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Sariel (Aramaic: זהריאל, Greek: ‘Ατριήλ, "Command of God" "God's command") is an angel, mainly from Judaic tradition. Other possible versions of his name are Suriel, Suriyel (in some Dead Sea Scrolls translations), Seriel, Sauriel, Surya, Saraqael, Sarakiel, Suruel, Surufel and Sourial.
Sariel is sometimes identified with Metatron. In 1 Enoch, he is both a fallen Watcher, and (as Saraqael) one of the seven holy angels who is "of eternity and trembling". In Kabbalistic lore, he is one of seven angels of the earth. Origen identified Sariel as one of seven angels who are primordial powers. In Gnosticism, Sariel is invoked for his protective powers. He is commemorated in the calendar of the Coptic Orthodox Church on 27 Tubah.
In traditional texts
According to the Book of Enoch, Sariel, also called Azrael (whom God helps, Help of "God"), was one of the leaders of angels who lusted after the daughters of men. They descended to the summit of Mount Hermon, in the days of Jared, to acquire wives and lead men astray. Sariel specifically taught men about the course of the moon. Knibbs' translation of the names of the Book of Enoch says it was Sariel who taught humans the "course of the moon" (the Lunar Calendar). His name is also listed as Arazyal and Asaradel in some 1 Enoch translations, the name being a combination of sa'ar and 'God.' In this same book, Saraqael (communicants of God) is one of the holy angels, who watch over the spirits that sin in the spirit, and Suryal is one of the angels who look upon the bloodshed on Earth, along with Gabriel, Michael, Raphael and Uriel.
The book of War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness, from the Dead Sea Scrolls, lists the name of Sariel (שריאל, Ministry of God, an alternate spelling of Sariel) along with Michael, Raphael, and Gabriel as names to write upon the shields of soldiers in a tower during maneuvers (1QM 9,15). It is used on the shields of the third Tower (1QM 9,16).
- "… bring what he had brought, and give it to Adam. And they did so, one by one. 6 And God commanded Suriyel and Salathiel to bear up Adam and Eve, and bring them down from the top of the high mountain, and …" - Bible. O. T. Apocryphal books. English First Book of Adam and Eve.
In the Talmud he is said to have taught Rabbi Ishmael ben Elisha hygiene. The name Juriel is described as "An angel of the divine face or presence," which is why Sariel might be considered a possible name for Metatron.
The book of Liber Juratus by Honorius of Thebes has a number of translations which lists Saryell as being "the names of the angells of the .8. monthe that is sayde marquesnan" and Saryel as "the names of the angells of the .10. monthe (Tammuz) that is sayde thebeth be these". In a different translation, Sariell is "The names of the angels of the eighth month, which is called marquesnan heshvan" and Sariel as "The names of the angels of the tenth month, which is called Tevet". The month of Heshvan marquesnan would make Sariel's ruler Barfiell, or the month of Tevet would make the ruler Anael.
The Lesser Key of Solomon lists the dukes Asteliel and Gediel as commanding Sariel by night. The book A Dictionary of Angels by Gustav Davidson and The Complete Book of Devils and Demons by Leonard Ashley list Sariel as a fallen angel.
The University of Michigan has a section[clarification needed] devoted to Traditions of Magic in Late Antiquity, Protective Magic, Babylonian Demon Bowls.[dubious ] One clay bowl Seleucia-on-Tigris,[clarification needed] from the 6th or 7th century lists Sariel twice:
- "I wrote all of the curses upon a new bowl of clay and I sent back the curses of those who cursed Negray daughter of Denday to their masters until they release and bless in the name of Sariel the angel and Barakiel the angel and in the name of Sariel and Barakiel you release from the curses of those who curse Negray daughter of Denday as a man is freed from the house of bondage and from the house of weapons amen amen selah"[dubious ]
As an angel of death
Judaic-Christian texts say Sariel is the angel of death attributed[how?] to the fifth angel Apollyon. Some Enoch translations for Sariel use Arazyal/Araziel/Asaradel which in its English transliteration looks very similar to Azrael. If Azrael is the same as Sariel he is one of the four Islamic angels in conjunction with Mikhail, Djibril, and Israfil. The name Azrael is listed in Muslim and Islamic theology as the angel of death "forever writing in a large book and forever erasing what he writes: what he writes is the birth of man, what he erases is the name of the man at death". We[who?] also see parallels in Rabbinical lore for Sammael, Falasha for Suriel, and Azrael in the Arabic.
As the angel Saraqael
Sariel is identified[by whom?] with Saraqael, said in the Book of Enoch to be the fifth holy angel, who is set over spirits who sin in the spirit and who is concerned with the fate of angels that violate divine law. Before the identification of Sariel/Saraqael as the fifth holy angel, however, the Book of Enoch identifies Sariel as one of the fallen host's "chiefs of tens."
- Enoch 6
- Enoch 8
- Angels and Demons
- War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness (War Rule), 1QM, Column 9, Lines 15-16
- Conflict of Adam and Eve with Satan 31:6
- Enoch 20