Sarawak state election, 2006
All 71 seats in the Sarawak State Legislative Assembly
36 seats needed for a majority
The ninth Sarawak state election was held on Saturday, 20 May 2006 with nomination day on Tuesday, 9 May 2006. The election functioned to elect 71 representatives to the Sarawak State Assembly (Dewan Undangan Negeri in Malay). The eighth state assembly was dissolved by Yang di-Pertua Negeri Sarawak, Tun Abang Muhammad Salahuddin Abang Barieng by the advice of Chief Minister Abdul Taib Mahmud, on 24 April 2006.
On nomination day, Barisan Nasional won two seats without contest.
This election saw 892,537 voters eligible to cast their ballots.
The previous state election was held in 2001, when the ruling Barisan Nasional (BN) won 60 out of 62 seats in the eighth state assembly. The Democratic Action Party won one, while another went to an independent candidate. The eighth state assembly's mandate would expire on 18 November 2006, necessitating the calling of an election beforehand.
Barisan Nasional fielded candidates for all 71 seats:
- 35 seats by United Traditional Bumiputera Party (PBB)
- 19 seats by Sarawak United People's Party (SUPP)
- 9 seats by Sarawak Peoples Party (PRS)
- 8 seats by Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party (SPDP)
A total of 28 seats was contested by Sarawak National Party (SNAP), followed by People's Justice Party (PKR) (25 seats), Democratic Action Party (DAP) (12 seats), and Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (1 seat). There were 20 independents contesting for 16 seats.
Sarawak is the largest state in Malaysia, comprising 124,450 square kilometers, almost as large as the Malay peninsula. In 1963, Sarawak and Sabah together with the Federation of Malaya formed a greater federation named Malaysia. Since then, Sarawak nationalism dominates in every state election. The people of Sarawak generally resented the control of the Malay peninsula on Sarawak affairs such as autonomy in decision making, disatisfaction over the 5% allocation of oil royalty to Sarawak, and the tendencies to support local parties in Sarawak.
Since rural areas dominated Sarawak lands, the control over the rural areas is essential for electoral successes. In the 1990s, deforestation in Sarawak became a major issue whereby logging companies with close political ties to the regime were given large amount of concessions for logging. As the source of timber in Sarawak forests became depleted, oil palm plantations became a priority. The Sarawak government had encroached on the Native customary rights (NCR) lands to convert them into state lands for logging, plantations, and infrastructure developments. In return, the government promised infrastructure projects that can benefit the rural community. However, tenders for the infrastructure projects were also awarded according to party lines. Poverty in the rural areas had fostered dependence on government handouts, thus rural communities showed more loyalty to the government when compared to urban areas.
Sarawak is ethnically diverse. The Iban people is the largest group, followed by Chinese, Malay, Melanau people, Bidayuh, and Orang Ulu. The Ibans are primarily located in rural areas, the Chinese is primarily located in the urban areas; Bidayuh was traditionally rural but has been increasingly urbanised. Since 1970s, the chief minister of Sarawak traditionally come from Melanau ethnic group. Similar to penisula Malaysia, delineation of constituencies and campaign issues are organised along racial lines.
Since formation of Malaysia in 1963, Sarawak has hold nine state elections. Since 1979, Sarawak hold state elections separately from the national parliamentary elections. Thus, Sarawak elections become a measure of support of the incumbent government before the next Malaysian general elections. Malaysian electoral system uses the first-past-the-post voting system, where winners take all. Therefore, Sarawak BN consistently won greater proportion of seats than the share of popular vote. Election Commission of Malaysia (EC) had been alleged to be politically aligned with the incumbent government since 1961. The chairman of EC is appointed by the incumbent government and is answerable to the Malaysian prime minister department.
The Sarawak State Legislative Assembly was disssolved by chief minister Abdul Taib Mahmud. The nomination date was set on 9 May 2006 with campaign period set from 10 May to 19 May. This election also saw larger number of women candidates being fielded by both government and opposition parties. BN nominated six women candidates while the opposition slated four women candidates. BN has introduced 18 new faces in the election.
There were only a total of 892,537 voters, which was less than a third of the 2.5 million total population in Sarawak.
Parties and leaders
Sarawak Barisan Nasional (BN) coalition and its predecessor Alliance has been securing decisive victories in every state elections since the formation of Malaysia. Sarawak is also one of the five states in Malaysia where the governing BN coalition secured more than 90% of the seats in almost every election. Other states are: Malacca, Perlis, Negeri Sembilan, and Johor. Sarawak BN consists of entirely local parties: United Traditional Bumiputera Party (PBB), Sarawak United People's Party (SUPP), Sarawak Peoples Party (PRS), and Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party (SPDP). Sarawak chief minister Abdul Taib Mahmud is the president of PBB. He is also the chairman of Sarawak BN. His party consists of Malay-Melanau party members. SUPP is predominantly Chinese, although the party also has several Iban members. PRS is the combination of Iban and Chinese members while SPDP is predominantly Iban. Both PRS and SPDP are either direct or indirect splinter parties from Sarawak National Party (SNAP).
Sarawak National Party (SNAP) was a component party in Sarawak BN in 2001. However, in 2002, SNAP was grippled by a leadership crisis. It was later deregistered by the Malaysian Registrar of Societies (ROS) on 5 November 2002 due to the persistent unresolved leadership crisis. The party then filed a judicial review against the ROS decision. The review was dismissed by the High Court in September 2006. During the 2002 SNAP crisis, Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party (SPDP) was formed and admitted into Sarawak BN. SNAP then departed from BN and became an opposition party in 2004. In the same year, a another component party of Sarawak BN, Parti Bangsa Dayak Sarawak (PBDS), which was a splinter party from SNAP in 1983, faced a leadership crisis and was deregistered. Sarawak Peoples Party (PRS) was formed later and admitted into Sarawak BN.
Amongst all the opposition parties in Sarawak, only Democratic Action Party (DAP) has a seat in Kidurong since 2001 election. DAP had left Barisan Alternatif (BA) before the 2001 election. It has reached an informal agreement with People's Justice Party (PKR) for the latter to contest at Padungan in return for not contesting against DAP in 2004 Malaysian general election.
Meanwhile, People's Justice Party (PKR) together with Sarawak National Party (SNAP) teamed up to form the Sarawak United Front (Barisan Bersatu Sarawak, BBS). Malaysian Dayak Congress (MDC), being one of the two parties split from the deregistered PBDS in 2004, was awaiting for registration approval from ROS. Therefore, BBS had allowed candidates from MDC to use SNAP party symbol to contest in this election. Meanwhile, Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) decided to contest in only one seat in view of voters base in Sarawak mainly consists of non-Muslims.
Most of the seats saw two corner fights with the agreement of the opposition on not contesting against each other. The number of independent candidates also dropped from the last election where only 15 seats saw the participation of the independent candidates.
The BN government lifted the ban of helicopter flights to ease the dissemination of manifestos in the rural areas. Sarawak BN mainly campainged on theme of "development and stability" with messages such as "A Peaceful, Progressive and Prosperous Sarawak".
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (November 2018)
Barisan successfully captured 61 seats out of 71 seats. Meanwhile, the opposition managed to captured 8 seats and 47.2% of the popular vote. This was the first time since the 1987 election that the opposition made a significant inroad in this election.
Out of 71 seats, only 69 seats saw contests between various candidates. Two seats – namely Daro and Dalat – were won uncontested by candidates from Parti Pesaka Bumiputra Bersatu, a component party in Barisan Nasional.
Results by party
|Enrolled voters||892,537||Votes cast||552,350||Turnout||61.89%|
|Did not vote||340,187||Informal votes||6,959||Informal||1.26%|
|Party||Party leader||# of
|Barisan Nasional||BN||Abdul Taib Mahmud||71||60||60||62||87.32||341,587||62.91|
|Democratic Action Party||DAP||Wong Ho Leng||12||1||1||6||8.45||82,134||15.13|
|Sarawak National Party||SNAP||Edwin Dundang Bugak||29||N/A||N/A||1||1.41||51,459||9.48|
|People's Justice Party||PKR||25||N/A||N/A||1||1.41||47,348||8.72|
|Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party||PAS||1||0||0||0||0.00||1,901||0.35|
|United Traditional Bumiputera Party||PBB||35||160,331||29.55||35||49.30||+5|
|Sarawak United People's Party||SUPP||19||113,505||20.92||11||15.49||-5|
|Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party||SPDP||8||34,737||6.40||8||11.27||New|
|Sarawak People's Party||PRS||9||33,014||6.08||8||11.27||New|
|Democratic Action Party||DAP||12||82,134||15.14||6||8.45||+5|
|Sarawak National Party||SNAP||29||51,459||9.48||1||1.41||-5|
|People's Justice Party||PKR||25||47,350||8.73||1||1.41||+1|
|Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party||PAS||1||1,901||0.35||0||0.00||0|
|Total votes (voter turnout: 61.89%)||549,603||100.00||71||100.00||+9|
|Did not vote||342,934|
|Voting age population (aged 21 years and above)|
- Contested using dacing election symbol on the ballot papers.
Results by constituency
|No.||State constituency||Elected state assembly members||Elected party|
|BN 62 | DAP 6 | PKR 1 | SNAP 1 | IND 1|
|N02||Tasik Biru||Peter Nansian Ngusie||BN|
|N03||Tanjong Datu||Adenan Satem||BN|
|N04||Pantai Damai||Abdul Rahman Junaidi||BN|
|N05||Demak Laut||Abg. Abdul Rauf Abg. Zen||BN|
|N06||Tupong||Daud Abdul Rahman||BN|
|N07||Samariang||Sharifah Hasidah Sayeed Aman Ghazali||BN|
|N08||Satok||Abg. Abd. Rahman Zohari Abg. Openg||BN|
|N09||Padungan||Dominique Ng Kim Ho||PKR|
|N10||Pending||Violet Yong Wui Wui||DAP|
|N11||Batu Lintang||Voon Lee Shan||DAP|
|N12||Kota Sentosa||Chong Chieng Jen||DAP|
|N13||Batu Kawa||Tan Joo Phoi||BN|
|N14||Asajaya||Abd. Karim Rahman Hamzah||BN|
|N15||Muara Tuang||Mohamad Ali Mahmud||BN|
|N17||Tarat||Roland Sagah Wee Inn||BN|
|N18||Tebedu||Michael Manyin Jawong||BN|
|N19||Kedup||Federick Bayoi Manggie||BN|
|N20||Sadong Jaya||Wan Abd. Wahab Wan Sanusi||BN|
|N21||Simunjan||Mohd. Naroden Majais||BN|
|N25||Balai Ringin||Snowdan Lawan||BN|
|N26||Bukit Begunan||Mong Dagang||BN|
|N27||Simanggang||Francis Harden Hollis||BN|
|N29||Batang Air||Dublin Unting||BN|
|N31||Layar||Alfred Jabu Numpang||BN|
|N32||Bukit Saban||Robert Lawson Chuat Vincent Entering||BN|
|N33||Kalaka||Abdul Wahab Aziz||BN|
|N34||Krian||Peter Nyarok Entrie||BN|
|N36||Semop||Mohd. Asfia Awang Nassar||BN|
|N38||Jemoreng||Abu Seman Jahwie||BN|
|N39||Jepok||David Teng Lung Chi||BN|
|N40||Meradong||Ting Tze Fui||DAP|
|N41||Pakan||William Mawan Ikom||BN|
|N43||Ngemah||Gabriel Adit Demong||IND|
|N45||Bukit Assek||Wong Ho Leng||DAP|
|N46||Dudong||Soon Choon Teck||BN|
|N47||Bawang Assan||Wong Soon Koh||BN|
|N48||Pelawan||Vincent Goh Chung Siong||BN|
|N49||Nangka||Awg. Bemee Awg. Ali Basah||BN|
|N51||Balingian||Abdul Taib Mahmud||BN|
|N52||Tamin||Joseph Mauh Ikeh||BN|
|N53||Kakus||John Sikie Tayai||BN|
|N54||Pelagus||Larry Sng Wei Shien||BN|
|N55||Katibas||Ambrose Blikau Enturan||BN|
|N56||Baleh||James Jemut Masing||BN|
|N59||Kidurong||Chiew Chin Sing||DAP|
|N60||Kemena||Stephen Rundi Utom||BN|
|N63||Piasau||George Chan Hong Nam||BN|
|N64||Pujut||Andy Chia Chu Fatt||BN|
|N65||Senadin||Lee Kim Shin||BN|
|N66||Marudi||Sylvester Entrie Muran||BN|
|N67||Telang Usan||Lihan Jok||BN|
|N68||Bukit Kota||Abdul Rahman Ismail||BN|
|N69||Batu Danau||Palu @ Paulus Gumbang||BN|
|N70||Ba'kelalan||Nelson Balang Rining||BN|
|N71||Bukit Sari||Awang Tengah Ali Hassan||BN|
Johnichal Rayong, who won the N28 Engkilili seat on SNAP ticket, joined SUPP in December 2010, contributed another seat for BN.
Dublin Unting, the state assemblyman for N29 Batang Ai, died at the Normah Medical Specialist Centre, Kuching on 24 February 2009 after a coma. This resulted in the necessity to call for a by-election. Malcolm Mussen Lamoh later successfully defended the seat for Barisan Nasional.
Larry Sng, who won the N54 Pelagus seat for BN, was sacked by Sarawak Peoples Party (PRS) in 2007. Although partyless, Sng is regarded as a loyal member of BN by Abdul Taib Mahmud, the chairman of Sarawak BN coalition.
- Polling In Sarawak State Election Completed. (20 May 2006). BERNAMA.
- Background of Sarawak politics. BERNAMA. URL accessed on 20 May 2006
- "Keputusan Pilihan Raya Umum Parlimen/Dewan Undangan Negeri". Election Commission of Malaysia. Retrieved 24 June 2010. Percentage figures based on total turnout, including votes for third parties. Results before 1986 election unavailable.
- Bridget, Welsh (September 2006). "Malaysia's Sarawak State Elections 2006 - Understanding a Break in the BN's Armour" (PDF). Southeast Asian studies. National Democratic Institute. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
- "SNAP officially deregistered". The Star (Malaysia). 18 January 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
- Raynore, Mering (23 May 2014). "Analysis: Party loyalty counts for little in Sarawak". Malay Mail Online. Archived from the original on 9 July 2018. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
- Tony, Thien (6 May 2005). "Application for new Dayak party filed". Malaysiakini. Archived from the original on 6 November 2018. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
- Jack, Wong (8 October 2005). "Expedite formation of Malaysian Dayak Congress, Registrar urged". The Star (Malaysia). Archived from the original on 9 November 2018. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
- "Engkilili assemblyman could cross over to Barisan". The Star (Malaysia). 26 July 2006. Archived from the original on 9 November 2018. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
- SUPP stands united to woo Chinese voters The Star. Accessed on 3 April 2011
- Batang Ai rep Dublin Unting Ingkot dies (updated) The Star
- Gabriel Adit Officially Joins PKR Bernama
- Independent Ngemah Assemblyman Joins Parti Cinta Malaysia Bernama
- Sng: Right candidate will make Pelagus safe seat for BN The Star. Accessed on 3 April 2011
- Partyless Larry Sng is a BN man, says Taib The Star. Accessed on 3 April 2011