Sardinian literature

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The literature of Sardinia is the literary production of Sardinian authors, as well as the literary production generally referring to Sardinia as argument, written in various languages.

Grazia Deledda Nobel Prize in Literature in 1926
Pedra de Nuras- Nora Stone

The beginnings[edit]

Punic, Greek, Latin trilingual inscription from San Nicolò Gerrei, Turin, Museo di Antichità
Grotta della Vipera, Cagliari (Viper grotto)

Being the existence and understanding of direct statements of the proto-Sardinian (pre-punic and pre-Latin) language or languages[1][2][3] hotly debated, the first written artifact from the island dates back to the Phoenicianc period with documents such as the Nora Stele or the trilingual inscription (Punic-Latin-Greek) from San Nicolò Gerrei.[4] This last artifact symbolizes the passage of the island from a punic cultural and linguistic influence to the Roman one. Punics took control of Sardinia around the year 500 BC, and lost it in 238 BC after the First Punic War. After that the new Roman province of Sardinia et Corsica experimented an almost exclusive use of written and spoken Latin, for more than eight centuries, as a result of the linguistic Romanization of the entire island. After being briefly occupied by the Vandals in 456 approximately, it was taken again by the Romans in 534 A.D., more precisely the Romans from the East, the byzantins, which gradually introduced the medieval Greek in all levels of society; common people continued to speak a Latin dialect which evolved, after some centuries in the romance Sardinian medioeval language. In this period Latin still remained the language of the religious culture as Sardinian Church was strictly related to Rome, while Greek was the language of the political power, that of the very far but powerful Emperor of Costantinople. The new millennium brought a conquest attempt by Muslims, which failed due to the fleets of Pisa and Genua, but, in the same time it brought a new rapprochement to western Europe, as Byzantines were no more able to defend the farthest part of their “οικουμένη”ecumene.

Multilingualism,[5] as we shall see, will always be a constant in the literary history of the island: Punic, Greek, Latin, Byzantine Greek, medieval Latin, Sardinian and vernacular Tuscan,[6]Catalan, Spanish, Sardo-Corsican,[7] Italian,[8] and even French [9] were the languages which Sardinian authors used for two millennia. Of particular importance for the history and anthropology of Sardinia in Roman times, is the text of the table of Esterzili: "The find is of exceptional importance for the inscription of 27 lines with capital letters: it shows the decree by the Proconsul of Sardinia L. Elvio Agrippa March 18 69 A.D. – during the reign of the Emperor Otho – to settle a border between the populations of Patulcenses Campani and Galillenses that have repeatedly violated the limits. The proconsul in particular ordered that the Galillenses had to leave the lands occupied by force and warned them off keeping to rebel. The text ends with the names of the members of the acting council and with the seven witnesses signatures. The scientific value of the finding is having sent along with the names of two of the populations living in Roman Sardinia, a summary of the long dispute occurred between the end of the Republic and early Imperial Age (since the end of the second century. BC to the first century AD).[10][11]

The earliest record of an artistic literary production in Sardinia can be found in Latin and Greek carmina, carved in the limestone of the tomb-shrine of Atilia Pomptilla, in the necropolis of Tuvixeddu of Cagliari. The most tender ode is written in Greek:

From your ashes, Pomptilla, violets and lilies flourish and may you bloom again in the petals of the rose, of the fragrant crocus, of the eternal amaranth, and of the beautiful flowers of the white panzy, like the narcissus and the sad amaranth, also the time that will, always will have your flower. In fact, when already the spirit of Philip was about to melt from his limbs, and he had his soul on his lips, Pomptilla, leaning on his pale groom, Pontilla the life of him with hers exchanged. And the Gods broke a union so happy, for the sake of her sweet husband died Pontilla; now Philip is living against his will, always longing to be able to confuse soon his soul with that of the bride who loved him so much[12] The carmina in the Grotta della Vipera enshrine the beginning of the literary history of the island. From the late Roman period we have received the highly polemical writings of St. Lucifer from Cagliari,[13] a staunch defender of Catholic orthodoxy against the Arian heresy. Other writings on theology have come to us from the Bishop Eusebius of Vercelli, born in Cagliari,[14] and a contemporary of Lucifer.

The Middle Ages[edit]

Medium-Hellenic inscription of the ninth century A.D., coming from southern Sardinia
Carta de logu de Arbarei

Literary production was few throughout the Middle Ages: some hagiographic texts, in Latin, in prose and poetry, often extensively reworked in later centuries, have come down to us. Some of them have very ancient origins, perhaps dating back to the monastery and religious literature that was created in Cagliari around the figure of St. Fulgence of Ruspe[15] at the time of his exile during the reign vandal Thrasamund. In this period were written in Cagliari some of the most precious and ancient codes of the time, like maybe the Codex Lausianus, containing one or perhaps the oldest one edition of the Acts of the Apostles, has come down and now preserved in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, and the Codex Basilianus, containing some of the works of St. Hilary of Poitiers, wrote in Cagliari, as a specified in a note in the manuscript and preserved in the Vatican Library.[16] The Passions of the martyrs San Saturno, San Lussorio and San Gavino also come down as well as the hagiographic stories of Sant'Antioco and San Giorgio from Suelli.[17]

Characteristic of medieval Sardinia, in the eleventh century, was the early use of the vernacular in the acts of the Sardinian kings, records of monasteries or notary and in the legislation. For the history of the island, particular importance had the promulgation of the Carta de Logu of Arborea, a legal code which condensed the old common law especially for the countryside, to integrate of Roman laws (Codex Justinianus)[18] in force across Europe. The early use of vulgar Sardinian date back to the eleventh century: we can find it in the acts of donations of the Judges (kings) to various religious orders and in condaxis or condaghes that were administrative documents.

Among the most important texts are the statutes of the Commune of Sassari, written in Latin and logudorese Sardinian in 1316. The document is divided into three parts: the first concerns the public law, civil law, the second and the third criminal law. This code was gradually adopted by many municipalities on the island. Other municipalities had their own statutes, as Cagliari and Iglesias, whose short of Villa di Chiesa was prepared in Tuscany.

Also in the fourteenth century was promulgated by Mariano IV the Carta de Logu, which was the code of the laws of the State of the court of Arborea. The paper was subsequently updated and expanded by Eleanor, daughter of Mariano. This code of laws continues to be considered one of the most innovative and interesting of the XIII century.

There is no literature in Sardinia for most of the Middle Ages. In Judicial era there are several documents in Sardinian typically consisting of records and legal documents, that consists of condaghi and different cartas de logu. A small medieval text in the history of the Sardinian judge of Torres, the Libellus Judicum Turritanorum[19] constitutes the first historiographic text. The first literary work in Sardinian, now at the end of the Middle Ages, from the second half of the fifteenth century, however, published about a century later. It is a poem inspired by the life of the holy martyrs turritani by the Archbishop of Sassari Antonio Canu. This work is the only one before the second half of the sixteenth century.

[edit]

Habsburg Sardinia[edit]

Cima del monte Parnaso español con las tres musas castellanas Caliope, Urania y Euterpe
EL FORASTERO
Vicente Bacallar y Sanna

The final fall of East Roman Empire to the Turks (and their spread in the Balkan-Greek peninsula) in 1453, the expulsion of the Arab-Berber Muslims from the Iberian Peninsula, the geographical discoveries, culminated with the discovery of the New World, and, finally, the focus in one man, Charles V, of a vast empire, carry Europe and with it Sardinia in the modern age. The Sardinian authors of the sixteenth century as Antonio Lo Frasso, Sigismund Arquer, Giovanni Francesco Fara, Pedro Delitala will be multilingual, multicultural. While Lo Frasso writes his poems in Spanish, Catalan and Sardinian, Delitala choose to write in Italian or Tuscan, and Jeronimo Araolla writes in three languages. But by that time, the penetration of Castilian as a literary language knows no barriers and becomes overwhelmingly in the seventeenth century, while the non-fiction of the period use Latin as in the rest of Europe. Production in Latin was so strong that even in 1837 the Piedmont botanist Giuseppe Giacinto Moris, a professor at the University of Cagliari, published his Flora sardoa, the first systematic study of the Sardinian flora, entirely in Latin.

In the seventeenth century there is a further integration with the Iberian world as demonstrated by the works of the Spanish speaking Sardinian poets Giuseppe Delitala y Castelvì and Jose Zatrillas, and historian Angelo Francesco de Vico, while those of Francesco Vidal.

18th and 19th centuries[edit]

Giovanni Spano

In the eighteenth century, precisely in 1720, the crisis of the Spanish aways Sardinia and the rest of the South Italy from Iberian orbit. The crown of the kingdom passed to the Savoy, and during the century the ideas of the Enlightenment spread, as well as an increasing of education and culture, thanks to public works and reform than Giovanni Battista Lorenzo Bogino, with the introduction Italian as the official language at the expense of Spanish.

In the second half of the eighteenth century a production of "gender" oratorio (mostly only in manuscript) takes shape in Sardinian who has the highest representative on the priest Giovanni Battista Zonchello Espada from Sedilo. The sacred oratory, for quality and quantity of production (also given to the press), will impose, however, only in the following century by Angelo Maria De Martis, Salvatore Cossu, Frassu Salvatore, Antonio Soggiu (founder of a school of oratory in Oristano) and Salvatore Carboni. In the first half of the twentieth century prose sacred Sardinian prosegurà with many authors such Eugenuo Sanna from Milis, Pietro Maria Cossu from Escovedu, Aurelio Puddu from Barumini, Efisio Marras from Allai and the priest novelist and writer Pietro Casu from Berchidda.

In the 19th century modern science was born in Sardinia. Giovanni Spano undertook the first archaeological excavations, Giuseppe Manno wrote the first great general history of the island, Pasquale Tola published important documents of the past, Pietro Martini writes biographies of famous Sardinian, Alberto La Marmora runs through the island far and wide, studying in detail and writing a massive work in four parts entitled Voyage en Sardaigne, published in Paris.

In the nineteenth century many travelers visit the city and island districts. Throughout the century, arriving in Sardinia Alphonse de Lamartine, Honoré de Balzac, Antonio Bresciani, Paolo Mantegazza and others. Between the 19th and the 20th centuries the birth of Sardinian Philology dates back, or the study on textual productions of the Romance languages historically spoken and written in Sardinia. The initiator of this philological and literary approach was Max Leopold Wagner and Giuliano Bonazzi for literary texts, as well as Enrico Besta and Arrigo Solmi were the initiators for official documents and historical legal texts. And in the twentieth century the contribution in the same vein of historical legal research was due to Alberto Boscolo and his school in the mid sixties.

20th century[edit]

Also in the early twentieth century, Enrico Costa tells the stories of some of the legendary figures of the island. But it was the work of Grazia Deledda to raise awareness of Sardinia in the world, especially after the writer was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1926.

An important contribution to literary culture came from Antonio Gramsci and Emilio Lussu. Important anthropologists have written about Sardinia, the most recent: Ernesto de Martino, Mario Alberto Cirese, Giulio Angioni Michelangelo Pira, Clara Gallini.

After World War II emerged with figures such as Giuseppe Dessi, his novels including his Paese d'ombre (country of shadows). In more recent years the autobiographical novels of Gavino Ledda Padre padrone and Salvatore Satta Judgment Day had widely reported, in addition to works by Sergio Atzeni, Maria Giacobbe, Salvatore Mannuzzu, Giulio Angioni, Marcello Fois, Michela Murgia, Salvatore Niffoi, Bianca Pitzorno, Gianfranco Pintore and Flavio Soriga.

[edit]

List of Sardinian writers and poets[edit]

Roman era[edit]

Emilio Lussu
Antonio Gramsci

Late middle ages[edit]

  • Hagiography of Saint George of Suelli, 11th century, written in Latin.[22][23]
  • Constitution of the Republic of Sassari, written in Latin and Sardinian[24]
  • Liber iudicum turritanorum, written in Sardinian[25]
  • Antonio Cano, (Sassari, XV century) wrote in romance Sardinian.[26]
  • Carta de Logu, written in Sardinian.[27]

Modern age[edit]

  • Gerolamo Araolla (Sassari, circa 1542 – before 1615) wrote in Sardinian and Spanish[28]
  • Sigismondo Arquer (Cagliari, 1530 – Toledo, 1571) wrote in Latin and Spanish[29]
  • Giovanni Francesco Fara (1542 – 1591) wrote in Latin[30]
  • Antonio Lo Frasso (Alghero, about 1540 – about 1600), quoted by Miguel de Cervantes in Don Quixote, wrote in Spanish and Sardinian[31]
  • Joan Dexart, wrote in Latin[32]
  • Francesco Bellit wrote in Catalan[33]
  • Antonio Canales de Vega wrote in Spanish[34]
  • Francesco Aleo wrote in Spanish and Latin[35]
  • Joan Thomas Porcell wrote in Spanish[36]
  • Giorgio Aleo wrote in Spanish[37]
  • Dimas Serpi wrote in Latin and Spanish[38]
  • Antonio Maria da Esterzili (author of the first play in campidanese Sardinian) wrote in Sardinian[39]
  • Roderigo Hunno Baeza, author of "Caralis panegyricus",[40] a poem in Latin, with which praised the city of Cagliari, composed around 1516 wrote in Latin[41]
  • Jacinto de Arnal Bolea (author of "El Forastero" the first novel set in Cagliari) wrote in Spanish[42]
  • Juan Francisco Carmona wrote in Spanish and in Sardinian, author of the Hymno a Càller (Hymn to Cagliari)[43][44]
  • Salvatore Vidal wrote in Latin and Spanish[45]
  • Jose Delitala Y Castelvì wrote in Spanish[46]
  • Joseph Zatrillas Vico wrote in Spanish[47]
  • Vincenzo Bacallar Y Sanna, the Marquis of San Felipe Francesco Angelo de Vico, (Sassari, 1580 – Madrid, 1648), author of Historia General de la Isla y Reyno de Cerdeña, wrote in Latin, Spanish, French.[48]
  • Antonio Maccioni [49]
  • Gavino Pes said Don Baignu (1724 – 1795) wrote in Sardo-Corsican[50]

Contemporary times[edit]

  • Francesco Ignazio Mannu (Ozieri, 1758 – Cagliari, 1839) wrote on Su patriottu sardu a sos feudatarios[51]
  • Melchiorre Murenu (Macon, 1803 – 1854) wrote in Sardinian[52]
  • Paolo Mossa (Bonorva 1821 to 1892)[53]
  • Giovanni Spano (Ploaghe 1803, Cagliari 1878)[54]
  • Giovanni Maria Asara (Pattishall, 1823 – 1907) [55]
  • Enrico Costa (Sassari, 1841 – 1909)[56]
  • Salvatore Farina (Sorso, 1846 – Milan, 1918)
  • Pompeo Calvia (Sassari, 1857 – 1921)[57]
  • Gavino Contini (Siligo, 1865 – 1915)[58]
  • Sebastiano Satta (Nuoro, 1867 – 1914)[59]
  • Grazia Deledda (Nuoro, 1871 – Rome, 1936), Nobel Prize for Literature in 1926[60]

Post World War I times and nowadays[edit]

  • Ottone Baccaredda (Cagliari,1849–Cagliari,1921), mayor of Cagliari[61]
  • Gaetano Canelles (Cagliari 1876-1942),[62]
  • Peppino Mereu (Tonara, 1872 – 1901)
  • Antioco Casula said Montanaru (Desulo, 1878 – 1957)[63]
  • Francesco Cucca (Nuoro, 1882 – Naples, 1947)[64]
  • Emilio Lussu (Armungia, 1890 – Rome, 1975[65]
  • Antonio Gramsci (Ales,1891 – Rome, 1937) [66]
  • Barore Sassu (Lugano, 1891 – 1976)
  • Salvatore Cambosu (Orotelli, 1895 – Nuoro, 1962)[67]
  • Gonario Pinna (Nuoro, 1898 – 1991)
  • Salvatore Satta (Nuoro, 1902 – Rome, 1975)[68]
  • Remundu Piras (Villanova Monteleone, 1905 – 1978)
  • Giuseppe Dessi (Cagliari, 1909 – Milan, 1977)[69]
  • Francesco Masala (Nughedu St. Nicholas, 1916 – Cagliari, 2007)[70]
  • Giuseppe Fiori (Silanus, 1923 – Rome, 2003)[71]
  • Michelangelo said Mialinu Pira (Bitti, 1928 – Marina di Capitana, 1980)[72]
  • Giuseppe Mercurio (Orosei, 1919 – 1994)
  • Maria Giacobbe (Nuoro, 1928)[73]
  • Lina Unali (Rome, 1936)[74]
  • Gavino Ledda (Siligo, 1938)[75]
  • Gianfranco Pintore (Irgoli 1939)[76]
  • Bianca Pitzorno (Sassari, 1942)[77]
  • Salvatore Mannuzzu (Pitigliano,1930)[78]
  • Sergio Atzeni (Capoterra, 1952 – Carloforte, 1995)[79]

Sardinian Literary Spring[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sanna Gigi, Sardoa Grammata, S'Alvure ed., Oristano, 2004; Sanna Gigi, La stele di Nora, P.T.M. Editrice, Mogoro, 2009
  2. ^ Alberto Areddu, Le origini albanesi della civiltà in Sardegna, Graficaelettronica, 2007
  3. ^ Massimo pittau, Origine e parentela dei Sardi e degli Etruschi, Carlo Delfini Editore, Sassari, 1995; La lingua Sardiana o dei Protosardi, Ettore Gasparini Editore, Cagliari, 2001
  4. ^ Theodor Mommsen, CIL, Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, Inscriptiones Sardiniae, G. Reimerum, Berlin, 1883, 7th paragraph, pag.816; Greek text: ᾽Ασκληπίῳ Μήρρη ὰνάθημα βῶμον ἔστμσε Κλέων ό ὲπἰ τῶν άλῶν καιὰ πρόσταγμα – Latin text: Cleon salariorum sociorum servus Aescolapio Merre donum dedit lubens merito merente
  5. ^ Giuseppe Marci, In presenza di tutte le lingue del mondo, Letteratura Sarda, CUEC/CFS, Cagliari, 2005
  6. ^ Monumenta Historiae Patriae, Tomus XVII, Codex Diplomaticus Ecclesiensis, (13th century, Editor's note), edited by Carlo Baaudi di Vesme, Torino, Tipografia Regia, 1876.
  7. ^ Raccolta di canzoni in dialetto tempiese di Don Gavino Pes (1724-1795, Editor's note), Sassari, Tipografia Azuni, 1877
  8. ^ Pietro Delitala, Rime diverse, Cagliari, 1595; Carlo Buragna(1634-1679, Editor's note), Canzoniere edited by Carlo Susanna, C. Castaldo, 1783, Napoli
  9. ^ Vincenzo Bacallar y SannaDescription géographique, historique et politique du royaume de Sardaigne, Paris, 1714; Memoires pour servir a l’histoire d’Espagne, sous le regne de Philippe V, Amsterdam, Z. Chatelain, 1756. Domenico Alberto Azuni, Système universel des principes du droit maritime de l’Europe, ou Tableau methodique et raisonné, Paris, J. C. Poncelin, 1801-1802; Droit maritime de l’Europe par M. D. A. Azuni, Paris, Charles, 1805; Histoire géographique, politique et naturelle de Sardaigne, Paris, Levrault frères, 1802; Notice sur les voyages maritimes de Pytheas de Marseille par M. D. Azuni, Marseille, Imprimerie de la Société Typographique, 1803-1804.
  10. ^ Theodor Mommsen, CIL, Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, Inscriptiones Sardiniae, G. Reimerum, Berlin, 1883, 7th paragraph, pag.812
  11. ^ La tavola di Esterzili, Il conflitto tra pastori e contadini nella Barbaria sarda, Attilio Mastino (a cura di), Edizioni Gallizzi, Sassari, 1993; Text: IMP. OTHONE CAESARE AVG COS XV K APRILES DESCRlPIVM ET RECOGNTIVM EX CODICE ANSATO L HELVI AGRIPPAE PROCONS QVFM PROPVLIT GN EGNATIVS FVSCVS SCRIBA QVAESTORIVS IN QVO SCRIPTVM FVIT IT QVOD INFRA SCRIPTVM EST TABVLA V) VIII ET VIIII ET X III IDVS MART L HELVIVS ACRIPPA PROCOS CAVSSA COGNITA PRONVNTIAVIT S CVM PRO VTILITATE PVBLICA REBVS IVDlCATIS STARE CONVENIAT ET DE CAVSSA PATVLCENSI VM M IVVENTIVS RIXA VIR ORNATISSIMVS PROCVRATOR AVG SAEPIVS PRONVNTAVERIT FI NES PATVLCENSIVM ITA SERVANDOS ESSE VT IN TABVLA AHENEA A M METELLO ORDINATI ESSENT VLTIMOQVE PRONVNTIAVERIT GALILLENSES FREQVENTER RETRACTANTES CONTROVER SIAI NEC PARENTES DECRETO SVO SE CASTIGARE VOLVISSE SED RESPECTV CLEMENTIAE OPTVMIIO MAXIMIQVE PRINCIPIS CONTENTVM ESSE EDIERo ADMONERE VT QVIESCERENT ET REBVS IVDICATIS STARENT ET INTRA K OCTOBR PRlMAS DE PRAEDIS PATVLCENSIVM DECEDERENT VACVAM QVE POSSESSIONEM TRADERENT QVODSI IN CONTVMACIA PERSEVERASSENT SE IN AD VEAM AUCTOTERS SEDITIONIS SEVERE ANIMA ADVERSVRVM ET POSTEA CAECILIVS SIMPLEX VIR CLARISSI MVS EX EADEM CAVSSA ADITVS A GALILLENSIBVS DICENTIBVS TABVLAM SE AD EAM REM IS PERTINENTEM EX TABVLARIO PRINCIPIS ADLATVROS PRONVNTIAVERIT HVMANVM ESSE DILATIONEM PROBATIONI DARI ET IN K DECEMBRES TRIVM MENSVM SPATIVM DEDERIT IN TRA QVAM DIEM NISI FORMA ALLATA ESSET SE EAM QVAE IN PROVINCIA ESSET SECVTVRVM EGO QVOQVE ADITVS A GALILLENSIBVS EXCVSANTIBVS QVOD NONDVM FORMA ALLATA ESSET IN K FEBRVARIAS QVAE P F SPATIVM DEDERIM ET MORAMLLIS POSSESSORIBVS INTELLEGAM ESSE IVCVN 20 DAM GALILENSES EX FINIBVS PATVLCENSIVM CAMPANORVM QVOS PER VIM OCCVPAVERANT INTRA K APRILES PRlMAS DECEDANT QVOD SI HVIC PRONVNTIATIONI NON OPTEMPERAVERINT SCIANT SE LONGAE CONTVMAClAE ET IAM SAEPE DENVNTIÀTA ANIMADVERSIONI OBNOXIOS FVTVROS IN CONSILIO FVERVNT M IVLIVS ROMVLVS LEG PRO PR T ATILIVS SABINVS Q PRO PR M STERTINIVS RVFVS F SEX AELIVS MODESTVS P LVCRETIVS CLEMENS M DOMITIVS 2S VITALIS M LVSIVS FIDVS M STERTINIVS RVFVS SIGNATORES CN POMPEI FEROCIS LAVRELI GALLI M BLOSSI NEPOTIS C CORDI FELICIS L VIGELLI CRISPINI C VALERI FAVSTI M LVTA TI SABINI L COCCEI GENIALIS L PLOTI VERI D VETVRI FELICIS L VALERI PEPLI
  12. ^ Theodor Mommsen, CIL, Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, Inscriptiones Sardiniae, G. Reimerum, Berlin, 1883, 4th paragraph, pag.789. - Greek text: Εἰς ἲα σου, Πώμπτιλλα, καὶ ἐς κρίνα βλαστήσειεν ὀστέα, καὶ ϑάλλοις ἐν πετάλοισι ρόδων ἡδυπνόου τε κρόκου καὶ ἀγηράτου ἀμαράντου κεἰς καλὰ βλαστήσαις ἄνϑεα λευκοίπυ, ὡς ἴσα ναρκίσσῳ τε πολυκλύτῳ ϑ᾽ ὑακίνϑῳ καὶ σὸν ἐν ὀψιγόνις ἄνϑος ἔχοι τι χρόνος. Ἤδε γάρ, ἡνίκα πνευμα μελῶν ἀπέλυε Φίλιππος, Χήρην ἀκροτάτοις ϰείλεσι προσπελάσας, στᾶσα λιποψυϰοῦντος ὑπὲρ γαμέτου Πώμπτιλλα τὴν κείνου ζωὴν ἀντέλαβεν ϑανάτου. Οἵην συζυγίην ἔτεμεν θεός, ὤστε θανεῖν μὲν Πώμπτιλλαν, γλυχεροῦ λύτρον ὑπὲρ γαμέτου· ζῆν δ᾽ ἄκοντα Φίλιππον, ἐπευχόμενον διὰ παντὸς, σουχεράσαι ψυχῇ πνεῦμα φιλανδροτάτῃ.
  13. ^ Epistole ad Eusebio, De regibus apostaticis, Pro S. Athanasio, De non parcendo in Deum delinquentibus, Moriendum esse pro filio Dei, Opere, a cura di G. di Tilet, vescovo di Meaux, 1568, Opere, in Maxima biblioteca patrum, vol. IV, Lione, 1687, Opere, a cura di S. Coleti, Venezia, 1778
  14. ^ a b Epistole Antiquorum patrum sermones et epistolae de Sancto Eusebio vercellensi et martire ex codice manuscripto veteri tabularii ecclesiae vercellensis periscorum item patium et aliorum authorum testimonia de eodem. Vita praeterea eiusdem..., Mediolani, 1581
  15. ^ Ferrando, Vita Fulgentii: iuxta basilica sancti martyris Saturnini, procul a strepitu civitatis vacantem reperiens solum, Brumasio Calaritanae civitatis antistite venerabili prius sicut decuit postulato, novum sumptibus propriis monasterium fabricavit
  16. ^ Codex D.182, Archivio di San Pietro: Contuli in nomine Domini Iesu Christi aput Karalis constitutus anno quartodecimo Trasamundi Regis
  17. ^ Officium beati Georgii: “Ave presul Suellensis, semper Deum diligens, habens linguam bone ensis, viam Deo edocens, propter quod es cum immensis / regnum Dei possidens. Tunc in mundo docuisti / Dominum diligere, per opera demonstrasti / ad celos ascendere, et numquam retardasti / languidis occurrere. O fellix pontifex noster, Angelorum concivis, qui semper fuisti pater / adiuvansque miseris, quem portavit tua mater / sanctum semper in ulnis. Pastorali insignitus / huius sedis baculo, gregem pasce quo fulcitus / es celesti pabulo, placa Deum non oblitus / tuo populo. Laus virtus et honor Deo / sit patri ingenito / flamini et Nazareno / patris unigenito / qui dat pacem cum tropheo / Georgio inclito. Amen.” - “ Preterea supradictus kalaritanus Iudex (Troodori) incurit grauissimam et miserabilem calamitatem; nam cum hora prandii sivecenae prepararetur sibi mensa, referta multis ciborum ferculis, statim omnes cibi scarabeis atque scabronibus et uariis operiebantur sordibus. Cumque tantum creuisset hec persecutio, ut iam non posset sumere cibum nisi quasi abscondite manutenendo, tandem salubri reperto consilio, venit ad seruum Dei Jeorgium, et retulit ei miseriam qua cotidie affligebatur; deprecatus est etiam multis precibus et lacrimis, ut sibi subuenire dignaretur, et suis cum precibus a presenti liberaret exitio. Quod cum audisset beatus Jeorgius , misericordia motus super eum, iussit eum secum uenire ad prandium. Cumque uentum esset , ad mensam precepit illum discumbere, accipiensque panem, benedixit ac fregit et dedit illi, et pariter comederunt. Ex illa igitur hora liberatus est Iudex a supradicta miseria et iam nulle sordes in eius conuiuio apparuerunt. Videns autem se precibus et meritis beati Jeorgii esse saluatum, dedit ei uillam suellensem cum terris et siluis, seruis et ancillis et omni suppelletili, ut ipse omnesque sui sucessores eam sine lite possiderent. Coniux uero eius, nomine Sinispella, optulit sancto Jeorgio villam Simeri cum omnibus suis pertinentiis; et delegauit ei omnem suam portionem, ut post mortem suam ipse omnesque sui sucessores eam iure possiderent
  18. ^ http://eprints.uniss.it/5713/1/Sini_F_Diritto_romano_nella_Carta.pdf
  19. ^ E. Besta, Il Liber Iudicum Turritanorum, con altri documenti logudoresi, Palermo, 1906. - A. Boscolo-A. Sanna, Libellus Judicum Turritanorum, Cagliari, 1957. - A. Sanna, Una sconosciuta versione del "Libellus Judicum Turritanorum, in "Annali della Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia dell'Università di Cagliari", Nuova serie, vol. I (XXXVIII), 1976-1977, pp. 163-179. - Cronaca medioevale sarda. I sovrani di Torres, a cura di A. Orunesu e V. Pusceddu, Quartu S. Elena, 1993
  20. ^ Theodor Mommsen, CIL, Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, Inscriptiones Sardiniae, G. Reimerum, Berlin, 1883
  21. ^ Epistole ad Eusebio, 355; De regibus apostaticis, 356-58; Pro S. Athanasio, 360; De non parcendo in Deum delinquentibus, 360; Moriendum esse pro filio Dei, 361; Lvciferi episcopi Calaritani Ad Constantivm, Constantini Magni f. imp. aug. opuscula. Ad Constantium, Constantini Magni f. imp. aug. opuscula, edited by J. Tilet, Bishop of Meaux, M. Sonnium, Paris, 1568; Operae, in Maxima biblioteca patrum, vol. IV, Lion, 1687; Opera omnia quae exstant curantibus J. D. et J. Coletis, Venice, 1778.
  22. ^ Solmi Arrigo, (1905), Le carte volgari dell'Archivio arcivescovile di Cagliari", Tipografia galileiana, Firenze
  23. ^ Giovanni Arca, 1598, De sanctis Sardiniae, libri tres, Cagliari
  24. ^ edited in modern times by P. TOLA, Codice degli statuti della Repubblica di Sassari, Cagliari, Tipografia Timon, 1850
  25. ^ anonymous, edited first time by E. BESTA Liber iudicum turritanorum, con altri documenti logudoresi Palermo, 1906
  26. ^ Sa vitta et sa morte, et passione de Sanctu Gavinu, Prothu et Januariu, Sassari, 1557(posthumous)
  27. ^ Eleonor of Arborea, 14th-century manuscript, edited first time by Besta-P. E. Guarnerio, Sassari, Gallizzi, 1903-4, incunabulum XVth century
  28. ^ Sa vida, su Martiriu, et morte dessos gloriosos Martires Gavinu, Protho, et Gianuari, Cagliari, 1582, Rimas diversas Spirituales de su Dottore Hieronimu Araolla Sardu Sassaresu, Cagliari,1597
  29. ^ Sardiniae brevis historia et descriptio. Tabula chorographica insulae ac metropolis illustrata, in Münster corografia, Basilea, 1558.
  30. ^ Tractatus de essentia infantis, proximi infantiae et proximi pubertatis, Florentiae, 1567,- De rebus sardois, libro IV. libro I, 1580 - De corographia Sardiniae
  31. ^ Los diez libros de la fortuna de amor, Barcelona, 1573 - Los mil y dozientos consejos y avisos discretos sobre los siete grados y estamentos de nuestra humana vida, Barcelona, 1571
  32. ^ Capitula sive acta curiarum regni Sardiniae, sub invictissimo coronae Aragonum imperio concordi trium brachiorum aut solius militaris voto exorata, veteri ex codice et actis novissimorum proprias in sedes ac materias coacta, Cagliari, 1645 - Selectarum juris conclusionum in sacro regio Sardiniensi praetorio digestarum et decisarum centuria, Napoli, 1646.
  33. ^ Capitols de cort, del stament militar de Sardenya ara nouamet restampats ... Ab molta diligencia y curiositat reuists per lo magnifich pere Ioan Arque, Caller, F. Guarnerio, 1572
  34. ^ Discursos y apuntamientos sobre la proposición hecha a los tres Braços... en las cortes del año 1631, Cagliari, 1631. - Invasión de la armada francesa del Arzobispo de Bordeus y monsieur Enrique de Lorena conde de Harchourt, Cagliari, 1637
  35. ^ Consilia diversorum auctorum in unum congesta, Cagliari, 1637 - Causa de visita y defensa de ministros de justicia: mordaça para malignantes, Cagliari, 1641
  36. ^ Informacion y curacion de la peste de Çaragoça y praeservacion contra peste en general, Zaragoza, 1565
  37. ^ Successos generales de la Isla y Reyno de Serdeña, Cagliari, 1684 - Historia chronologica y verdadera de todos los successos y cosas particulares succedidas en la Isla y Reyno de Serdeña, del año 1637 al año 1672
  38. ^ Chronica de los santos de Cerdeña, Barcelona, 1600 - Tratado de purgatorio contra Luthero y otros hereges segun el decreto del S.C. Trident, Barcelona, Emprenta de Iaime Cendrat, 1604, Apodixis sanctitatis S. Georgii suellensis episcopi, Romae, 1609 - Apodixis sanctitatis episcoporum Luciferi calaritani et Georgi suellensis, Romae, 1609
  39. ^ Sa passioni de nostru signori Gesu Cristu
  40. ^ published for the first time by Francesco Alziator in 1954
  41. ^ Caralis Panegyricus - In dispar coniugium - In laudem Violantis Camorasiae musicae perfectissimae algueriesis
  42. ^ Encomios en octavas al Torneo, Cagliari, Antonio Galcerino, 1627 - El Forastero, Cagliari, Antonio Galcerino, 1636
  43. ^ <Ha Ciudad, Ciudad y quien me viera en mi florida edad y mi pujanza, Càller soy y apenas conociera mis derribados nuevos y mudanza. Yo Càller? Yo aquella gran Ciudad? Que entre todas mas resplendezia, aquella gran Colonia y majestad, aquella que en tres millas extendía. Aquella que a este mar y sus riberas mis torres y edificios encubrían, yo ser aquella cierto no dijeran si se hallaran los que me conozian. Por essos llanos dende este Vulpino calaritano suelo tan nombrado muy largo y estendido muro vino hasta el postremo y último collado. Aquí templos, palacios, coliseos y el alto Capitolio relucian, aqi plazas, colozos Colopheos la minas de oro y plata aquí se undian. Aquí de Roma el mando y grande Estado su establecido ceptro y monarchia, aquí el sardo invencible, apasiguado del romano furor reconozia. Mas quando de las guerras conturbada me reduje en la forma que poseo, Càller soy y sere sin ser mudada, de un mesmo corazón, pecho y empleo. Soy Aguila Real pues la Cabeza es el Castillo y cola la Marina, la una ala Villanueva se confiesa y l'otra es Estampache mi vecina. Soy madre de tan célebres varones, de tantos Santos fuente e manansial, celebro sus emprezas y blaones, soy foresta y parraizo terrenal.
  44. ^ Alabanças de los Santos de Sardeña, 1631 - Pasión de Christo nuestro Señor
  45. ^ Annales Sardiniae, pars I, Florentiae, 1639 (dedicato a Ferdinando II, granduca di Toscana); pars II, Mediolani, 1645 - Clypeus aureus excellentiae calaritanae, Florentiae, 1641 - Respuesta al historico Vico, Venetiis, 1644
  46. ^ Cima del monte Parnaso español con las tres musas castellanas Caliope, Urania y Euterpe, Onofrio Martin, Caller, 1672
  47. ^ Engaños y desengaños del profano amor, Napoli, 1687-88 - Poema eroico al merecido aplauso del unico oraculo de las musas, Barcelona, 1696
  48. ^ Monarchia hebrea, Madrid, 1702 - Lo Tobias, su vida escrita en octavas rimas, Madrid, 1709. - Comentarios de la guerra de España e historia de su Rey Phelipe V el animoso desde el principio de su regnado hasta la paz general del año 1725, Genova, 1711. - Description géographique, historique et politique du royaume de Sardaigne, Paris, 1714 - De foederatorum contra Philippum Quintum Hispaniarum Regum bello commentaria. Auctore Vincentio Bacallario, & Sanna, sardo calaritano, marchione S. Philippi, regio conciliario, & ad potentissimos foederatorum belgii ordines regis legato, Genova, 1725 - Los dos Tobias, historia sagrada, escrita en 500 octavas rimas castellanas, Madrid, 1746 - Memorias políticas y militares, para servir de continuación a los comentarios del Marqués de S. Phelipe desde el año de 1725..., Madrid, F. X. García, 1756
  49. ^ Las siete estrellas de la mano de Jesús. Tratado histórico de las admirabiles vidas de siete varones illustres de la Compania de Jesús, naturales de Cerdeña, Córdoba, 1732 - Arte y vocabulario de la lengua jule y toconote, Madrid, G. Infançón, 1732 - Día virgineo o sábado mariano. Obra parthénica, exhoratoria a la devoción de la reyna de los cielos María Santísima..., Córdoba, 1733 - El nuevo superior religioso instruido en la práctica y arte de governar por varios dictamenes de la religiosa prudencia..., Puerto S. María (Cádiz), R. Gómez Guiraun, 1750
  50. ^ Raccolta di canzoni in dialetto tempiese
  51. ^ Su patriottu sardu a sos feudatarios
  52. ^ Cantone sarda de Melchiorre Murenu: Su giudissiu universale e sa giudicadura chi depet fagher su supremu giuighe, Lanusei, Tipografia Sociale, 1887 - Cantone sarda de Melchiorre Murenu: Dae sa creazione de Adamu a sa nascita, passione e morte de N. S. Gesù Cristu, Lanusei, Tipografia Vacca-Mameli, 1889 - Dialogu tra unu penitente e unu cunfessore: Ottava rima serrada, Cagliari, Tipografia A. Timon, 1892 - Su cunfessore et su penitente. Sos ingannos de su mundu, Sassari, Ubaldo Satta, 1902 - Sa giovana vana, capricciosa e libertina. Sas immondizias de Bosa - S’istadu de Sardigna e Su peccadori moribundu: cantones sardas de Melchiorre Murenu, pro cura de Pedru Barbanu, Cagliari, Tipografia Unione Sarda, 1906 - S’anima dannada a sa presenzia de su tribunale divinu (ottava serrada): Cantigu cumpostu in limba sarda logudoresa. Cumbidu a su peccadore pro si cunvertire (sesta torrada): improvvisada su sero de sas missiones de su 1842, Sassari, Ubaldo Satta, 1906 - S’invidia s’impostura e sa murmurazione: Cantigu cumpostu in limba sarda logudoresa dae su poeta Melchiorre Murenui, Sassari, Ubaldo Satta, 1906. - S’istadu de Sardigna e Su peccadori moribundu: cantones sardas de Melchiorre Murenu, pro cura de Pedru Barbanu, Cagliari, Tipografia Unione Sarda, 1906 - Sas tres rosas. Sa femina immodesta e isfrenada. S’amante costante. Avvertimentos de moralidade, Sassari, 1907 - Su chelvu e i sa pischina, in P. PISURZI, S’imbastu, Sassari, Ubaldo Satta, 1907
  53. ^ Opera omnia, a cura di A. Dettori-T. Tedde, Cagliari, 3T, 1979; 1993
  54. ^ FilologiaSarda.eu | Portale del Cfs - Centro di studi di Filologici Sardi
  55. ^ Sa ritrattazione; Su puddu, Cagliari: Tip. ed. artigiana, 1912 - S' imbrogliu: cantone sarda, Sassari: Tip. G. Chiarella, 1914
  56. ^ FilologiaSarda.eu | Portale del Cfs - Centro di studi di Filologici Sardi
  57. ^ L. FALCHI, Un poeta dialettale sassarese, “Natura ed arte”, Milano, III, dicembre 1893-94.
  58. ^ Discursu de Gavinu Contini et sa morte chi benit a l'avvisare essende arrivada s'ora sua, Sassari, 1929
  59. ^ FilologiaSarda.eu | Portale del Cfs - Centro di studi di Filologici Sardi
  60. ^ FilologiaSarda.eu | Portale del Cfs - Centro di studi di Filologici Sardi
  61. ^ Roccaspinosa. Genova, 1874Casa Corniola, Roma, 1894, Bozzetti sardi. Cagliari, 1881
  62. ^ Ichnussa - la biblioteca digitale della poesia sarda
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  64. ^ FilologiaSarda.eu | Portale del Cfs - Centro di studi di Filologici Sardi
  65. ^ FilologiaSarda.eu | Portale del Cfs - Centro di studi di Filologici Sardi
  66. ^ FilologiaSarda.eu | Portale del Cfs - Centro di studi di Filologici Sardi
  67. ^ FilologiaSarda.eu | Portale del Cfs - Centro di studi di Filologici Sardi
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  69. ^ FilologiaSarda.eu | Portale del Cfs - Centro di studi di Filologici Sardi
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  72. ^ FilologiaSarda.eu | Portale del Cfs - Centro di studi di Filologici Sardi
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  74. ^ Cronologia della narrativa sarda contemporanea
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  80. ^ FilologiaSarda.eu | Portale del Cfs - Centro di studi di Filologici Sardi
  81. ^ FilologiaSarda.eu | Portale del Cfs - Centro di studi di Filologici Sardi
  82. ^ FilologiaSarda.eu | Portale del Cfs - Centro di studi di Filologici Sardi
  83. ^ FilologiaSarda.eu | Portale del Cfs - Centro di studi di Filologici Sardi
  84. ^ FilologiaSarda.eu | Portale del Cfs - Centro di studi di Filologici Sardi
  85. ^ FilologiaSarda.eu | Portale del Cfs - Centro di studi di Filologici Sardi
  86. ^ FilologiaSarda.eu | Portale del Cfs - Centro di studi di Filologici Sardi
  87. ^ FilologiaSarda.eu | Portale del Cfs - Centro di studi di Filologici Sardi

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  • Dino Manca, Il tempo e la memoria, Roma, Aracne, 2006
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  • Gigi Sanna (a cura di), " Efisio Marras, Preigas", Ed. Nuove Grafiche Puddu 2010
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  • Dino Manca, La comunicazione linguistica e letteraria dei Sardi: dal Medioevo alla "fusione perfetta", in "Bollettino di Studi Sardi", IV, 4 (2011), Centro di Studi Filologici Sardi, Cagliari, Cuec, 2011, pp. 49–75.
  • Giulio Angioni, Cartas de logu: scrittori sardi allo specchio, Cagliari, CUEC, 2007.
  • Francesco Casula. Letteratura e civiltà della Sardegna, vol.I, Grafica del Parteolla, 2011.
  • Bibliografia sarda / Raffaele Ciasca. – Roma : Collezione meridionale. – v. ; 22 cm. Sotto gli auspici della R. Università degli studi di Cagliari.
  • Arce Joaquin, España en Cerdeña : aportacion cultural y testimonios de su influjo, Madrid : Consejo superior de investigaciones cientificas, Instituto Jeronimo Zurita, 1960.

See also[edit]