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|Venerated in||Judaism, Coptic Orthodox Church|
Sariel (Aramaic: שריאל, Greek: Σαριηλ, Coptic: ⲥⲟⲩⲣⲓⲏⲗ "Prince of God" "God's Prince") is an angel, mainly from Judaic tradition. Other possible versions of his name are Suriel, Suriyel (in some Dead Sea Scrolls translations), Seriel, Sauriel, Saraqael, Sarakiel, Suruel, Surufel, and Sourial.
In 1 Enoch, there is a fallen Watcher named Säraquyael (Amharic: ሰራቁያል) and Säräqael (Amharic: ሰረቃኤል) one of the seven holy angels who is "of eternity and trembling". In Kabbalistic lore, he is one of seven angels of the earth. Origen identified Sariel as one of seven angels who are primordial powers. In Gnosticism, Sariel is invoked for his protective powers. He is commemorated in the calendar of the Coptic Orthodox Church on 27 Tobi in Coptic calendar.
In traditional texts
Sariel, according to the Book of Enoch, was one of the leaders of angels who lusted after the daughters of men. They descended to the summit of Mount Hermon, in the days of Jared, to acquire wives and lead men astray. Sariel specifically taught men about the course of the moon. Knibbs' translation of the names of the Book of Enoch says it was Sariel who taught humans the "course of the moon" (the Lunar Calendar). His name is also listed as Arazyal and Asaradel in some 1 Enoch translations, the name being a combination of sa'ar and 'God.' In this same book, Saraquel (communicants of God) is one of the holy angels, who watch over the spirits that sin in the spirit, and Suryal is one of the angels who look upon the bloodshed on Earth, along with Gabriel, Michael, Raphael and Uriel.
The book of War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness, from the Dead Sea Scrolls, lists the name of Sariel (שריאל, Ministry of God, an alternate spelling of Sariel) along with Michael, Raphael, and Gabriel as names to write upon the shields of soldiers in a tower during maneuvers (1QM 9,15). It is used on the shields of the third Tower (1QM 9,16).
- "… bring what he had brought, and give it to Adam. And they did so, one by one. 6 And God commanded Suriyel and Salathiel to bear up Adam and Eve, and bring them down from the top of the high mountain, and …" - Bible. O. T. Apocryphal books. English First Book of Adam and Eve.
The book of Liber Juratus by Honorius of Thebes has a number of translations which lists Saryell as being "the names of the angells of the .8. monthe that is sayde marquesnan" and Saryel as "the names of the angells of the .10. monthe (Tammuz) that is sayde thebeth be these". In a different translation, Sariell is "The names of the angels of the eighth month, which is called marquesnan heshvan" and Sariel as "The names of the angels of the tenth month, which is called Tevet". The month of Heshvan marquesnan would make Sariel's ruler Barfiell, or the month of Tevet would make the ruler Anael. The Lesser Key of Solomon lists the dukes Asteliel and Gediel as commanding Sariel by night. The book A Dictionary of Angels by Gustav Davidson and The Complete Book of Devils and Demons by Leonard Ashley list Sariel as a fallen angel. The Greek Magical Papyri represents him as a deity to be called upon in rituals using the "Souriel" variation of his name.
The University of Michigan has a section in its library collection devoted to Traditions of Magic in Late Antiquity, Protective Magic, Babylonian Demon Bowls. One clay bowl from Seleucia-on-Tigris dated to the 6th or 7th century CE lists Sariel twice:
- "I wrote all of the curses upon a new bowl of clay and I sent back the curses of those who cursed Negray daughter of Denday to their masters until they release and bless in the name of Sariel the angel and Barakiel the angel and in the name of Sariel and Barakiel you release from the curses of those who curse Negray daughter of Denday as a man is freed from the house of bondage and from the house of weapons amen amen selah"
- Meinardus, Otto F. A. (3 July 2015). "The Heavenly Host in the Coptic Tradition". becomeorthodox.org. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
- "Origen, Contra Celsum, Book VI Chapter 30".
- Enoch 6
- Enoch 8
- War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness (War Rule), 1QM, Column 9, Lines 15-16
- Conflict of Adam and Eve with Satan 31:6
- Betz, Hans (1996). The Greek Magical Papyri In Translation. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226044477. Entry: "PGM III. 1-164".
- "PROTECTIVE MAGIC Babylonian Demon Bowls". University of Michhigan. Retrieved 26 December 2017.