Sarpech (Urdu: سرپیچ/Hindi: सरपेच, from Persian) also known as an aigrette is a turban ornament that was worn by significant Hindu and Muslim princes. Sar means head or front and pech means screw. Hence, the word Sarpech literally means that which is screwed onto the front (of the turban). It was also worn in Persia where it was known as jikka or jiqa (Persian: جقه) which means crest or tuft and in Turkey it was known as Sorguch which is considered a corrupt form of the Persian word sarpush. In India, dominantly two kinds of turban ornaments exist: Sarpech and Kalgi (ornament).
Origin and etymology
In India, various types of Sarpech are found depending on their time of production. This can be attributed to the development of the Sarpech design through centuries. Those produced in the 16th and 17th centuries resembled a plume and were worn on the right side of the turban. Their material depended on the occasion they were to be worn at. The original 16th-century Sarpech was a single unit, but, from the 18th century onward, two additional side units were added to the upstanding central unit. With the 19th century emphasis on elaborate jewelry increased and there were Sarpech big enough to cover half the turban.
This is a general description of the Sarpech. The basic structure of a gold Indian Sarpech is flat(hamwar). It is a single sheet of metal with gemstones set in its hollow construction. Designs are usually symmetrical(ba-qarina) and gemstones are set(jadau) on the front(rukh). The backside is exquisitely enameled too but remains hidden from the viewer. Sarpeches with one upward rising unit are known as ek kalangi while those with three projections are called tin kalangi. Most Sarpech patterns are floral in nature and seem to have borrowed from the existing textile vocabulary in Mughal India.