Sardar Muhammad Ibrahim Khan

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Bani-e-Kashmir Sardar Muhammad Ibrahim Khan
Sardar M. Ibrahim Khan.jpg
Sardar Muhammad Ibrahim Khan as the, 32 years old, first President of Azad Kashmir.
President of Azad Kashmir
In office
In office
In office
In office
Personal details
Born (1915-04-10)April 10, 1915
Kot Mattay Khan, Poonch district, Kashmir and Jammu, British India
Died July 31, 2003(2003-07-31) (aged 88)
Islamabad, Pakistan
Political party Muslim Conference, Jammu Kashmir Peoples Party
Spouse(s) Zaib-un-Nisa Khan

Sardar Javed Ibrahim Khan Son

Sardar Khalid Ibrahim Khan Son

Uft-e-Huma Daughter

Sardar Farooq Ibrahim Khan Son
Religion Islam

Sardar Muhammad Ibrahim Khan (April 10, 1915 – July 31, 2003) also known as Bani-e-Kashmir, "Father of Kashmir" and Ghazi-e-Millat ("Hero of the Nation"), was the founder and first President of Azad Kashmir. He was the grand-uncle of Masood Khan, a career diplomat who has been recently appointed as the Director General of the Institute of Strategic Studies Islamabad by the Government of Pakistan. Born in Kot Mattay Khan, a village of District Poonch of Kashmir, Sardar Ibrahim obtained his LLB from the University of London in 1943, and began his practice as a prosecutor in 1943 at Mirpur. He completed his BVC from Lincoln's Inn and became the first Barrister of Kashmir. He was appointed as assistant advocate general in 1944 by the then Maharaja of Kashmir. He left the government job in line with the liberation of Kashmir movement, and contested the 1946 elections with a sweeping victory that made him the Member of Rajiha Sabha. He led an army of Kashmiri guerrillas against the Maharaja of Kashmir, Hari Singh, after passing the resolution for Kashmir's accession to Pakistan in 1947, at his residence. Sardar and his army were unable to capture the whole Kashmiri Territory due to the resolution passed by United Nations on August 13, 1948. However, the captured area was named as Azad Kashmir and Khan was elected as its first President at the age of 32. He represented Kashmir in different capacities in the United Nations from 1948 to 1971.

Early life and education[edit]

Sardar Muhammad Ibrahim Khan was born on April 10th, 1915 in the village of Kot Matta near Rawalakot. He received his primary education in his native village. Then, he attended college and passed with a Bachelors of Arts in 1935 at Islamia College Lahore and sought higher education abroad in 1938. Sardar then obtained a law degree from Lincoln's Inn, and started practicing law at Srinagar.

Professional & Political Career[edit]

In 1943, Sardar was appointed as a public prosecutor in Mirpur. He later joined the office of the State Advocate General in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Sardar Ibrahim resigned from this office and participated in the elections for the State Assembly in 1947. He won the election with an overwhelming majority. He then went on to serve 3 more terms in office until he was forced to leave due to his age. He retired at age 87.

Later, he established the Azad Muslim Conference.

Role in 1947 Independence Struggle[edit]

During 1947 Mahraja Hari Singh had continued a ban on public meetings and political activities in Jammu and Kashmir. On 19 July 1947 Sardar Ibrahim called for the meeting of general assembly at his residence where a resolution was unanimously passed for the accession of the State to Pakistan. He also declared Jihad for the achievement of his goal. Thereupon the Dogra Raja turned against him and therefore he instantly left the state and moved to Murree. In Murree, he strove to gather ammunition from the private individuals and organizations. With the help of fellow Kashmiris he launched ‘Jihad’ against the Maharaja and after a prolonged fight, he defeated the forces of Maharaja on 24 October 1947 and laid the foundation of independent state of Azad Kashmir. As first President of Azad Kashmir, he was invited by the United Nation to brief the session of the General Assembly on the situation in Kashmir.Under the leadership of Sardar Muhammad Ibrahim the annual session of the All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference was held at Kotli in 1954, and a resolution was moved for the establishment of a proper Legislative Assembly in Azad Kashmir. From then on, he and his lieutenants continued to push for a legislative assembly, and it wouldn't be until the regime of Yahya Khan that the Azad Kashmir Legislative Assembly was formed. Sardar Ibrahim was elected as the president of Azad Kashmir for the second time on April 13, 1957 and for the third time on June 5, 1975. Sardar Ibrahim was very close to Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and formed Azad Kashmir as a chapter of Pakistan Peoples Party.In 1977 Zia-ul-Haq dissolved the government of Bhutto and allowed Sardar Ibrahim to continue as president, but only provided he gave up support of a close ally, Bhutto. Sardar Ibrahim refused to betray Bhutto, and the result was the removal of Sardar Ibrahim from the office of the president through a proclamation issued by General Ziaul Haq, as Chairman of Azad Jammu and Kashmir Council on October 30, 1978. Sardar Ibrahim still retained his reputation and was re-elected for the fourth time as the President of Azad Kashmir in August 1996. He remained in office until August 2001. Sardar Ibrahim, was believed to have played a vital role in the politics of Azad Kashmir, but ended his political career due to his age.

Political offices
Preceded by
Post Created
President of Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Succeeded by
Captain Syed Ali Ahmed Shah
Preceded by
Dost Muhammad Khosa
2nd term
Succeeded by
Khurshid Hassan Khurshid
Preceded by
Sardar Mohammad Abdul Qayyum Khan
3rd term
Succeeded by
Muhammad Hayat Khan
Preceded by
Sardar Sikandar Hayat Khan
4th term
Succeeded by
Sardar Muhammad Anwar Khan


Further reading[edit]