices paganism but today most of them are Muslims. However, some of them still practices Christianity and paganism.[73] They do celebrate traditional animists Kaul festival.[17][251]

Bidayuh[edit]

Main article: Bidayuh
A traditional Bidayuh baruk roundhouse.

The Bidayuh mainly stayed in southern part of Sarawak such as Lundu, Bau, Serian, and Padawan municipality.[252] They are known as Land Dayaks because they traditionally live on steep limestone mountains. They consists of several sub-ethnic groups such as Jagoi, Biatah, and Selakau with different dialects incomprehensible with each other.[253] Therefore, they resorted to English and Malay languages as their common language. They are known for several musical instruments such as gigantic drums and bamboo percussion instrument known as pratuakng. Like Ibans, their traditional settlements are longhouses but they also constructed baruk roundhouses for community meetings. Majority of the Bidayuh practices Christian faith.[17]

Orang Ulu[edit]

Main article: Orang Ulu

The word Orang Ulu means "upriver people". It includes numerous tribes staying in upriver of the Sarawak's interior such as Kenyah, Kayan, Lun Bawang, Kelabit, Penan, Bisaya, and Berawan tribes.[17] Formerly headhunters, most of them stay in Bario, Ba'kelalan, Belaga, and near drainage basin of Baram River.[254] They decorate their longhouses with murals and woodcarvings. They are also known for boat building, beadwork, and tattooing.[17] Well known musical instruments from Orang Ulu are Kayan's sapeh and Lun Bawang's bamboo band. Kelabit and Lun Bawang people are notable for their production of fragrant rice.[254] Majority of Orang Ulu are Christians.[17]

Religion[edit]

Religion in Sarawak – 2010 Census[255]
Religion Percent
Christianity
  
42.6%
Islam
  
32.2%
Buddhism
  
13.5%
Chinese Ethnic Religion
  
6.0%
Hinduism
  
0.2%
Others
  
1.2%
No religion
  
2.6%
Unknown
  
1.9%

Although Islam is the official religion of the federation, Sarawak has no official state religion.[256] However, during the chieftainship of Abdul Rahman Ya'kub, Sarawak constitution was amended to make Yang di-Pertuan Agong as the head of Islam in Sarawak and empowers the state assembly to pass laws regarding Islamic affairs. With such provisions, Islamic policies can be formulated in Sarawak and establishment of Islamic state agencies are also possible. The 1978 Majlis Islam Bill enabled the setting up of Syariah Courts in Sarawak with jurisdictions over matrimonial, children custody, betrothal, inheritance, and criminal cases in the state. Appeal Court and Courts of Kadi were also formed.[88]

Sarawak is the only state in Malaysia where Christians outnumber Muslims. The earliest Christian missionaries in Sarawak were propagated by Church of England (Anglicans) in 1848, followed by Roman Catholics few years later, and Methodists in 1903. Such missionaries first took place among the Chinese immigrants before spreading to animists indigenous people.[257] Other Christian denominations in Sarawak are Borneo Evangelical Mission (BEM or Sidang Injil Borneo, S.I.B.),[258] and Baptists.[259] Indigenous people such as Iban, Bidayuh, and Orang Ulu have adopted Christianity although they do retain some of their traditional religious rites. Many Muslims come from Malay, Melanau, and Kedayan ethnic groups. Buddhism, Taoism, and Chinese Folk Religion are predominantly practised by Chinese Malaysians.[260] Other minor religions in Sarawak are Baha'i, Hinduism, Sikhism, and animism.

Languages[edit]

English was the sole official language of Sarawak from 1963 until 1974 because the first chief minister of Sarawak Stephen Kalong Ningkan opposed the usage of Malay language in Sarawak. In 1974, the new chief minister Abdul Rahman Ya'kub adopted Malay language and English as the two official languages of Sarawak.[88][261] He also changed medium of instruction in schools from English into Malay language.[262] Today, English language is being used in courts, state legislative assembly, and certain government functions in Sarawak.[263][264] On 18 November 2015, Sarawak Chief Minister Adenan Satem announced the state adoption of English as the official language of Sarawak, along with Malay.[265][266][267]

The Malay language, known as Bahasa Sarawak (or Sarawak Malay), is the main language among the Sarawak Malays and other indigenous tribes. Bahasa Sarawak has a different dialect when compared with Peninsular Malay languages. Besides, Iban language is also widely spoken among 34% of the population. Meanwhile, Bidayuh language is spoken by 10% of the Sarawak population with six major dialects. Orang Ulu has about 30 different language dialects. The Chinese generally uses Standard Chinese although they also uses many different dialects such as Hokkien, Hakka, Foochow, and Teochew.[268]

Culture[edit]

Sarawak has a multiracial, multicultural, and multilingual society. The indigenous people forms the original culture of this area, followed by the culture imposed by the Bruneian Malays at the coastal areas. Substantial cultural influences also existed from the Chinese and British cultures. Headhunting was once an important tradition for the Ibans. Today this custom is no longer observed.[269] Religions such as Christianity has affected the lives of indigenous people particularly Kelabit people and Lun Bawang people. Christianity plays an important role in their daily lives, and has changed their ethnic identities.[270] The Penan people is the last indigenous group to abandon their nomadic way of life in the jungles.[271][272] Interracial marriages is common in the state.[273]

Sarawak Cultural Village is located at the foot of Mount Santubong, Kuching. Known as the "living museum", it showcases the various ethnic groups carry out traditional activities in their respective traditional houses. Cultural performances are also presented here.[274][275] Sarawak State Museum houses a collection of artefacts such as pottery, textiles, and woodcarvings tools from various ethnic tribes in Sarawak, and also ethnographic materials of local cultures. The museum building preserves its French architecture.[276] Other museums includes: Islamic Heritage Museum,[277] Chinese History Museum,[278] Kuching Cat Museum,[279] Sarawak Textile Museum,[280] Art Museum,[281] Lau King Howe Medical Museum,[282] and Baram Regional Museum.[283] There is also a series of well-preserved forts in Sarawak built during the Brooke regime such as Fort Margherita,[284] Fort Emma,[285] Fort Sylvia,[286] and Fort Alice.[287]

The Batang Ai Resort and Bawang Assan Iban longhouses allows the visiting guests to have an overnight stay and to participate in traditional Iban daily activities.[288][289] Other longhouses includes: Iban longhouses in Kapit,[290] Bidayuh longhouses in Kuching,[291] Kelabit longhouses in Bario,[292] Lun Bawang longhouses in Ba'kelalan,[293] and Melanau wooden houses in Sibu.[294] Main Bazaar and Carpenter Streets are the two notable streets in Chinatown, Kuching.[295] India Street in Kuching is notable for its textile products. An Indian-Muslim mosque can be found in the vicinity.[296][297]

Fine arts and crafts[edit]

A Kayan tribesman, playing the sapeh.

Sarawak Craft Council is responsible to popularise local ethnic crafts.[298] Sarakraf Pavilion houses a workshop which demonstrates a wide range of craft making skills.[299] Examples of well-known handicrafts in Sarawak are: beadworks by Orang Ulu,[300] Pua Kumbu by Iban,[301] Kesah mat and Tambok baskets by Bidayuh, Kain Songket by the Malays, ethnic headgears,[302] and pottery by the Chinese.[303][304][305] Sarawak Artists Society was established in 1985 to promote local cultures and arts in the form of paintings.[306][307] Most artists in the post-war Sarawak prefers scenery and nature, traditional dances, and traditional daily activities as their drawing themes.[308]

Orang Ulu's Sapeh (a dug-out guitar) is the most notable traditional musical instrument in Sarawak. The musical instrument was played to Queen Elizabeth during her official visit to Sarawak in 1972. It was first introduced to the world during Asian Traditional Performing Arts (ATPA) at Japan in 1976.[309] Other traditional musical instruments are various types of Gongs and Kulintang (Tawak, Ketupung, and Engkeromong), Idiophones,[310] bamboo flutes and zithers.[311]

Oral tradition has been the culture of various indigenous groups in Sarawak for generations. It is used for passing life lessons, traditions, and values to the younger generations. It is usually told repeatedly by the elders to the younger ones, storytelling during special occasions, and through traditional performances.[312] Examples of traditional practices are: Iban's Ngajat dances,[313] Renong (Iban vocal repertory),[314] Ensera (Iban oral narratives),[261] and epic storytelling by the Kayan and Kenyah.[315][316] Borneo Literature Bureau existed from 1958 until 1977 which encouraged the documentation of local cultures, local authorships, and publications in English, Chinese, Malay, Iban and other local native languages. However, the Bureau was replaced with Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (DBP) in 1977 which advocated publications only in Malay language.[261] Documentations of oral traditions has also been taken by Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) and Sarawak Customs Council.[312] Sarawak Gazette was first published by the Brooke government in 1870. It recorded various news in Sarawak in terms of economics, agriculture, anthropology, and archaeology. The Gazette is still being published today.[317] Hikayat Panglima Nikosa (Story of Nikosa the Warrior), printed in 1876 at Kuching, is one of the earliest text publications in Borneo.[318] It is also the first novel in Malaysia.[319] The indigenous traditions has also become a source of writing for Sarawak Chinese authors.[320]

Cuisine[edit]

A bowl of Sarawak Laksa.

Notable dishes in the state are: Sarawak Laksa,[321] Kolo Mee,[322] and Ayam pansuh.[323][324] The state is also known for its Sarawak layer cake dessert.[325] Each ethnic group has their own delicacies with different styles of preparing, cooking, and eating food. However, modern technology have altered the way of cooking for native dishes. Examples of ethnic food are: Iban's tuak (rice wine), Melanau's tebaloi (Sago palm crackers) and umai (raw fish mixed with lime juice), and Orang Ulu's urum giruq (pudding).[326] Other international food such as Western food, Indonesian food, Indian food, and Middle Eastern food can also be found here.[327] Sarawak traditional food has also been marketed as a Culinary tourism product.[328]

Media[edit]

The government and its wealthy allies virtually controls every newspapers in Sarawak through restrictive laws and personal connections.[261] Examples are Sin Chew Daily controlled by Rimbunan Hijau,[329] See Hua Daily News, The Borneo Post, and Utusan Borneo controlled by See Hua Group.[330] In the 1990s, major newspapers had negatively portrayed the timber blockades in Sarawak as detrimental to the state's growth and development.[261] Sarawak Tribune was indefinitely suspended in 2006 for publishing a caricature of Prophet Muhammad.[331] The daily was rebooted as New Sarawak Tribune in 2010.[332] In 2010, Clare Rewcastle Brown, sister-in-law of former British prime minister Gordon Brown set up Sarawak Report website and a London-based short-wave radio station named Radio Free Sarawak to provide alternative news and views free from the influence of Sarawak government.[333]

Radio Sarawak existed from 1954 until 1976. It had broadcasts in Malay, Iban, Chinese, and English languages.[261] Examples of Sarawak-based radio stations are: Sarawak FM[334] and cats FM.[335]

Holidays and festivals[edit]

Sarawakians observe a number of holidays and festivities throughout the year.[336] Apart from national Hari Merdeka and Malaysia Day celebrations, the state also celebrates Sarawak Self-government Day on 22 July[337][338] and the State Governor's birthday.[339] Sarawak ethnic groups also celebrate their own respective festivals. The open house tradition allows other ethnic groups to join the celebrations.[340][341][342] Sarawak is the only state in Malaysia to declare Gawai Dayak celebration as a public holiday.[343] It is also the only state in Malaysia that does not gazette national Deepavali celebration as a public holiday.[344] Respective religious groups are free to hold processions in major towns and cities during festivals.[345] Sarawak and Sabah are the only two states in Malaysia that declare Good Friday as public holiday.[346] Kuching Festival is a month long celebration that is held every August to commemorate its elevation to city status in 1988.[347] Miri City Day is also held in conjunction with Miri May Fest every year.[348][349]

Sports[edit]

Sarawak sent its own teams to participate in 1958 and 1962 British Empire and Commonwealth Games,[350] and 1962 Asian Games before representing Malaysia after 1963.[351][352] Sarawak State Sports Council was formed in 1985 to uplift the standard of sports in Sarawak.[353] Sarawak was the host of Malaysian SUKMA Games in 1990 and for the second time in 2016 Sukma Games.[354] The state also became the overall champion in 1990, 1992, and 1994 SUKMA games.[355] Sarawak also sent teams representing Malaysia during Southeast Asian Games.[356] Sarawak also contributed one Olympic medal to the total of 6 medals won by Malaysia.[357][358] Sarawak also emerged as overall champion for 11 consecutive editions of Malaysia Para Games since 1994.[359] The state also sent athletes to participate in Special Olympics World Games.[360]

There are several stadiums in Sarawak: Sarawak Stadium, Sarawak State Stadium, Stadium Perpaduan (Unity Stadium), and Sarawak State Hockey Stadium.[361] Sarawak FA football association was founded in 1974.[362] It won Malaysia FA Cup in 1992, and Malaysia Premier League in 1997 and 2013.[363]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Profil Negeri Sarawak (Sarawak state profile)". Jabatan Penerangan Malaysia (Malaysian Information Department). Archived from the original on 21 April 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2016. 
  2. ^ "Sarawak State Anthem". Sarawak Government. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2016. 
  3. ^ a b Samuel Aubrey (12 April 2015). "Serian now a division". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015. 
  4. ^ "Administrative Divisions and Districts". The Sarawak Government. Archived from the original on 23 July 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2015. 
  5. ^ "Yang di-Pertua Negeri". Sarawak Government. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2016. 
  6. ^ "Chief MInister of Sarawak". Sarawak Government. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c d e "Sarawak - Facts and Figures 2011" (PDF). Sarawak State Planning Unit, Chief Minister Department. pp. 9, 15, 22. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015. 
  8. ^ "Facts of Sarawak". The Sarawak Government. Archived from the original on 23 July 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2015. 
  9. ^ "Postal codes in Sarawak". cybo.com. Retrieved 23 July 2015. 
  10. ^ "Postal codes in Miri". cybo.com. Retrieved 23 July 2015. 
  11. ^ "Area codes in Sarawak". cybo.com. Retrieved 22 July 2015. 
  12. ^ Soon, Teh Wei (23 March 2015). "Some Little Known Facts On Malaysian Vehicle Registration Plates". Malaysian Digest. Archived from the original on 8 July 2015. Retrieved 8 July 2015. 
  13. ^ a b Rozan Yunos (28 December 2008). "Sultan Tengah — Sarawak's first Sultan". The Brunei Times. Archived from the original on 3 April 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  14. ^ a b "The National Archives DO 169/254 (Constitutional issues in respect of North Borneo and Sarawak on joining the federation)". The National Archives. 1961–1963. Retrieved 23 April 2015. 
  15. ^ a b Vernon L. Porritt (1997). British Colonial Rule in Sarawak, 1946-1963. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-983-56-0009-8. 
  16. ^ a b Philip Mathews (28 February 2014). Chronicle of Malaysia: Fifty Years of Headline News, 1963-2013. Editions Didier Millet. pp. 15–. ISBN 978-967-10617-4-9. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Frans Welman. Borneo Trilogy Sarawak: Volume 2. Booksmango. pp. 132, 134, 136–138, 177. ISBN 978-616-245-089-1. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  18. ^ Malaysia Act 1963. Retrieved on 12 August 2011.
  19. ^ Agreement relating to Malaysia between United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Federation of Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore
  20. ^ Yeng, Ai Chun (19 October 2009). "Malaysia Day now a public holiday, says PM". Archived from the original on 13 February 2015. Retrieved 7 August 2015. 
  21. ^ "Laporan Kiraan Permulaan 2010". Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia. p. iv. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 24 January 2011. 
  22. ^ Kris, Jitab (23 February 1991). "Wrong info on how Sarawak got its name". New Sunday Times. Retrieved 14 November 2015. 
  23. ^ a b "Niah National Park - Early Human settlements". Sarawak Forestry. Archived from the original on 18 February 2015. Retrieved 23 March 2015. 
  24. ^ a b Faulkner, Neil (7 November 2003). Niah Cave, Sarawak, Borneo. Current World Archaeology Issue 2. Archived from the original on 23 March 2015. Retrieved 23 March 2015. 
  25. ^ "History of the Great Cave of Niah". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 22 November 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2015. 
  26. ^ "Niah Cave". humanorigins.si.edu. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Archived from the original on 22 November 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2015. 
  27. ^ Smith, Fumiko-Ikawa (1978). Early Paleolithic in South and East Asia. Walter de Gruyter. p. 50. ISBN 90-279-7899-9. Retrieved 23 March 2015. 
  28. ^ Hirst, K. Kris. "Niah Cave (Borneo, Malaysia) - Anatomically modern humans in Borneo". about.com. Archived from the original on 23 December 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2015. 
  29. ^ "Niah National Park, Miri". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  30. ^ Zheng, Dekun (1 January 1982). Studies in Chinese Archeology. The Chinese University Press. pp. 49, 50. ISBN 9789622012615. Retrieved 29 December 2015. In case of Santubong, its association with T'ang and Sung porcelain would necessary provide a date of about 8th - 13th century A.D. 
  31. ^ "Archeology". Sarawak Muzium Department. Archived from the original on 12 October 2015. Retrieved 28 December 2015. 
  32. ^ a b c d e f Alastair, Morrison (1 January 1993). Fair Land Sarawak: Some Recollections of an Expatriate Official. SEAP Publications. pp. 10, 14, 95, 118–120. ISBN 9780877277125. Retrieved 29 October 2015. While Brunei were establishing their authority along the coast and converting some of the coastal people to Islam, the great Iban, and Kayan-Kenyah migrations were taking place inland, destroying or absorbing many of the former much less organised occupants of the land. ... Brunei power declined steadily from its peak in the sixteenth century. Although nominal control of Sarawak coast continued, it came to exercised largely by semi-independent Malay chiefs, many of part Arab blood. 
  33. ^ Trudy, Ring; Noelle, Watson; Paul, Schellinger (12 November 2012). Asia and Oceania: International Dictionary of Historic Places. SEAP Publications. p. 497. ISBN 9780877277125. Retrieved 29 October 2015. The sultan of Brunei also had nominal control of the region, but he was interested in exacting a minor tax from the region. However, he interest grew when antimony (an element used in alloys and medicine) was discovered in the area in approximately 1824. Pangeran Mahkota, a Brunei prince, moved to Sarawak in the early nineteenth century and developed Kuching between 1824 and 1830. ... As antimony mining increased, the Brunei Sultanate demanded higher taxes from Sarawak. This highly unpopular move led to civil unrest, which culminated in a revolt. 
  34. ^ R, Reece. "Empire in Your Backyard - Sir James Brooke". Archived from the original on 17 March 2015. Retrieved 29 October 2015. 
  35. ^ James Leasor (1 January 2001). Singapore: The Battle That Changed the World. House of Stratus. pp. 41–. ISBN 978-0-7551-0039-2. 
  36. ^ Alex Middleton (June 2010). "Rajah Brooke and the Victorians". The Historical Journal. pp. 381–400. doi:10.1017/S0018246X10000063. ISSN 1469-5103. Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  37. ^ Mike, Reed. "Book review of "The Name of Brooke - The End of White Rajah Rule in Sarawak" by R.H.W. Reece, Sarawak Literary Society, 1993". sarawak.com.my. Archived from the original on 8 June 2003. Retrieved 7 August 2015. 
  38. ^ James, Stuart Olson (1996). Historical Dictionary of the British Empire, Volume 2. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 982. ISBN 9780313293672. Retrieved 29 October 2015. Brooke and his successors enlarged their realm by successive treaties of 1861, 1882, 1885, 1890, and 1905. 
  39. ^ "Chronology of Sarawak throughout the Brooke Era to Malaysia Day". The Borneo Post. 16 September 2011. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 29 October 2015. 1861 Sarawak is extended to Kidurong Point. ... 1883 Sarawak extended to Baram River. ... 1885 Acquisition of the Limbang area, from Brunei. ... 1890 Limbang added to Sarawak. ... 1905 Acquisition of the Lawas Region, from Brunei. 
  40. ^ Lim, Kian Hock (16 September 2011). "A look at the civil administration of Sarawak". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015. It seems the idea of dividing the state into divisions by the Brooke government was not implemented purely for administrative expediency but rather the divisions mark the new areas ceded by the Brunei government to the White Rajahs. This explains why the original five divisions of the state were so disproportionate in sizes. 
  41. ^ Cuhaj, George S (2014). Standard Catalog of World Paper Money, General Issues, 1368-1960. F+W Media. p. 1058. ISBN 9781440242670. Retrieved 13 January 2016. Sarawak was recognised as a separate state by the United States (1850) and Great Britian (1864), and voluntarily became a British protectorate in 1888. 
  42. ^ Rujukan Kompak Sejarah PMR (Compact reference for PMR History subject) (in Malay). Arah Pendidikan Sdn Bhd. 2009. p. 82. ISBN 9789833718818. Retrieved 13 January 2016. 
  43. ^ a b c Frans, Welman (2011). Borneo Trilogy Sarawak: Volume 1. Bangkok, Thailand: Booksmango. p. 177. ISBN 9786162450822. Retrieved 2 November 2015. The Brooke Dynasty ruled Sarawak for a hundred years and became famous as the "White Rajahs", accorded a status within the British Empire similar to that of the Indian Princes. 
  44. ^ a b c d e f Ooi, Keat Gin (2013). Post-war Borneo, 1945-50: Nationalism, Empire and State-Building. Routledge. p. 7,93. ISBN 9781134058037. Retrieved 2 November 2015. Personal rule with heavy dose of parternalism was adpoted by the first two Rajahs, who saw themselves as enlighted monarchs entrusted with a mandate to rule on behalf of indigenous peoples' and well being ... A Supreme Council comprising Malay Datus (non-royal chefs) advised rajah on all asepcts of governance ... The entry of western capitalist enteprises were greatly restricted. Christian missionaries tolerated, and chinese immigration promoted as catalyst of economic development (mining, commercia agriculture). 
  45. ^ "Bintulu - Places of Interest". Bintulu Development Authority. Archived from the original on 18 July 2015. Retrieved 19 July 2015. 
  46. ^ Marshall, Cavendish (2007). World and Its Peoples: Eastern and Southern Asia, Volume 9. Bangladesh: Marshall Cavendish. p. 1182. ISBN 9780761476429. Retrieved 2 November 2015. Malays worked in the administration, Ibans (indigenous peoples of Sarawak) in the milita, and Chinese as workers in the plantations. 
  47. ^ Lewis, Samuel Feuer (1 January 1989). Imperialism and the Anti-Imperialist Mind. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 9781412825993. Retrieved 2 November 2015. Brooke made it his life task to bring to these jungles "prosperity, education, and hygiene"; he suppressed piracy, slave-trade, and headhunting, and lived simply in a thatched bungalow. 
  48. ^ "The Borneo Company Limited". National Library Board. Archived from the original on 12 October 2015. Retrieved 25 January 2016. 
  49. ^ Ting, John. "Colonialism and Brooke administration: Institutional buildings and infrastructure in 19th century Sarawak" (PDF). University of Melbourne. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 September 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2016. Brooke also indigenised himself in terms of housing - his first residence was a Malay house. (page 9) ... Government House (Fig. 3) was built after Brooke's first house was burnt down during the 1857 coup attempt. (page 10) 
  50. ^ a b c Simon, Elegant (13 July 1986). "SARAWAK: A KINGDOM IN THE JUNGLE". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2 November 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2015. The Istana, the palace built by the Brookes on a bend in the Sarawak River, still looks coolly over the muddy waters into the bustle of Kuching, the trading town James Brooke made his capital. ... Today, the Istana is the State Governor's residence, ... To protect his kingdom, Brooke built a series of forts in and around Kuching. Fort Margherita, named after Ranee Margaret, the wife of Charles, the second Rajah, was built about a mile downriver from the Istana. 
  51. ^ Charles, de Ledesma; Mark, Lewis; Pauline, Savage (2003). Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei. Rough Guides. p. 723. ISBN 9781843530947. Retrieved 2 November 2015. In 1888, the three states of Sarawak, Sabah, and Brunei were transformed into protectorates, a status which handed over the responsibility for their foreign policy to the British in exchange for military protection. 
  52. ^ Saiful, Bahari (23 June 2015). "Thrill is gone, state museum stuck in time — Public". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 2 October 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2015. The Sarawak Museum, being Borneo’s oldest museum, should look into allocating a curator to be present and interacting with visitors at all times, he lamented. 
  53. ^ "Centenary of Brooke rule in Sarawak - New Democractic Constitution being introduced today". The Straits Times (Singapore). 24 September 1941. Retrieved 2 November 2015. 
  54. ^ a b c David, Leafe (17 March 2011). "The last of the White Rajahs: The extraordinary story of the Victorian adventurer who subjugated a vast swathe of Borneo". Mail Online (UK). Archived from the original on 6 October 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2015. He denied these charges, but he was never allowed to inherit the rule of Sarawak because in 1946 Vyner agreed to cede it to the British Crown in return for a substantial financial settlement for him and his family. So it became Britain’s last colonial acquisition. 
  55. ^ Klemen, L (1999). "The Invasion of British Borneo in 1942". dutcheastindies.webs.com. Retrieved 3 November 2015. 
  56. ^ "The Japanese Occupation (1941 – 1945)". The Sarawak Government. Retrieved 3 November 2015. 
  57. ^ Gin, Ooi Keat (1 January 2013). "Wartime Borneo, 1941-1945: a tale of two occupied territories". Borneo Research Bulletin. Retrieved 3 November 2015. Occupied Borneo was administratively partitioned into two halves, namely Kita Boruneo (Northern Borneo) that coincided with pre-war British Borneo (Sarawak, Brunei, and North Borneo) was governed by the IJA,... 
  58. ^ Paul H, Kratoska (13 May 2013). Southeast Asian Minorities in the Wartime Japanese Empire. Routledge. pp. 136–142. ISBN 9781136125065. Retrieved 3 November 2015. 
  59. ^ Ooi, Keat Gin. "Prelude to invasion: covert operations before the re-occupation of Northwest Borneo, 1944-45". Journal of the Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 3 November 2015. However, as the situation developed, the SEMUT operations were divided into three distinct parties under individual commanders: SEMUT 1 under Major Tom Harrisson; SEMUT 2 led by Carter; and SEMUT 3 headed by Captain W. L. P. ("Bill") Sochon. The areas of operation were: SEMUT 1 – the Trusan valley and its hinterland; SEMUT 2 – the Baram valley and its hinterland; SEMUT 3 – the entire Rejang valley. {22} Harrisson and members of SEMUT 1 parachuted into Bario in the Kelabit Highlands during the later part of March 1945. Initially Harrisson established his base at Bario; then, in late May, shifted to Belawit in the Bawang valley (inside the former Dutch Borneo) upon the completion of an airstrip for light aircraft built entirely with native labour. In mid-April, Carter and his team (SEMUT 2) parachuted into Bario, by then securely an SRD base with full support of the Kelabit people. Shortly after their arrival, members of SEMUT 2 moved to the Baram valley and established themselves at Long Akah, the heartland of the Kenyahs. Carter also received assistance from the Kayans. Moving out from Carter's party in late May, Sochon led SEMUT 3 to Belaga in the Upper Rejang where he set up his base of operation. Kayans and Ibans supported and participated in SEMUT 3 operations. 
  60. ^ "Historical Monument - Surrender Point". Official Website of Labuan Corporation. Labuan Corporation. Retrieved 3 November 2015. 
  61. ^ Rainsford, Keith Carr. "Surrender to Major-General Wootten at Labuan". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 3 November 2015. 
  62. ^ "British Military Administration (August 1945 – April 1946)". The Sarawak Government. Retrieved 3 November 2015. 
  63. ^ "Sarawak as a British Crown Colony (1946 – 1963)". The Official Website of the Sarawak Government. Retrieved 7 November 2015. 
  64. ^ Mike, Thomson (14 March 2012). "The stabbed governor of Sarawak". BBC News. Retrieved 3 November 2015. 
  65. ^ a b "Anthony Brooke". The Daily Telegraph. 6 March 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2015. ...when his legal challenge to the cession was finally dismissed by the Privy Council in 1951, he renounced once and for all his claim to the throne of Sarawak and sent a cable to Kuching appealing to the anti-cessionists to cease their agitation and accept His Majesty's Government. The anti-cessionists instead continued their resistance to colonial rule until 1963, when Sarawak was included in the newly independent federation of Malaysia. Two years later, Anthony Brooke was welcomed back by the new Sarawak Government for a nostalgic visit. 
  66. ^ "Formation of Malaysia 16 September 1963". National Archives of Malaysia. Retrieved 8 November 2015. 
  67. ^ JC, Fong (16 September 2011). "Formation of Malaysia". The Borneo Post. Retrieved 8 November 2015. 
  68. ^ Tai, Yong Tan (2008). "Chapter Six: Borneo Territories and Brunei". Creating "Greater Malaysia": Decolonization and the Politics of Merger. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 154–169. ISBN 9789812307477. Retrieved 8 November 2015. 
  69. ^ United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories, North Borneo and Sarawak. Un.org (14 December 1960). Retrieved on 12 August 2011.
  70. ^ United Nations Member States. Un.org. Retrieved on 12 August 2011.
  71. ^ UN General Assembly 15th Session – The Trusteeship System and Non-Self-Governing Territories (pages:509–510). Retrieved on 12 August 2011.
  72. ^ UN General Assembly 18th Session – the Question of Malaysia (pages:41–44). Retrieved on 12 August 2011.
  73. ^ a b c d Ishikawa, Noboru (15 March 2010). Between Frontiers: Nation and Identity in a Southeast Asian Borderland. Ohio University Press. pp. 86–88,140,169. ISBN 9780896804760. Retrieved 9 November 2015. The word "Malay" is widely used in Sarawak because in 1841 James Brooke brought it with him from Singapore, where it had been vaguely applied to all the coast-dwelling seafaring muslims of the Indonesia Archipelago, particularly those of Sumatra and Malayan Peninsula. 
  74. ^ "Brunei Revolt breaks out - 8 December 1962". National Library Board (Singapore). Retrieved 9 November 2015. The sultan of Brunei regarded the Malaysia project as “very attractive” and had indicated his interest to join the federation.[2] However, he was met with open opposition from within his country.[3] The armed resistance to challenge Brunei’s entry into Malaysia that followed became a pretext for Indonesia to launch its policy of Konfrontasi (or Confrontation, 1963–1966) with Malaysia.[4] 
  75. ^ United Nations Treaty Registered No. 8029, Manila Accord between Philippines, Federation of Malaya and Indonesia (31 July 1963). Retrieved on 12 August 2011.
  76. ^ United Nations Treaty Series No. 8809, Agreement relating to the implementation of the Manila Accord. Retrieved on 12 August 2011.
  77. ^ James, Chin. "Book Review: The Rise and Fall of Communism in Sarawak 1940-1990". Kyoto Review of South East Asia. Retrieved 10 November 2015. 
  78. ^ a b Chan, Francis; Wong, Phyllis (16 September 2011). "Saga of communist insurgency in Sarawak". The Borneo Post. Retrieved 10 January 2013. 
  79. ^ a b c "About Sarawak - Governance". Official website of State Planning Unit - Chief Minister's Department of Sarawak. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015. 
  80. ^ "My Constitution: Sabah, Sarawak and special interests". Malaysian Bar. 2 February 2011. Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2015. 
  81. ^ "My Constitution: About Sabah and Sarawak". Malaysian Bar. 10 January 2011. Archived from the original on 1 January 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2015. 
  82. ^ Article 95D, Constitution of Malaysia. Accessed on 6 August 2008.
  83. ^ R.S, Milne; K.J, Ratnam (2014). Malaysia: New States in a New Nation. Routledge. p. 71. ISBN 9781135160616. Retrieved 14 November 2015. ... the major parties in each state fall quite neatly into three categories: native-non-muslim, native-muslim, and non-native. 
  84. ^ "SPECIAL REPORT: The Ming Court Affair (subscription required)". Malaysiakini. 9 January 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2014. 
  85. ^ a b Chin, James (1996). "The Sarawak Chinese Voters and Their Support for the Democratic Action Party (DAP)" (PDF). Southeast Asian Studies (Kyoto University Research Information Repository) 34 (2): 387–401. Retrieved 19 June 2014. 
  86. ^ Tawie, Joseph (9 January 2013). "SNAP faces more resignations over BN move". Free Malaysia Today. Retrieved 19 June 2014. 
  87. ^ Mering, Raynore (23 May 2014). "Analysis: Party loyalty counts for little in Sarawak". The Malay Mail. Retrieved 19 June 2014. 
  88. ^ a b c Faisal, S Hazis (2012). Domination and Contestation: Muslim Bumiputera Politics in Sarawak. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 84, 86, 97. ISBN 9789814311588. Retrieved 11 December 2015. Rahman was responsible for inserting a provision on Islam, known as Article 4(1) and (2), in the negeri constitution which states that "The Yang di-Pertuan Agong shall be the Head of religion of Islam in Sarawak" and the Council Negri is empowered to make provisions for regulating Islamic affairs through a Council to advise the Yang di-Pertuan Agong." (page 86) ... Rahman also introduced several policy changes aimed at accelerating the central state's Malaysianisation process. First, the strongman-politician introduced a motion in the Council Negri to make Bahasa Malaysia and English as negeri's offical languages. The motion was unanimously passed on 26 March 1974.(page 84) ... The strongman-politician postponed the negeri election because he was not ready to face the wrath of opposition parties, especially PAJAR. Furthermore, SBN was facing an internal conflict over the allocation of negeri seats especially after inclusion of SNAP as the third member of the coalition. So, for the first time, parliamentary and negeri elections were held separately.(page 91) 
  89. ^ Cheng, Lian (7 April 2013). "Why Sarawak is electorally unique". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 23 June 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2016. For this reason, Sarawak held its state and parliamentary elections separately — and has been adhering to the practice since 1979 whereas all the other states still hold the two elections concurrently (see Table ). 
  90. ^ "BN retains Sarawak, Taib sworn in as CM". Free Malaysia Today. 16 April 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2014. 
  91. ^ Chua, Andy (24 April 2010). "DAP: Sarawak Pakatan formed to promote two-party system". The Star (Malaysia) (Star Publications). Retrieved 23 June 2014. 
  92. ^ Ling, Sharon (14 February 2014). "Muhyiddin: Umno need not be in Sarawak". The Star (Malaysia). Retrieved 23 June 2014. 
  93. ^ a b "Sarawak population". The Official Portal of the Sarawak Government. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015. 
  94. ^ "Organisation Structure". Official Website of Ministry of Local Government and Community Development. Retrieved 14 November 2015. 
  95. ^ "Ninth schedule - Legislative lists". Commonwealth Legal Information Institute. Archived from the original on 15 September 2014. Retrieved 22 December 2015. 
  96. ^ Chin Huat, Wong (27 September 2011). "Can Sarawak have an army?". Free Malaysia Today. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015. 
  97. ^ Nicholas, Taring (29 August 2003). Imperialism in Southeast Asia. Routledge. p. 319. ISBN 9781134570812. Retrieved 23 December 2015. Charles Brooke set up the Sarawak Rangers in 1862 as a paramilitary force for pacifying 'ulu' Dayaks. 
  98. ^ "Royal Ranger Regiment (Malaysia)". discovermilitary.com. Archived from the original on 8 December 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2015. 
  99. ^ "Introduction". Official website of the state security unit. Retrieved 22 December 2015. 
  100. ^ a b c d e "Geography of Sarawak". Official website of state planning unit Chief Minister's Department of Sarawak. Archived from the original on 23 April 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015. 
  101. ^ "Lambir Hills National Park". Sarawak Forestry Corporation. Archived from the original on 30 May 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  102. ^ "Deer Cave and Lang's Cave". Mulu National Park. Archived from the original on 12 July 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015. 
  103. ^ "Clearwater cave and Wind Cave". Gunung Mulu National Park. Archived from the original on 12 July 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015. 
  104. ^ "Gunung Mulu National Park". Malaysia Tourism Promotion Board. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015. 
  105. ^ "Gunung Mulu National Park". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015. 
  106. ^ "Pasir Panjang, Kuching". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 27 December 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015. 
  107. ^ "Damai Beach Resort". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 27 December 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015. 
  108. ^ "Tanjung Batu Beach, Bintulu". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015. 
  109. ^ "Brighton Beach/Tanjung Lobang". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015. 
  110. ^ "Hawaii Beach". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015. 
  111. ^ "Medicinal plants around us". The Malaysian Nature Society (The Borneo Post). 24 August 2014. Archived from the original on 30 August 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  112. ^ "Sarawak National Park - Biodiversity Conservation". Sarawak Forestry Department. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015. 
  113. ^ "Rainforest is destroyed for palm oil plantations on Malaysia's island state of Sarawak (Image 1)". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 21 August 2014. 
  114. ^ "Rainforest is destroyed for palm oil plantations on Malaysia's island state of Sarawak (Image 2)". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 21 August 2014. 
  115. ^ "Rainforest is destroyed for palm oil plantations on Malaysia's island state of Sarawak (Image 3)". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 21 August 2014. 
  116. ^ "Sumatran Orangutans’ rainforest home faces new threat". Agence France-Presse. The Borneo Post. 5 May 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2014. 
  117. ^ Meijaard, E., Nijman, V. & Supriatna, J. (2008). Nasalis larvatus. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 4 January 2009.
  118. ^ "25 success stories". International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO). pp. 44–45. Archived from the original on 16 November 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  119. ^ "Semenggoh Nature Reserve". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 8 May 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  120. ^ "Matang Wildlife Centre". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 14 May 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  121. ^ "Talang-Satang National Park". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 16 November 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  122. ^ "Birding in Sarawak". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 16 May 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  123. ^ "Similajau National Park". Sarawak Toursim Board. Archived from the original on 8 May 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  124. ^ "Diving in Miri-Sibuti Coral Reefs National Park". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 4 May 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  125. ^ "Gunung Gading National Park". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 16 May 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  126. ^ "Bako National Park". Sarawak Forestry Corporation. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  127. ^ "Padawan Pitcher Plant & Wild Orchid Centre". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 9 April 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  128. ^ "The magnificent hornbills of Sarawak". The Borneo Post. 12 July 2015. Archived from the original on 6 August 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  129. ^ Forests Ordinance Chapter 126 (1958 edition) (PDF). Kuching, Sarawak: Sarawak Forestry Corporation. 31 July 1998. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 November 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  130. ^ Wild Life Protection Ordinance, 1998 - Chapter 26 (PDF). Kuching, Sarawak: Sarawak Forestry Corporation. 1998. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 November 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  131. ^ "Malaysia:Sarawak Natural Parks and Nature Reserve Ordinance". GlobinMed. Archived from the original on 16 November 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  132. ^ Lian, Cheng (31 March 2013). "Protected wildlife on the menu". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 1 April 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2015. Hunting wild animals for food is a culture of Sarawak natives. Though most of them have adapted to modern ways, there are some groups such as the Penans still relying on wild animals as the main source of protein. As such, it is permissible for them to possess the meat of animals listed under the “restricted” category. These are wildlife which are protected but breeding in large number such as the wild boars. However, the meat to be taken should not exceed five kgs under the Wild Life Protection Ordinance 1998 (Amendment 2003). 
  133. ^ "History". Official website of Forest Department Sarawak. Retrieved 16 November 2015. Mr. J.P. Mead became the first Conservator of Forests, Sarawak Forest Department, in 1919. The objectives of the Department were to manage and conserve the State's forest resources. 
  134. ^ Barney, Chan. "6. INSTITUTIONAL RESTRUCTURING IN SARAWAK, MALAYSIA". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Archived from the original on 19 July 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  135. ^ "Sarawak Forestry Corporation - About Us - FAQ". Sarawak Forestry Corporation. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  136. ^ "About Sarawak Biodiversity Centre - Profile". Sarawak Biodiversity Centre. Archived from the original on 22 February 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  137. ^ a b Joseph, Tawie (25 October 2012). "‘What’s really left of our forest, Taib?’". Free Malaysia Today. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  138. ^ Lim, How Pim (28 February 2014). "Sarawak to maintain its 60 pct forest cover — Awang Tengah". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 16 November 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  139. ^ "Types and Categories of Sarawak's Forests". Sarawak Forest Department. Archived from the original on 16 November 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  140. ^ Rhett, A. Butler (28 March 2011). "Google Earth reveals stark contrast between Sarawak’s damaged forests and those in neighboring Borneo states". Mongabay. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  141. ^ "Deforestation in Sarawak - Log tale". The Economist. 3 November 2012. Archived from the original on 13 October 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  142. ^ Jerome, Chove; Jane, E Bryan; Philip, L Shearman; Gregory, P Asner; David, E Knapp; Geraldine, Aoro; Barbara, Lokes (17 July 2013). "Extreme Differences in Forest Degradation in Borneo: Comparing Practices in Sarawak, Sabah, and Brunei". PLOS ONE 8 (7). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069679. PMC 3714267. Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  143. ^ "New figures: palm oil destroys Malaysia’s peatswamp forests faster than ever". Wetlands International. 1 February 2011. Archived from the original on 12 October 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015. Between 2005-2010 almost 353,000 hectare of the one million hectare peatswamp forests were opened up at high speed; largely for palm oil production. In just 5 years time, almost 10% of all Sarawak’s forests and 33% of the peatswamp forests have been cleared. Of this, 65% was for conversion to palm oil production. 
  144. ^ "Malaysia destroying its forests three times faster than all Asia combined". The Daily Telegraph. 1 February 2011. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015. "Total deforestation in Sarawak is 3.5 times as much as that for entire Asia, while deforestation of peat swamp forest is 11.7 times as much," the report said. 
  145. ^ Tom, Young (2 February 2011). "Malaysian palm oil destroying forests, report warns". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2015. The report from Wetlands International said palm oil plantations are being greatly expanded, largely in the Malaysian state of Sarawak on Borneo island. Unless the trend is halted, none of these forests will be left by the end of this decade, said Marcel Silvius, a senior scientist at Wetlands International. "As the timber resource has been depleted, the timber companies are now engaging in the oil palm business, completing the annihilation of Sarawak's peat swamp forests," he explained. 
  146. ^ Frank H., Columbus (2003). Asian Economic and Political Issues, Volume 8. Nova Science Publishers. p. 160. ISBN 9781590336960. Retrieved 17 November 2015. 
  147. ^ Kyoko, Kusakabe; Rajendra, Shrestha; Veena, N (30 June 2015). Gender and Land Tenure in the Context of Disaster in Asia. Springer Science+Business Media. p. 24. ISBN 9783319166162. Retrieved 17 November 2015. 
  148. ^ Rhett, Butler. "A Desperate Effort to Save the Rainforest of Borneo". Yale University. Archived from the original on 15 September 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015. Sarawak’s chief minister and his close family are under investigation for acquiring billions of dollars in overseas assets from their timber dealings. 
  149. ^ "Corruption in Malaysia laid bare as investigation catches Sarawak’s ruling elite on camera". Global Witness. Archived from the original on 2 October 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015. Sarawak still exports more tropical logs than South America and Africa combined, despite having just five per cent of its forests left intact after decades of industrial logging and plantation development. Sarawak’s Chief Minister Abdul Taib Mahmud has ruled the state for over three decades and controls all land allocation and forestry licensing. He is widely understood to abuse this power to enrich his family and associates. 
  150. ^ Elegant, Simon (3 September 2001). "Without a Trace". Time magazine Asia. Retrieved 14 August 2014. (subscription required (help)). 
  151. ^ "Sarawak and the Penan". Archived from the original on 8 July 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015. When rainforest clearance began in the 1980s, it brought a massive upheaval to the Penan's way of life. Logging destroys not only nature, the basis of the Penan's livelihood, ... By erecting blockades on logging roads, they attempted to prevent further incursions by the timber companies. This resistance attracted a lot of international attention to the Penan, especially in the 1990s. 
  152. ^ "Native Customary Rights in Sarawak". Cultural Survival. Archived from the original on 8 July 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015. Thus, the Ministry of Forestry possesses few official records distinguishing Native Customary Rights Land from timberland. Nevertheless, it consistently fails to conduct thorough investigations to determine boundaries, and approves logging concessions even though Native Customary Rights Land exists in a certain area. 
  153. ^ "Rumah Nor: A Land Rights Case for Malaysia". The Borneo Project. Retrieved 17 November 2015. In that precedent-setting court case of 2001, the High Court decided that Rumah Nor did indeed have sufficient evidence to claim native customary rights over all of their traditional territory ... Though many High Court decisions since 2008 have chosen to uphold native land rights as defined in the Rumah Nor 2001 decision, hundreds of indigenous communities across Sarawak continue to face illegal land grabbing by government and corporations. 
  154. ^ Jessica, Lawrence. "Earth Island News - Borneo Project - Indigenous victory overturned". Earth Island Institute. Retrieved 17 November 2015. 
  155. ^ Rhett, Butler. "Power, profit, and pollution: dams and the uncertain future of Sarawak". Mongabay. Retrieved 17 November 2015. One dam has already displaced 10,000 native people and will flood an area the size of Singapore. 
  156. ^ "Bakun Dam". International Rivers. Retrieved 17 November 2015. 
  157. ^ "Sarawak, Malaysia". International Rivers. Retrieved 17 November 2015. Work on access roads to the dam site began but came to a halt in October 2013 when local communities launched two blockades to stop construction and other project preparations from proceeding. 
  158. ^ Vanitha, Nadaraj (21 September 2015). "Battle Against Illegal Logging in Sarawak Begins". The Establishment Post. Archived from the original on 21 September 2015. Retrieved 18 November 2015. 
  159. ^ a b c d e f g "The State of Sarawak". Malaysia Rating Corporation Berhad. Archived from the original on 18 November 2015. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  160. ^ Chang, Ngee Hui (2009). "High Growth SMEs and Regional Development - The Sarawak Perspective". State Planning Unit, Sarawak Chief MInister Department. Archived from the original on 21 November 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015. 
  161. ^ Adrian, Lim (28 February 2014). "Sarawak achieves strong economic growth". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 7 July 2015. Retrieved 18 November 2015. 
  162. ^ "Selangor leads GDP contribution to national economy". Malay Mail. 30 October 2015. Archived from the original on 31 October 2015. Retrieved 18 November 2015. 
  163. ^ Desmond, Davidson (6 August 2015). "Adenan pledges to keep fighting for 20% oil royalty". The Malaysian Insider. Archived from the original on 12 August 2015. Retrieved 19 November 2015. Sarawak Chief Minister Tan Sri Adenan Satem today admitted the oil and gas royalty negotiations – for a hike of 15% from 5% to 20% – with Petronas and Putrajaya have ended in deadlock, but has vowed to fight for it “as long as I'm alive”. 
  164. ^ Rasoul, Sorkhabi (2012). "Borneo's Petroleum Plays" 9 (4). GEO Ex Pro. Retrieved 20 November 2015. A simplified map showing the distribution of major sedimentary basins onshore and offshore Borneo. 
  165. ^ "An overview of forest products statistics in South and Southeast Asia - National forest products statistics, Malaysia". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Archived from the original on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 18 November 2015. In 2000, of the country’s total sawlog production of 23 million m3, Peninsular Malaysia contributed 22 percent, Sabah 16 percent, and Sarawak 62 percent. Sawlog production figures for 1996-2000 are shown in Table 2. 
  166. ^ Sharon, Kong (1 September 2013). "Foreign banks in Sarawak". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 12 September 2013. Retrieved 21 November 2015. 
  167. ^ "Sarawak shakers". The Star (Malaysia). 27 March 2010. Archived from the original on 21 November 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015. 
  168. ^ Looi, Kah Yee (2004). "Chapter 5 - Income Inequality effects on growth-poverty relationship". A study the relationship between economic growth and poverty in Malaysia: 1970-2002 (Chapter 5). Universiti Malaya (Master Thesis). p. 86. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2015. 
  169. ^ Midin, Salad; Yu, Ji (23 November 2011). "Addressing the poor-rich gap". The Star (Malaysia). Archived from the original on 21 November 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015. PKR’s Batu Lintang assemblyman See Chee How told the house a week ago that, in 2009, Sarawak recorded 0.448 on the index. A decade before that, Sarawak had better results at 0.407. 
  170. ^ a b "Poverty in Sarawak now below 1%". The Star (Malaysia). 27 August 2015. Archived from the original on 23 November 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015. 
  171. ^ "Sarawak unemployment at 4.6 pct in 2010". The Borneo Post. 16 March 2012. Archived from the original on 27 October 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2015. 
  172. ^ a b "Generation Portfolio". Sarawak Energy. Archived from the original on 24 November 2013. Retrieved 23 November 2015. 
  173. ^ a b "Hydroelectric Power Dams in Sarawak". Sarawak Integrated Water Resources - Management Master Plan. Archived from the original on 23 November 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015. 
  174. ^ Jack, Wong (22 July 2014). "Bakun at 50% capacity producing 900MW". The Star (Malaysia). Archived from the original on 31 July 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015. 
  175. ^ Christopher, Lindom (11 July 2015). "Making HEPs in Sarawak safe". New Sarawak Tribune. Archived from the original on 23 November 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015. ... Murum HEP had officially started commercial operation on 8 June 2015,"... 
  176. ^ "Core Business Activities". Sarawak Energy. Archived from the original on 10 July 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015. 
  177. ^ Wong, Jack (12 May 2014). "Sarawak Energy needs to raise generating capacity to 7,000 MW". The Star (Malaysia). Archived from the original on 23 November 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015. 
  178. ^ "Research and Development - Introduction To Renewable Energy". Sarawak Energy. Archived from the original on 9 July 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015. 
  179. ^ "Development Strategy". Regional Corridor Development Authority. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2015. 
  180. ^ "What is SCORE?". Regional Corridor Development Authority. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2015. 
  181. ^ "Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy - Register your interest". Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy. Archived from the original on 12 October 2014. Retrieved 26 July 2015. 
  182. ^ "What is RECODA". Regional Corridor Development Authority. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2015. 
  183. ^ "SCORE Areas". Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy. Archived from the original on 12 October 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2015. 
  184. ^ "Samalaju - SCORE". Regional Corridor Development Authority. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2015. 
  185. ^ "Tanjung Manis - SCORE". Regional Corridor Development Authority. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2015. 
  186. ^ "Mukah - SCORE". Regional Corridor Development Authority. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2015. 
  187. ^ a b "Sarawak's tourism strategy focuses on sustainable development". Oxford Business Group. Archived from the original on 21 November 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015. 
  188. ^ a b "Pulling more tourists to Sarawak". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 19 August 2015. Retrieved 7 July 2015. 
  189. ^ Ava, Lai (29 July 2015). "Valuable prizes await Hornbill winners". The Star (Malaysia). Archived from the original on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015. The awards are co-organised by the Ministry of Tourism Sarawak and Sarawak Tourism Federation to recognise individuals or organisations’ contribution to the development of tourism in Sarawak and to create a culture of excellence, creativity, quality services and best practices. 
  190. ^ "Sarawak fest certain to be a rare treat". Bangkok Post. 22 February 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2015. (subscription required (help)). 
  191. ^ "Shopping Malls in Kuching". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 28 December 2015. Retrieved 28 December 2015. 
  192. ^ "Shopping Malls in Miri". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 4 February 2015. Retrieved 28 December 2015. 
  193. ^ Kathleen, Peddicord (10 December 2012). "The Most Interesting Retirement Spot You’ve Never Heard Of". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on 10 April 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2015. 
  194. ^ Jean, Fogler. "Retirement Abroad: 5 Unexpected Foreign Cities". Investopedia. Archived from the original on 20 April 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015. 
  195. ^ "Why Malaysia is one of the top 3 countries for retirement". HSBC Bank Malaysia. Archived from the original on 20 September 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015. 
  196. ^ OECD Investment Policy Reviews OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Malaysia 2013. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Publishing. 30 October 2013. p. 234. ISBN 9789264194588. Retrieved 17 December 2015. All the same, there are important variations in the quantity and quality of infrastructure stocks, with infrastructure more developed in peninsular Malaysia than in Sabah and Sarawak. 
  197. ^ "About Us". MIDCom. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  198. ^ "Industrial Estate by Division". Official Website of the Sarawak Government. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  199. ^ H., Borhanazad; S., Mekhilef; R, Saidur; G., Boroumandijazi (2013). "Potential application of renewable energy for rural electrification in Malaysia" (PDF). Renewable Energy 59: 211. Retrieved 23 November 2015. 
  200. ^ a b Alexandra, Lorna; Doreen, Ling (9 October 2015). "Infrastructure crucial to state's goals". New Sarawak Tribune. Archived from the original on 16 December 2015. Retrieved 16 December 2015. "In 2014, 82% of houses located in Sarawak rural areas have access to water supply in comparison to 59% in 2009." Fadillah also said that the rural electricity coverage had improved over the last few years with 91% of the households in Sarawak having access to electricity in 2014 compared to 67% in 2009. 
  201. ^ "New technologies play a major role in Sarawak’s development plans". Oxford Business Group. Archived from the original on 17 December 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  202. ^ Mohd, Hafiz Mahpar (2 April 2015). "Cahya Mata Sarawak buys 50% of Sacofa for RM186m". The Star (Malaysia). Archived from the original on 9 April 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  203. ^ "About SAINS - Corporate Profile". Sarawak Information Systems Sdn Bhd. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  204. ^ "Pos Malaysia wheels brings mobile postal service to Lawas". Bernama. 15 February 2012. Archived from the original on 17 December 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  205. ^ Adib, Povera (29 October 2015). "Postal services improving in Sabah and S’wak". New Straits Times. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  206. ^ a b c d "Transport and Infrastructure". Official Website of the Sarawak Government. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  207. ^ Harun, Jau (8 August 2015). "New department being set up". New Sarawak Tribune. Archived from the original on 17 December 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  208. ^ a b c d e f "New land, air and sea transport links will help meet higher demand in Sarawak". Oxford Business Group. Archived from the original on 17 December 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015. 
  209. ^ Thiessen, Tamara (2012). Borneo:Sabah, Brunei, Sarawak. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 98. ISBN 9781841623900. Retrieved 26 January 2016. All major roads are dual carriageways; there are no multi-lane expressways.In Malaysia, you drive on the left-hand side of the road and cars are right-hand drive. 
  210. ^ Yap, Jacky. "46 Things you Didn't Know about Kuching". Vulcan Post. Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2016. 
  211. ^ Lim, How Pim (18 August 2014). "Sarawak gets 3 more hospitals". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 22 August 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  212. ^ a b "Alternative pathways to overcome the lack of specialists in Sarawak". The Borneo Post. 15 November 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2015. Dr Jerip said there were currently 248 specialists distributed among the major hospitals in the state, comprising the Sarawak General Hospital, Sibu Hospital and Miri Hospital, as well as several divisional hospitals. 
  213. ^ a b "Sarawak makes efforts to boost access to health care". Oxford Business Group. Retrieved 19 December 2015. Sarawak’s 221 public health clinics include only seven rural clinics. Services for the poor are also provided at 1Malaysia clinics, where assistant medical officers provide basic health care, but again, these clinics – of which the state has 18 – have historically been located mainly in urban areas. 
  214. ^ Nigel, Edgar (4 December 2013). "Wednesday, 4 December 2013 Sarawak recognises importance of private hospitals such as Borneo Medical Centre". The Star (Malaysia). Archived from the original on 19 December 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  215. ^ "Quality of Life". The Sarawak Government. Archived from the original on 9 September 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  216. ^ "‘Sarawak wants more participation in private healthcare sector’". The Rakyat Post. 1 August 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  217. ^ "Sarawak Hospice Society". Sarawak Hospice Society. Archived from the original on 26 January 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  218. ^ Johnson, K Saai (28 October 2010). "‘People still dump mental patients at Hospital Sentosa’". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 19 December 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  219. ^ Chin, Mui Yoon (27 February 2012). "Access to healthcare a challenge for Sarawak's interior folk". The Star (Malaysia). Archived from the original on 19 December 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  220. ^ Ariff, K.M; Teng, CL (2002). "Rural health care in Malaysia". Australian Journal of Rural Health 10 (2): 101. PMID 12047504. Retrieved 19 December 2015. The FDS in Sarawak was launched in 1973 to provide healthcare to communities residing outside the ‘extended operational area’ limits of the health centre (beyond 12 km). 
  221. ^ Danielle, Sendou (22 April 2015). "More options needed to address doctor shortage in Sarawak". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 18 August 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  222. ^ Silcock, T.H (1963). The Political Economy of Independent Malaya:A case-study in development. University of California Press. p. 46. Retrieved 21 December 2015. 
  223. ^ a b "Education". Official Website of the Sarawak Government. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015. 
  224. ^ Edgar, Ong (10 April 2015). "Can you blame Sarawak and Sabah for feeling left out?". The Ant Daily. Archived from the original on 15 June 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015. The eight schools missing from the incomplete list are St. Thomas’s School Kuching (1848), St Mary’s School Kuching (1848), St Joseph’s School Kuching (1882), St Teresa’s School Kuching (1885), St Michael’s School Sandakan (1886), St Michael’s School Penampang (1888), All Saints’ School, Likas (1903) and St Patrick’s School Tawau (1917). 
  225. ^ a b c "Sarawak's public and private sectors work together to revamp education". Oxford Business Group. Archived from the original on 21 December 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015. 
  226. ^ "砂拉越华文独中通讯录 (Communication directory of Sarawak Chinese independent schools)" (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 31 December 2013. Retrieved 1 March 2015. 
  227. ^ "Institut Pendidikan Guru (Teachers' Training Institute)". Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia (Malaysian Ministry of Education). Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015. IPG Kampus Sarawak, IPG Kampus Tun Abdul Razak, IPG Kampus Batu Lintang (1st page), ... IPG Kampus Rajang (2nd page) 
  228. ^ "IPG Batu Lintang to be ‘garden campus’ next year". The Borneo Post. 16 August 2011. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015. 
  229. ^ Sharon, Ling (31 October 2015). "Local teachers for Sarawak schools". The Star (Malaysia). Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015. She said teachers from the peninsula currently make up 21.9% of the teaching workforce in primary and secondary schools in Sarawak with 8,890 in total while Sarawakians comprise 76.3% or 30,956. The rest (747, or 1.8%) are from Sabah and Labuan. 
  230. ^ "Libraries". The Sarawak Government. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015. 
  231. ^ "Johari: Urban-rural ratio to hit 65:35 within 10 years". The Star (Malaysia). 17 January 2014. Archived from the original on 24 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015. 
  232. ^ "Vital Statistics Summary for Births and Deaths". Sarawak Government. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2016. 
  233. ^ "Facts at your fingertips". Sarawak Convention Bureau. Archived from the original on 27 October 2014. Retrieved 24 November 2015. 
  234. ^ Ng, Erik (25 December 2015). "Sarawakian traditional Chinese painter showcases his eye-catching works in KL". The Star (Malaysia). Archived from the original on 26 December 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  235. ^ a b "The Sarawak People". Sarawak Tourism Federation. Archived from the original on 6 January 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015. 
  236. ^ Leong, Joe (4 August 2014). "Bizarre names like Tigabelas, Helicopter, Kissing in Borneo are real". The Ant Daily. Archived from the original on 24 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015. There are several other minor ethnic groups placed under the 'others', such as Indian, Eurasian, Kedayan, Javanese, Bugis and Murut. 
  237. ^ "Over 150,000 foreign workers in Sarawak hold temporary employment passes". The Sun Daily. 26 October 2015. Archived from the original on 27 October 2015. Retrieved 18 December 2015. 
  238. ^ Sulok, Tawie (11 April 2015). "Illegal immigrants in Sarawak a ‘huge problem’, deputy home minister admits". Malay Mail Online. Archived from the original on 25 October 2015. Retrieved 18 December 2015. 
  239. ^ Winzeler, R.L. (2004). The Architecture of Life and Death in Borneo. University of Hawaii Press. p. 3. ISBN 9780824826321. Retrieved 24 November 2015. ... it more popularly refers only to the Bidayuh and the Iban (the Land and Sea Dayaks respectively of the colonial tradition. 
  240. ^ "Putrajaya approves ‘Dayak’ for ‘Race’ category in all official forms". The Malaysian Insider. 31 October 2015. Archived from the original on 24 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015. 
  241. ^ Ting, Su Hie; Rose, Louis (June 2014). "Ethnic Language Use and Ethnic Identity for Sarawak Indigenous Groups in Malaysia" 53 (1). Oceanic Linguistics: 92. Retrieved 30 November 2015. (subscription required (help)). In Malaysia, Bumiputera (literally translated as 'prince of the earth' or 'son of the land') refers to the Malay and other indigenous people. ... The Bumiputera in general enjoy special privileges as part of the affirmative action for advancement of the community, and these include priority in university entry, scholarships, and government jobs, special finance schemes, and political positions. 
  242. ^ "Indigenous peoples - (a) Land rights of Indigenous Peoples". Human Rights Commission of Malaysia (SUHAKAM). Archived from the original on 2 October 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2015. 
  243. ^ Keat, Gin Ooi (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. pp. 623–625. ISBN 9781576077702. Retrieved 25 November 2015. Ibans are found in all political divisions of Borneo but in largest numbers in Sarawak. ... Christians missionaries have been active among the Iban for more than a century, and today many Ibans are christians. 
  244. ^ "Our People - Iban - The official travel website for Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 25 November 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015. 
  245. ^ a b "Our people - Chinese". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 12 July 2015. Retrieved 28 November 2015. 
  246. ^ John, Barwick. "Huang Naishang (1844-1924)". Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Christianity. Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2015. Shortly thereafter, Huang decided to start a new settlement of Chinese in Malaysia in order to escape China’s despotism and Fujian’s poverty. ... In 1901, Huang traveled with settlers from Fujian to Sibu, where he founded New Fuzhou. 
  247. ^ Voon, J.C. (2002). "Sarawak Chinese political thinking : 1911-1963". Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS). Archived from the original on 30 November 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2015. 
  248. ^ "Our people - Malay - The official website for Sarawak Malaysian Borneo". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 30 November 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2015. 
  249. ^ Jeniri, Amir (2015). "Asal usul Melayu Sarawak: menjejaki titik tak pasti (The origins of Sarawak Malays: Investigations of the uncertain points)". Jurnal Antarabangsa Dunia Melayu (International Journal of the Malay World) (in Malay) (Faculty of Social Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)) 8 (1). Retrieved 30 November 2015. 
  250. ^ "Journey to Melanau heartland". The official travel website for Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 7 December 2015. 
  251. ^ "Miri Visitors' Guide - Miri's inhabitants". gomiri.com. Archived from the original on 20 May 2015. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  252. ^ "Our people - Bidayuh". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 7 December 2015. Retrieved 7 December 2015. 
  253. ^ "Bidayuh longhouse". Sarawak Cultural Village. Archived from the original on 31 July 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2015. 
  254. ^ a b Erivina. "Our people - Orang Ulu". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 7 May 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2015. 
  255. ^ "Taburan Penduduk dan Ciri-ciri asas demografi (Population Distribution and Basic demographic characteristics 2010)" (PDF). Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Retrieved 11 December 2015.  p. 13
  256. ^ "Explanation sought on real status of S’wak’s official religion". The Borneo Post. 12 December 2015. Retrieved 11 December 2015. “The Sarawak State Constitution is clear — Sarawak has no official religion, but the official website stated otherwise. This matter was pointed out by YB Baru Bian (Ba Kelalan assemblyman and state PKR chairman) in his letter to the state secretary in July this year, and no action was taken. 
  257. ^ Carlo, Caldarola (1982). Religions and Societies, Asia and the Middle East. Walter de Gruyter. p. 481. ISBN 9789027932594. Retrieved 15 December 2015. 
  258. ^ "SIB & BEM - A Brief Introduction to Origin of SIB". SIB Grace. Archived from the original on 26 November 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2015. 
  259. ^ "List of Baptist churches in Sarawak". Malaysia Baptist Convention. Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2015. 
  260. ^ Carl, Skutsch (7 November 2013). Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities. Routledge. p. 781. ISBN 9781135193881. Retrieved 15 December 2015. 
  261. ^ a b c d e f John, Postill (15 May 2006). Media and Nation Building: How the Iban became Malaysian. Berghahn Books. pp. 46, 47, 51, 55, 58, 59, 76, 78. ISBN 9780857456878. Retrieved 13 November 2015. 
  262. ^ "Former Education Minister Calls For Return To Teaching Maths, Science In BM". Bernama. 12 November 2011. Archived from the original on 11 July 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2015. Former education minister Tun Abdul Rahman Yakub who was responsible for implementing the school education system with BM as the medium of instruction in 1970, said BM's position then should have remained till today to enhance its role in the national education system. 
  263. ^ Sulok, Tawie (20 February 2012). "Usage of English, native languages officially still legal in Sarawak". The Sun Daily. Archived from the original on 13 November 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015. 
  264. ^ "My Constitution - Sabah and Sarawak". Malaysian Bar. Archived from the original on 13 November 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015. English was the official language of the State Legislative Assemblies and Courts in Sabah and Sarawak on Malaysia Day, 16 September 1963. Any change of the official language to Bahasa Melayu can only become effective when the State Legislative Assembly of Sabah or Sarawak agrees to adopt federal laws that make Bahasa Melayu the official language. 
  265. ^ "Sarawak adopts English as official language". thesundaily.my. 
  266. ^ "Sarawak to recognise English as official language besides Bahasa Malaysia". BorneoPost Online - Borneo , Malaysia, Sarawak Daily News. 
  267. ^ "Sarawak makes English official language along with BM". themalaymailonline.com. 
  268. ^ "Sarawak, a land of many tongues". The Borneo Post. 23 December 2010. Archived from the original on 13 November 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015. 
  269. ^ Metom, Lily (31 January 2013). Emotion Concepts of the Ibans in Sarawak. Patridge Singapore. p. 22. ISBN 9781482897319. Retrieved 12 January 2016. Nevertheless, all these ancient customs pertaining to headhunting are no longer observed in these modern days. 
  270. ^ Platzdasch, Bernhard; Saravanamuttu, Johan (6 August 2014). Religious Diversity in Muslim-majority States in Southeast Asia: Areas of Toleration and Conflict. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS). p. 383. ISBN 9789814519649. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  271. ^ Kaur, Jeswan (16 December 2007). "Penan slowly abandoning their nomadic way of life". The Brunei Times. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  272. ^ "‘Equal treatment for Penan community’". The Borneo Post. 1 March 2014. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  273. ^ Switow, Michael (9 February 2005). "Interracial marriage blossoms in Malaysia". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 30 September 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2016. 
  274. ^ "Explore Sarawak in Half a Day". Sarawak Cultural Village. Archived from the original on 7 December 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  275. ^ "Sarawak Cultural Village". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  276. ^ "Malaysian Borneo's Muzium Sarawak: A Colonial Legacy in Postcolonial Context". Cultural Survival. Archived from the original on 5 October 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  277. ^ "Islamic Heritage Museum". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 7 February 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  278. ^ "Chinese History Museum". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  279. ^ "Cat Museum, Kuching". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  280. ^ "Textile Museum Sarawak". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 8 November 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  281. ^ "Art Museum". Sarawak Museum Department. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  282. ^ "Lau King Howe Medical Museum". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  283. ^ "Baram Regional Museum". Sarawak Museum Department. Archived from the original on 12 October 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  284. ^ "Fort Margherita". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  285. ^ "Fort Emma, Rajang, Kanowit". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 7 February 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  286. ^ "Fort Sylvia, Kapit". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 7 February 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  287. ^ Irene, C. (1 February 2015). "Fort Alice given a new lease on life". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 10 August 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  288. ^ "Aiman Batang Ai Resort & Retreat". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  289. ^ "Bawang Assan Iban Longhouses". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  290. ^ "Annah Rais Bidayuh Longhouse". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  291. ^ "Annah Rais Bidayuh longhouses". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 13 May 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  292. ^ "Bario". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  293. ^ "Bakelalan". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  294. ^ "Lamin Dana". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  295. ^ "Main Bazaar and Carpenter Street". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 24 October 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  296. ^ "India Street, Kuching". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 7 February 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  297. ^ "Kuching's India Street withstands the test of time". The Borneo Post. 21 February 2013. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  298. ^ "About Us - Introduction". Archived from the original on 23 December 2014. Retrieved 29 December 2015. 
  299. ^ "Sarakraf Pavilion". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015. Retrieved 29 December 2015. 
  300. ^ "Beads". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 29 December 2015. Retrieved 29 December 2015. 
  301. ^ "Iban Pua Kumbu exhibit in London". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 29 December 2015. Retrieved 29 December 2015. 
  302. ^ "Sarawak ethnic headgears". Sarawak Cultural Village. Archived from the original on 31 July 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2015. 
  303. ^ "Sarawak Pottery (Kuching)". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 29 December 2015. 
  304. ^ "Sarawak Handicraft Products ...Work of Fine arts and Crafts". sarawak-vacation-destinations.com. Archived from the original on 17 July 2015. Retrieved 29 December 2015. 
  305. ^ "Sarawak's Exotic Traditional handicrafts". boramarina.com. Archived from the original on 29 December 2015. Retrieved 29 December 2015. 
  306. ^ "Sarawak Artists Society (SAS) - established since 1985". Sarawak Artists Society. Archived from the original on 29 December 2015. Retrieved 29 December 2015. 
  307. ^ "Sarawak Artists Society". Sarawak Artists Society. Archived from the original on 29 December 2015. Retrieved 29 December 2015. 
  308. ^ Hassan, R.H; Durin, Anna. "Development of Paintings in Sarawak; 1946-1963 (Colonial and post colonial era) - 2nd last page". Universiti Malaysia Sarawak. Retrieved 29 December 2015. 
  309. ^ Ringgit, Danielle Sendou (26 August 2015). "From dreams into the mainstream". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 31 December 2015. Retrieved 31 December 2015. Perhaps the first time the sape took the world stage was when two Kenyah Lepo Tau sape players – Iran Lahang and Jalong Tanyit from Long Mengkaba – performed and demonstrated the art of sape-playing in Tokyo, Japan during Asian Traditional Performing Arts (ATPA) week in 1976. Aside from that, the late Tusau Padan performed for Queen Elizabeth during her official visit to Sarawak in 1972, ... 
  310. ^ "Alat-alat muzik tradisional (Traditional musical instruments" (in Malay). Yayasan Budaya Melayu Sarawak (Sarawak Malays' Culture Foundation). Archived from the original on 31 December 2015. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  311. ^ "Jamming in the rainforest". New Straits Times. 8 July 2002. Retrieved 31 December 2015. (subscription required (help)). Musicians from the heartland of Borneo travel downriver for the event, bringing their dugout sape guitars, bamboo zithers, treasured ancient brass gong sets and songs from the rainforest. Some play gourd organs with a battery of bamboo pipes, others tootle the flute - and in Borneo that means the jaw's harp, mouth flute, nose flute or a massed bamboo band of 30 or 40 piccolos, trebles, tenors and bassoons, all capable of astonishing sounds. 
  312. ^ a b Pandian, A; Ching Ling, L; Ai Lin, T (16 October 2014). "Chapter VII - Developing Literacy and Knowledge, Preservation skills among Remote Rural Children". New Literacies: Reconstructing Language and Education. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 95–97. ISBN 9781443869560. Retrieved 1 January 2016. ... it became the primary means of passing culture, history, and valued traditions. These stories are told by the older members of the community to the younger ones and on special occasions by a storyteller. ... lies in the fact that oral literature is actualised only in performances; (page 95) ... efforts to preserve and documents the stories from the various ethnic groups in the state have been carried out by the Institute of East Asian Studies at Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), (page 96) ... Similarly, in an effort to save and preserve the oral traditions of the ethnic groups in Sarawak, Sarawak Customs Council has documented some of the oral traditions in the form of written text, audio, video, and photograph. (page 97) 
  313. ^ "Tarian Ngajat Identiti Istimewa Masyarakat Iban (Ngajat dances a special identity for the Ibans)". Jabatan Penerangan Malaysia (Malaysian Ministry of Information). Archived from the original on 31 December 2015. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  314. ^ Nie, C.L.K; Durin, A. "Renong, An Iban Vocal Repertory (Conference paper)". Universiti Malaysia Sarawak. Archived from the original on 31 December 2015. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  315. ^ MacDonald, M.R. (16 December 2013). "The tradition of storytelling in Malaysia". Traditional Storytelling Today: An International Sourcebook. Routledge. p. 208. ISBN 9781135917210. Retrieved 1 January 2016. The Kayan and the Kenyah, who dwell in the upper region of Sarawak, have a vibrant epic-telling tradition that is elaborate and specialised. 
  316. ^ Law, Daryll (14 October 2013). "Preserve traditional culture for prosperity, Iban's urged". New Sarawak Tribune. Archived from the original on 31 December 2015. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  317. ^ "Sarawak Gazatte now available online". The Borneo Post. 31 July 2013. Archived from the original on 9 May 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2016. The gazette which is printed by the Government Printing Office, a pet project of Charles Brooke established in 1870, published its first issue dated Aug 26, 1870 featuring a summary of Reuter’s telegrams on the Franco-Prussian War in a three page leaflet. ... A hundred and thirty years later, both Reuters and The Sarawak Gazette are still going strong. 
  318. ^ Walker, J.H (13 April 2005). "Hikayat Panglima Nikosa and the Sarawak Gazette: Transforming Texts in Nineteenth Century Sarawak". Modern Asian Studies 39 (2). doi:10.1017/S0026749X04001507. Retrieved 1 January 2016. 
  319. ^ Syed Omar, S.O (1 December 2001). "Novel Malaysia - Catatan sejarah awal (Malaysian novel - Early historical records)" (in Malay). Utusan Malaysia. Retrieved 1 January 2016. 
  320. ^ Pik Shy, F (December 2013). "Malaysian Chinese Literary Works in a Multicultural Environment" (PDF) 3 (2). Universiti Malaya: 11. Retrieved 2 January 2016. 
  321. ^ "Best Sarawak Laksa in Kuching". The Malaysian Insider. 29 April 2015. Archived from the original on 8 August 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2016. 
  322. ^ "Kolo mee, a Sarawak favourite, any time of day". The Malaysian Insider. 14 September 2013. Archived from the original on 9 March 2014. Retrieved 3 January 2016. 
  323. ^ "‘Ayam pansuh’ — A Sarawak exotic delicacy loved by many (VIDEO)". The Malay Mail. 28 June 2015. Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2016. 
  324. ^ "Sarawak Top 10 Iconic Food". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2016. 
  325. ^ "Singer Deja Moss’ real passion is Sarawak layered cakes". The Star (Malaysia). 24 March 2015. Archived from the original on 12 August 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2016. 
  326. ^ Langgat, J; Mohd Zahari, M.S.; Yasin, M.S.; Mansur, N.A (2011). "The Alteration Of Sarawak Ethnic Natives’ Food: It’S Impact To Sarawak State Tourism". 2nd INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BUSINESS AND ECONOMIC RESEARCH (2nd ICBER 2011) PROCEEDING: 685, 694. Retrieved 3 January 2016. 
  327. ^ "International cuisine in Kuching". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 3 January 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2016. 
  328. ^ Wong, Jonathan (8 September 2013). "Monetising Sarawak’s cultural food". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 13 July 2014. Retrieved 3 January 2016. With Sarawak being a tourist destination, this opened up opportunities for small businesses to monetise the cultural aspect of the Dayaks for not only foreigners but locals as well. 
  329. ^ "Tycoon’s four dailies poised to undergo revamp". Malaysiakini. 17 January 2015. Archived from the original on 20 July 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2016. 
  330. ^ "See Hua Group saga: Court rules in favour of KTS". The Borneo Post. 8 May 2012. Archived from the original on 5 March 2015. Retrieved 5 March 2015. 
  331. ^ "Tribune suspended". The Star (Malaysia). 10 February 2006. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2016. 
  332. ^ "New lease of life for Sarawak Tribune". The Malaysian Insider. 19 May 2010. Archived from the original on 22 May 2010. Retrieved 5 January 2016. 
  333. ^ Kaldor, Mary (18 April 2012). Global Civil Society 2012: Ten Years of Critical Reflection. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 82. ISBN 9780230369436. Retrieved 5 January 2016. 
  334. ^ "Sarawak FM - Radio Malaysia Sarawak". Sarawak FM. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2016. 
  335. ^ "Nang Atap - CATS FM Radio station". cats FM. Archived from the original on 1 August 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2016. 
  336. ^ "Public Holidays 2015". The Sarawak Government. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2016. 
  337. ^ "TYT, CM attend state’s 52nd anniversary of independence". The Borneo Post. 23 July 2015. Archived from the original on 11 August 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2016. 
  338. ^ Hunter, M. "Sarawak’s "Independence Day"". New Mandala (Australian National University). Archived from the original on 25 July 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2016. 
  339. ^ "Pomp celebrations for Sarawak Governor’s birthday". The Star (Malaysia). 12 September 2015. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016. 
  340. ^ "CM and wife to have Hari Raya open house at BCCK". 15 July 2015. 15 July 2015. Archived from the original on 7 January 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2016. 
  341. ^ Aubrey, S (9 June 2015). "1,000 throng Manyin’s Gawai Dayak open house". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016. 
  342. ^ "KTS holds Chinese New Year Open House in Bintulu". The Borneo Post. 9 March 2015. Archived from the original on 16 December 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2016. 
  343. ^ "Public Holiday in Sarawak in conjunctions with the Gawai Dayak Celebration". Co-operative College in Malaysia. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016. 
  344. ^ Way, W (2 November 2013). "Deepavali is not dull in Sarawak". Free Malaysia Today. Archived from the original on 24 October 2014. Retrieved 8 January 2016. 
  345. ^ "Lessons from Sarawak". Aliran. 26 July 2014. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2016. The note that follows is a glimpse of the ethno-religious relations in Sibu town. The scenes in Sibu are common to other urban centres of Sarawak, but unique within the context of the national scene. ... Besides Christianity, other religions like Taoism, Buddhism and Islam also organise their respective processions during their big festivals. 
  346. ^ Thomas, V (21 March 2013). "Declare Good Friday a public holiday". Free Malaysia Today. Archived from the original on 23 March 2013. Retrieved 8 January 2016. 
  347. ^ "Kuching Festival 2014". Sarawak Tourism Board. Archived from the original on 16 July 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2016. 
  348. ^ "20,000 people rock Miri City Day’s 10th anniversary concert". The Borneo Post. 18 May 2015. Archived from the original on 3 January 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016. 
  349. ^ "57 exciting Miri May Fest events". New Sarawak Tribune. 6 April 2013. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016. 
  350. ^ "Commonwealth Games Federation - Countries - Sarawak". Commonwealth Games Federation. Archived from the original on 11 January 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  351. ^ "Japan top the list with 73 golds'". The Straits Times. 5 September 1962. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  352. ^ "Jakarta 1962". Olympic Council of Asia. Archived from the original on 1 January 1962. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  353. ^ "Sarawak State Sports Council". Sarawak State Sports Council. Archived from the original on 15 June 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  354. ^ "S’wak to host Sukma in 2016 — Khairy". The Borneo Post. 4 September 2013. Archived from the original on 11 January 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  355. ^ Pail, Salena (22 October 2015). "CM revs up momentum for 2016 S’wak Sukma". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 11 January 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  356. ^ Tieng Hee, Ting (12 April 2015). "Five Sarawak swimmers for SEA Games". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 17 August 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  357. ^ "Previous Olympic Games Medal Tally". Olympic Council of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 7 August 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  358. ^ Mahyuni, Erna (10 August 2012). "Pandelela makes Malaysian history with her Olympics bronze". The Malaysian Insider. Archived from the original on 26 February 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  359. ^ Bong, Karen (14 December 2014). "Major boost for paralympic athletes". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 31 July 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  360. ^ Veno, Jeremy (22 July 2015). "Special Olympians off to Los Angeles". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 10 August 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  361. ^ "Mengenai PSNS (Regarding PSNS [Sarawak Stadium Corporation])". Archived from the original on 11 January 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  362. ^ "History". Football Association of Sarawak. Archived from the original on 16 May 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  363. ^ "Honours". Football Assoication of Sarawak. Archived from the original on 16 May 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 

External links[edit]