Sargon of Akkad

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This article is about the Akkadian king. For the Assyrian kings, see Sargon I and Sargon II.
Sargon of Akkad
King of Akkad, Kish and Sumer.[1]
Sargon of Akkad.jpg
Bronze head of an Akkadian ruler, discovered in Nineveh in 1931, presumably depicting either Sargon or Sargon's grandson Naram-Sin.[2]
Reign c. 2340 – c. 2284 BC (MC)
Successor Rimush
Born Azupiranu
Died c. 2284 BC (MC)
Akkad, Mesopotamia
Spouse Tashlultum
Issue Manishtushu, Rimush, Enheduanna, Ibarum, Abaish-Takal
Full name
Dynasty Akkadian (Sargonic)

Sargon of Akkad (Akkadian Šarru-ukīn or Šarru-kẽn; someties known as "Sargon the Great") was the first ruler of the Akkadian Empire, known for his conquests of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th to 23rd centuries BC.

He was the founder of the "Sargonic" or "Old Akkadian" dynasty, which ruled for about a century after his death, until the Gutian conquest of Sumer.[3] The Sumerian king list makes him the cup-bearer to king Ur-Zababa of Kish. His empire is thought to have most of Mesopotamia, parts of the Levant, besides incursions into Hurrite and Elamite territory, ruling from his (archaeologically as yet unidentified) capital, Akkad.

Sargon survived as a legendary figure into the Neo-Assyrian literature of the 8th to 7th centuries BC. Tablets with fragments of a Sargon Birth Legend were found in the Library of Ashurbanipal.[4][5][6]


The Assyrian (Akkadian) name is normalized as either Šarru-ukīn or Šarru-kẽn. The name's cuneiform spelling is variously LUGAL-ú-kin, šar-ru-gen6, šar-ru-ki-in, šar-ru-um-ki-in. [7] In Late Assyrian references, the name is mostly spelled as LUGAL-GI.NA or LUGAL-GIN, i.e. identical to the name of the Neo-Assyrian king Sargon II.[8] The spelling Sargon is derived from the single mention of the name in the Hebrew Bible, as סַרְגוֹן, in Isaiah 20:1. The biblical reference is to Sargon II.

The first element in the name is šarru, the Akkadian (East Semitic) for "king" (c.f. Hebrew שַׂר sár). The second element derived from the root kūn (Hebrew כּוּן) "to confirm, establish".[9]

A possible interpretation of the reading Šarru-ukīn is "the king has established stability", or alternatively "he [the god] has established the king". Such a name would however be unusual; other names in -ukīn always include both a subject and an object, as in Šamaš-šuma-ukīn "Shamash has established an heir".[8] There is some debate over whether the name was an adopted regnal name or a birth name.[10][11] The reading Šarru-kẽn has been interpreted adjectivally, as "the king is established; legitimate", expanded as a phrase šarrum ki(e)num.[12]

It is not entirely clear whether the Neo-Assyrian king Sargon II was directly named for Sargon of Akkad, as there is some uncertainty whether his name should be rendered Šarru-ukīn or as Šarru-kẽn(u). [13]


Primary sources pertaining to Sargon are very sparse; the main near-contemporary reference is that in the various versions of the Sumerian king list. Here, Sargon is mentioned as the son of a gardener, former cup-bearer of Ur-Zababa of Kish. He usurped the kingship from Lugal-zage-si of Uruk and took it to his own city of Agade. Various copies of the king list give the duration of his reign as either 54, 55 or 56 years. [14]

In absolute years, his reign would correspond to ca. 2340–2284 BC in the Middle Chronology. His successors until the Gutian conquest of Sumer are also known as the "Sargonic Dynasty" and their rule as the "Sargonic Period" of Mesopotamian history.[15]

Foster (1982) argued that the reading of 55 years as the duration of Sargon's reign was in fact a corruption of an original reading of 37 years. A newly discovered older version of the king list gives Sargon's reign as lasting for 40 years.[16]

Thorkild Jacobsen marked the clause about Sargon's father being a gardener as a lacuna, indicating his uncertainty about its meaning.[17] Ur-Zababa and Lugal-zage-si are both listed as kings, but separated by several additional named rulers of Kish, who seem to have been merely governors or vassals under the Akkadian Empire.[18] The claim that Sargon was the original founder of Akkad has been called into question with the discovery of an inscription mentioning the place and dated to the first year of Enshakushanna, who almost certainly preceded him.[19] The Weidner Chronicle (ABC 19:51) states that it was Sargon who "built Babylon in front of Akkad."[20][21] The Chronicle of Early Kings (ABC 20:18–19) likewise states that late in his reign, Sargon "dug up the soil of the pit of Babylon, and made a counterpart of Babylon next to Agade."[21][22] Van de Mieroop suggested that those two chronicles may in fact refer to the much later Assyrian king, Sargon II of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, rather than to Sargon of Akkad.[23]


Formation of the Akkadian Empire[edit]

Map of the Akkadian Empire (brown) and the directions in which military campaigns were conducted (yellow arrows).

After coming to power in Kish, Sargon killed the king of Kish. After having the army of Kish follow him, Sargon soon attacked Uruk, which was ruled by Lugal-Zage-Si of Umma. He captured Uruk and dismantled its walls. The defenders seem to have fled the city, joining an army led by fifty ensis from the provinces. This Sumerian force fought two pitched battles against the Akkadians, as a result of which the remaining forces of Lugal-Zage-Si were routed.[24] Lugal-Zage-Si himself was captured and brought to Nippur; Sargon inscribed on the pedestal of a statue (preserved in a later tablet) that he brought Lugal-Zage-Si "in a dog collar to the gate of Enlil."[25] Sargon pursued his enemies to Ur before moving eastwards to Lagash, to the Persian Gulf, and thence to Umma. He made a symbolic gesture of washing his weapons in the "lower sea" (Persian Gulf) to show that he had conquered Sumer in its entirety.[25]

Another victory Sargon celebrated was over Kashtubila, king of Kazalla. According to one ancient source, Sargon laid the city of Kazalla to waste so effectively "that the birds could not find a place to perch away from the ground."[26]

To help limit the chance of revolt in Sumer he appointed a court of 5,400 men who he knew would stay loyal to "share his table" (i.e., to administer his empire).[27] These 5,400 men may have constituted Sargon's army.[28] The governors chosen by Sargon to administer the main city-states of Sumer were Akkadians, not Sumerians.[29] The Semitic Akkadian language became the Lingua Franca, the official language of inscriptions in all Mesopotamia, and of great influence far beyond. Sargon's empire maintained trade and diplomatic contacts with kingdoms around the Arabian Sea and elsewhere in the Near East. Sargon's inscriptions report that ships from Magan, Meluhha, and Dilmun, among other places, rode at anchor in his capital of Agade.[30] Sargon also knocked down every wall and destroyed all depictions of the previous kings.[citation needed]

The former religious institutions of Sumer, already well-known and emulated by the Semites, were respected. Sumerian remained, in large part, the language of religion and Sargon and his successors were patrons of the Sumerian cults. Sargon styled himself "anointed priest of Anu" and "great ensi of Enlil".[31] While Sargon is often credited with the first true empire, Lugal-Zage-Si preceded him; after coming to power in Umma he had conquered or otherwise come into possession of Ur, Uruk, Nippur, and Lagash. Lugal-Zage-Si claimed rulership over lands as far away as the Mediterranean.[32]

While various copies of the Sumerian king list credit Sargon with a 56, 55, or 54-year reign, dated documents have been found for only four different year-names of his actual reign. The names of these four years describe his campaigns against Elam, Mari, Simurrum (a Hurrian region), and Uru'a (an Elamite city-state).[33] His Akkadian dynasty continued another century after his reign.

Wars in the northwest and east[edit]

Shortly after securing Sumer, Sargon embarked on a series of campaigns to subjugate the entire Fertile Crescent. According to the Chronicle of Early Kings, a later Babylonian historiographical text:

[Sargon] had neither rival nor equal. His splendor, over the lands it diffused. He crossed the sea in the east. In the eleventh year he conquered the western land to its farthest point. He brought it under one authority. He set up his statues there and ferried the west's body across on barges. He stationed his court officials at intervals of five double hours and ruled in unity the tribes of the lands. He marched to Kazallu and turned Kazallu into a ruin heap, so that there was not even a perch for a bird left.[21]

Sargon captured Mari, Jarmuth, and Ebla as far as the Cedar Forest (Amanus) and the silver mountain (Taurus Mountains). The Akkadian Empire secured trade routes and supplies of wood and precious metals could be safely and freely floated down the Euphrates to Akkad.[34]

In the east, Sargon defeated an invasion by the four leaders of Elam, led by the king of Awan. Their cities were sacked; the governors, viceroys, and kings of Susa, Barhashe, and neighboring districts became vassals of Akkad, and the Akkadian language became the lingua franca of the entire region. During Sargon's reign, Akkadian was standardized and adapted for use with the cuneiform script previously used in the Sumerian language. A style of calligraphy developed in which text on clay tablets and cylinder seals was arranged amidst scenes of mythology and ritual.[35]

Later reign and death[edit]

The Epic of the King of Battle is known from an Akkadian-language tablet in the Amarna archives; translations have since been discovered in Hittite and Hurrian.[36] It depicts Sargon advancing deep into the heart of Anatolia to protect Akkadian and other Mesopotamian merchants from the exactions of the King of Purushanda (Purshahanda). It is anachronistic, however, portraying the 23rd-century Sargon in a 19th-century milieu; the story is thus probably fictional, though it may have some basis in historical fact.[37] The same text mentions that Sargon crossed the Sea of the West (Mediterranean Sea) and ended up in Kuppara, which some authors have interpreted as the Akkadian word for Keftiu, an ancient locale usually associated with Crete or Cyprus.[38]

Famine and war threatened Sargon's empire during the latter years of his reign. The Chronicle of Early Kings reports that revolts broke out throughout the area under the last years of his overlordship:

Afterward in his [Sargon's] old age all the lands revolted against him, and they besieged him in Akkad; and Sargon went onward to battle and defeated them; he accomplished their overthrow, and their widespreading host he destroyed. Afterward he attacked the land of Subartu in his might, and they submitted to his arms, and Sargon settled that revolt, and defeated them; he accomplished their overthrow, and their widespreading host he destroyed, and he brought their possessions into Akkad. The soil from the trenches of Babylon he removed, and the boundaries of Akkad he made like those of Babylon. But because of the evil which he had committed, the great lord Marduk was angry, and he destroyed his people by famine. From the rising of the sun unto the setting of the sun they opposed him and gave him no rest.[39]

A. Leo Oppenheim translates the last sentence as "From the East to the West he [i.e. Marduk] alienated (them) from him and inflicted upon (him as punishment) that he could not rest (in his grave)."[26]

Sargon died around 2284 BC (Middle Chronology). His empire immediately revolted upon hearing of the king's death. Most of the revolts were put down by his son and successor Rimush, who reigned for nine years and was followed by another of Sargon's sons, Manishtushu (who reigned for 15 years).[40]


Family tree of Sargon of Akkad

The name of Sargon's main wife, Queen Tashlultum,[41][42] and those of a number of his children are known to us. His daughter Enheduanna was a priestess who composed ritual hymns.[43] Many of her works, including her Exaltation of Inanna, were in use for centuries thereafter.[44] Sargon was succeeded by his son Rimush; after Rimush's death another son, Manishtushu, became king. Manishtushu would be succeeded by his own son, Naram-Sin. Two other sons, Shu-Enlil (Ibarum) and Ilaba'is-takal (Abaish-Takal), are known.[45]


Ancient Near Eastern history[edit]

Sargon was regarded as a model by Mesopotamian kings for some two millennia after his death. The Assyrian and Babylonian kings who based their empires in Mesopotamia saw themselves as the heirs of Sargon's empire. Sargon may indeed have introduced the notion of "empire" as understood in the later Assyrian period; the Neo-Assyrian Sargon Text, written in the first person, has Sargon challenging later rulers to "govern the black-haired people" (i.e. the indigenous population of Mesopotamia) as he did.[46] Sargon I was a king of the Old Assyrian period presumably named after Sargon of Akkad. An important source for "Sargonic heroes" in oral tradition in the later Bronze Age is a Middle Hittite (15th century BC) record of a Hurro-Hittite song, which calls upon Sargon and his immediate successors as "deified kings" (dšarrena).[47]

Sargon II (r. 722–705 BC) was a Neo-Assyrian king named after Sargon of Akkad. It is this king whose name was rendered Sargon (סַרְגוֹן) in the Hebrew Bible (Isaiah 20:1).

Neo-Babylonian king Nabonidus (r. 556–539 BC) showed great interest in the history of the Sargonid dynasty, and even conducted excavations of Sargon's palaces and those of his successors.[48]

Sargon of Akkad is sometimes identified as the first person in recorded history to rule over an empire (in the sense of the central government of a multi-ethnic territory), although earlier Sumerian rulers Lugal-anne-mundu and Lugal-zage-si might have a similar claim.

His rule also heralds the history of Semitic empires in the Ancient Near East, which, following the Neo-Sumerian interruption (21st/20th centuries BC), lasted for close to fifteen centuries, including the history of Assyria and Babylonia up to the Achaemenid conquest in 539 BC[49]

Sumerian legend[edit]

The Sumerian-language Sargon legend contains a legendary account of Sargon's rise to power. It is an older version of the previously-known Assyrian legend, discovered in the 1974 in Nippur and first edited in 1983.[50]

The extant versions are incomplete, but the surviving fragments name Sargon's father as La'ibum. After a lacuna, the text skips to Ur-Zababa, king of Kish, who awakens after a dream, the contents of which are not revealed on the surviving portion of the tablet. For unknown reasons, Ur-Zababa appoints Sargon as his cup-bearer. Soon after this, Ur-Zababa invites Sargon to his chambers to discuss a dream of Sargon's, involving the favor of the goddess Inanna and the drowning of Ur-Zababa by the goddess. Deeply frightened, Ur-Zababa orders Sargon murdered by the hands of Beliš-tikal, the chief smith, but Inanna prevents it, demanding that Sargon stop at the gates because of his being "polluted with blood." When Sargon returns to Ur-Zababa, the king becomes frightened again, and decides to send Sargon to king Lugal-zage-si of Uruk with a message on a clay tablet asking him to slay Sargon.[51] The legend breaks off at this point; presumably, the missing sections described how Sargon becomes king.[52]

The part of the interpretation of the king's dream has parallels to the biblical story of Joseph, the part about the letter with the carrier's death sentence has parallels to the Greek story of Bellerophon and the biblical story of Uriah.[53]

Neo-Assyrian legend[edit]

Illustration of the Assyrian Sargon legend (1913): The young Sargon, working as a gardener, is visited by Ishtar "surrounded by a cloud of doves".

A Neo-Assyrian text from the 7th century BC purporting to be Sargon's autobiography asserts that the great king was the illegitimate son of a priestess. Only the beginning of the text (the first two columns) are known, from the fragments of three manuscripts. The first fragments were discovered as early as 1850.[54]

Sargon's birth and his early childhood are described thus:

"My mother was a high priestess, my father I knew not. The brothers of my father loved the hills. My city is Azupiranu, which is situated on the banks of the Euphrates. My high priestess mother conceived me, in secret she bore me. She set me in a basket of rushes, with bitumen she sealed my lid. She cast me into the river which rose over me. The river bore me up and carried me to Akki, the drawer of water. Akki, the drawer of water, took me as his son and reared me. Akki, the drawer of water, appointed me as his gardener. While I was a gardener, Ishtar granted me her love, and for four and ... years I exercised kingship."

Similarities between the Sargon Birth Legend and other infant birth exposures in ancient literature, including Moses, Karna, and Oedipus, were noted by Otto Rank in 1909.[55] The legend was also studied in detail by Brian Lewis, and compared with a number of different examples of the infant birth exposure motif found in European and Asian folk tales. He discusses a possible archetype form, giving particular attention to the Sargon legend and the account of the birth of Moses.[4] Joseph Campbell has also made such comparisons.[56]

Sargon is also one of the many suggestions for the identity or inspiration for the biblical Nimrod. Ewing William (1910) suggested Sargon based on his unification of the Babylonians and the Neo-Assyrian birth legend.[57] Yigal Levin (2002) suggested that Nimrod was a recollection of Sargon and of his grandson Naram-Sin, with the name "Nimrod" derived from the latter.[58]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ LUGAL Ag-ga-dèKI, LUGAL KIŠ, LUGAL KALAM.MAKI. Peter Panitschek, Lugal - šarru - βασιλεύς (2008), p. 138. KALAM.MA "land, country", is the old Sumerian name of the cultivated part of Mesopotamia (Sumer). Esther Flückiger-Hawker, Urnamma of Ur in Sumerian Literary Tradition (1999), p. 138.
  2. ^ M. E. L. Mallowan, "The Bronze Head of the Akkadian Period from Nineveh", Iraq Vol. 3, No. 1 (1936), 104–110.
  3. ^ Van de Mieroop 2006: 63
  4. ^ a b Westenholz, Joan Goodnick (January 1984). "Review of The Sargon Legend: A Study of the Akkadian Text and the Tale of the Hero Who Was Exposed at Birth by Brian Lewis". Journal of Near Eastern Studies 43 (1). 
  5. ^ Brian Edric Colless. "The Empire of Sargon". Retrieved 2013-05-25. 
  6. ^ King, L. W. (1907). Chronicles concerning early Babylonian kings. pp. 87–96. 
  7. ^ The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature
  8. ^ a b Eckart Frahm, "Observations on the Name and Age of Sargon II and on Some Patterns of Assyrian Royal Onomastics", NABU 2005.2, 46–50.
  9. ^ Strong's Concordance H3559 "to be erect (i.e. stand perpendicular); hence (causatively) to set up, in a great variety of applications, whether literal (establish, fix, prepare, apply), or figurative (appoint, render sure, proper or prosperous)"
  10. ^ Lewis 1984: 277–292
  11. ^ Sallaberger & Westenholz 1999: 34
  12. ^ Peter Panitschek , Lugal - šarru - βασιλεύς (2008), p. 51.
  13. ^ References to Sargon II are mostly spelled logographically, as LUGAL-GI.NA or LUGAL-GIN, but occasional phonetic spelling in ''ú-kin appears to support the form Šarru-ukīn over Šarru-kẽn(u) (based on a single spelling in -ke-e-nu found in Khorsabad). The name of the Old Assyrian king Sargon I is spelled as LUGAL-ke-en or LUGAL-ki-in in king lists. In addition to the Biblical form (סרגון), the Hebrew spelling סרגן has been found in an inscription in Khorsabad, suggesting that the name in the Neo-Assyrian period might have been pronounced Sar(ru)gīn, the voicing representing a regular development in Neo-Assyrian. (Frahm 2005)
  14. ^ 266-296: "In Agade, Sargon, whose father was a gardener, the cupbearer of Ur-Zababa, became king, the king of Agade, {who built Agade} {L1+N1: under whom Agade was built}; he ruled for {WB:56; L1+N1: 55; TL: 54} years. Rīmuš, the son of Sargon, ruled for {WB: 9} {IB: 7, L1+N1: 15} years. Man-ištiššu, the older brother of Rīmuš, the son of Sargon, ruled for {WB: 15} {L1+N1: 7} years. Narām-Suen, the son of Man-ištiššu, ruled for {L1+N1, P3+BT14: 56} years. Šar-kali-šarrī, the son of Narām-Suen, ruled for {L1+N1, Su+Su4: 25; P3+BT14: 24} years. {P3+BT14: 157 are the years of the dynasty of Sargon.}" mss. are referred to by the sigla used by Vincente 1995. Electronic Text Corpus of the Sumerian Language
  15. ^ Mari A. Gough, "Historical Perception in the Sargonic Literary Tradition: The Implications of Copied Texts" , Rosetta 1 (2006), 1–9. Douglas R. Frayne, "The Sargonic and Gutian Periods (2334-2113)", University of Toronto Press, 1993.
  16. ^ Rebecca Hasselbach, Sargonic Akkadian: A Historical and Comparative Study of the Syllabic Texts (2005), p. 5 (fn 28).
  17. ^ Jacobsen 1939: 111
  18. ^ Kish at The History Files
  19. ^ Van de Mieroop 1999: 74–75
  20. ^ Grayson 1975: 19:51
  21. ^ a b c Chronicle of Early Kings at Translation adapted from Grayson 1975 and Glassner 2004
  22. ^ Grayson 1975: 20:18–19
  23. ^ Dalley 2005
  24. ^ Kramer 1963: 61; Van de Mieroop 2006: 64–66
  25. ^ a b Oppenheim 1969: 267
  26. ^ a b Oppenheim 1969: 266
  27. ^ Kramer 1963: 61
  28. ^ Frayne 1993: 31
  29. ^ Van de Mieroop 2006: 62–68
  30. ^ Kramer 1963: 62, 289–291
  31. ^ Van de Mieroop 2006: 67–68
  32. ^ Beaulieu 2005: 43
  33. ^ Sargon's year-names
  34. ^ Kramer (1963)[page needed]
  35. ^ Britannica
  36. ^ Postgate 1994: 216
  37. ^ Studevent-Hickman & Morgan 2006
  38. ^ Wainright 1952: 197–212; Strange 1982: 395–396; Vandersleyen 2003: 209
  39. ^ Botsforth 1912: 27–28
  40. ^ Kramer 1963: 61–63; Roux 1980: 155
  41. ^ Tetlow 2004
  42. ^ Roaf 1992
  43. ^ Schomp 2005: 81
  44. ^ Schomp 2005: 81; Kramer 1981: 351; Hallo & Van Dijk 1968
  45. ^ Frayne 1993: 3637
  46. ^ "The black-headed peoples I ruled, I governed; mighty mountains with axes of bronze I destroyed. I ascended the upper mountains; I burst through the lower mountains. The country of the sea I besieged three times; Dilmun I captured. Unto the great Dur-ilu I went up, I ... I altered ... Whatsoever king shall be exalted after me, ... Let him rule, let him govern the black-headed peoples; mighty mountains with axes of bronze let him destroy; let him ascend the upper mountains, let him break through the lower mountains; the country of the sea let him besiege three times; Dilmun let him capture; To great Dur-ilu let him go up." Barton 310, as modernized by J. S. Arkenberg
  47. ^ Bachvarova (2016:182).
  48. ^ Oates 1979: 162.
  49. ^ Sargon is the earliest known ruler with a Semitic name for whom anything approaching a historical context is recorded. There are, however, older references to rulers bearing Semitic names, notably the pre-Sargonic king Meskiang-nunna of Ur by his queen Gan-saman, mentioned in an inscription on a bowl found at Ur. In addition, the names of some pre-Sargonic rulers of Kish in the Sumerian king list have been interpreted as having Semitic etymologies, which might extend the Semitic presence in the Near East to the 29th or 30th century. See J. N. Postgate, Languages of Iraq, Ancient and Modern. British School of Archaeology in Iraq (2007).
  50. ^ Cooper, J.S., and Heimpel, W., "The Sumerian Sargon Legend", Journal of the American Oriental Society 103 (1983), 67-82. Joan Goodnick Westenholz, Legends of the Kings of Akkade: The Texts (1997), p. 12.
  51. ^ "The Sargon Legend." The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature. Oxford University, 2006
  52. ^ Cooper & Heimpel 1983: 67–82
  53. ^ Cynthia C. Polsley, "Views of Epic Transmission in Sargonic Tradition and the Bellerophon Saga" (2012). Bendt Alster, "A Note on the Uriah Letter in the Sumerian Sargon Legend", Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und Vorderasiatische Archäologie 77.2 (1987). Stephanie Dalley, Sargon of Agade in literature: "The episode of dreams which Joseph interpreted for Pharaoh in Genesis 37 bears a notable resemblance to Sargon’s interpretation of the dreams of the king of Kish in the Sumerian Legend of Sargon, the same legend contains the motif of the messenger who carries a letter which orders his own death, comparable to the story of Uriah in 2 Samuel 11 (and of Bellerophon in Iliad 6). The episode in the Akkadian Legend of Sargon’s Birth, in which Sargon as an infant was concealed and abandoned in a boat, resembles the story of the baby Moses in Exodus 2. The Sumerian story was popular in the early second millennium, and the Akkadian legend may originally have introduced it. Cuneiform scribes were trained with such works for many centuries. They enjoyed new popularity in the late eighth century when Sargon II of Assyria sought to associate himself with his famous namesake."
  54. ^ Joan Goodnick Westenholz, Legends of the Kings of Akkade: The Texts (1997), 33–49.
  55. ^ Otto Rank (1914). The myth of the birth of the hero: a psychological interpretation of mythology. English translation by Drs. F. Robbins and Smith Ely Jelliffe. 
  56. ^ Campbell, Joseph (1964). The Masks of God, Vol. 3: Occidental Mythology. p. 127. 
  57. ^ Ewing, William (1910). The Temple Dictionary of the Bible. p. 514. 
  58. ^ Levin, Yigal (2002). "Nimrod the Mighty, King of Kish, King of Sumer and Akkad". Vetus Testamentum 52: 350–356. doi:10.1163/156853302760197494. 
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  • Oates, John. Babylon. London: Thames and Hudson, 1979.
  • Oppenheim, A. Leo (translator). Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, 3d ed. James B. Pritchard, ed. Princeton: University Press, 1969.
  • Postgate, Nicholas. Early Mesopotamia: Society and Economy at the Dawn of History. Routledge, 1994.
  • Rank, Otto. The Myth of the Birth of the Hero. Vintage Books: New York, 1932.
  • Michael Roaf (1992). Mesopotamia and the ancient Near East. Stonehenge Press. ISBN 978-0-86706-681-4. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  • Roux, G. Ancient Iraq, London, 1980.
  • Sallaberger, Walther; Westenholz, Aage (1999), Mesopotamien. Akkade-Zeit und Ur III-Zeit, Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis, 160/3, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, ISBN 3-525-53325-X 
  • Schomp, Virginia. Ancient Mesopotamia. Franklin Watts, 2005. ISBN 0-531-16741-0
  • Strange, John. "Caphtor/Keftiu: A New Investigation." Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 102, No. 2 (April–June 1982), pp. 395–396
  • Studevent-Hickman, Benjamin; Morgan, Christopher (2006). "Old Akkadian Period Texts". In Chavalas, Mark William. The ancient Near East: historical sources in translation. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 24–27. ISBN 978-0-631-23580-4. 
  • Tetlow, Elisabeth Meier (2004). Women, Crime, and Punishment in Ancient Law and Society: The ancient Near East. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8264-1628-5. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  • Van de Mieroop, Marc. A History of the Ancient Near East: ca. 3000–323 BC. Blackwell, 2006, ISBN 978-1-4051-4911-2.
  • Van de Mieroop, Marc., Cuneiform Texts and the Writing of History, Routledge, 1999.
  • Vandersleyen, Claude. "Keftiu: A Cautionary Note." Oxford Journal of Archaeology. Vol. 22 Issue 2 Page 209 (2003).
  • Wainright, G.A. "Asiatic Keftiu." American Journal of Archaeology. Vol. 56, No. 4 (October, 1952), pp. 196–212.

Further reading[edit]

  • Albright, W. F., A Babylonian Geographical Treatise on Sargon of Akkad's Empire, Journal of the American Oriental Society (1925).
  • Alotte De La Fuye, M. Documents présargoniques, Paris, 1908–20.
  • Biggs, R.D. Inscriptions from Tell Abu Salabikh, Chicago, 1974.
  • Deimel, A. Die Inschriften von Fara, Leipzig, 1922–24.
  • Gadd, C.J. "The Dynasty of Agade and the Gutian Invasion." Cambridge Ancient History, rev. ed., vol. 1, ch. 19. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1963.
  • Jestin, R. Tablettes Sumériennes de Shuruppak, Paris, 1937.
  • Luckenbill, D. D., On the Opening Lines of the Legend of Sargon, The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures (1917).
  • Sollberger, E. Corpus des Inscriptions 'Royales' Présargoniques de Lagash, Paris, 1956.
Regnal titles
Preceded by
King of Kish
? – 2284 BC (middle)
Succeeded by
Preceded by
King of Uruk, Lagash, and Umma
ca. 2340–2284 BC (middle)
New title King of Akkad
ca. 2340–2284 BC (middle)
Preceded by
Luh-ishan of Awan
Overlord of Elam
ca. 2340–2284 BC (middle)