Satanism

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For other uses, see Satanism (disambiguation).
The downward-pointing pentacle is often used to represent Satanism.

Satanism is a group of ideological and philosophical beliefs based on the character of Satan.[1] Contemporary religious practice of Satanism began with the founding of the Church of Satan in 1966, although a few historical precedents exist. Prior to the public practice, Satanism existed primarily as an accusation by various Christian groups toward perceived ideological opponents, rather than a self-identity. Satanism, and the concept of Satan, has also been used by artists and entertainers for symbolic expression.

Eliphas Levi's Sabbatic Goat (known as The Goat of Mendes or Baphomet) has become one of the most common symbols of Satanism.

Satanist groups that appeared after the 1960s are widely diverse, but two major trends are theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism. Theistic Satanists venerate Satan as a supernatural deity, viewing him not as omnipotent but rather as a patriarch. In contrast, atheistic Satanists regard Satan as merely a symbol of certain human traits.[2]

Contemporary religious Satanism is predominantly an American phenomenon, the ideas spreading elsewhere with the effects of globalization and the Internet.[3] The Internet spreads awareness of other Satanists, and is also the main battleground for Satanist disputes.[3] Satanism started to reach Eastern Europe in the 1990s, in time with the fall of the Soviet Union, and most noticeably in Poland and Lithuania, predominantly Roman Catholic countries.[4][5]

Definition[edit]

In their study of Satanism, the religious studies scholars Asbjorn Dyrendal, James R. Lewis, and Jesper Aa. Petersen stated that the term Satanism "has a history of being a designation made by people against those whom they dislike; it is a term used for 'othering'."[6]

Elsewhere, Petersen noted that "Satanism as something others do is very different from Satanism as a self-designation".[7] Eugene Gallagher noted that, as commonly used, Satanism was usually "a polemical, not a descriptive term".[8]

Etymology[edit]

The word "Satan" was not originally a proper name but rather an ordinary noun meaning "the Adversary"; in this context it appears at several points in the Old Testament.[9] For instance, in the Book of Samuel, David is presented as the satan ("adversary") of the Phillistines, while in the Book of Numbers it appears as a verb, when God sends an angel to satan ("to oppose") Balaam.[9] Prior to the composition of the New Testament, the idea developed within Jewish communities that Satan was the name of an angel who had rebelled against God and had been cast out of Heaven along with his followers; this account would be incorporated into contemporary texts like the Book of Enoch.[10] This figure of Satan was then featured in parts of the New Testament, where he was presented as a figure who tempted humans to commit sin; in the Book of Matthew and the Book of Luke, he attempted to attempt Jesus of Nazareth as the latter fasted in the wilderness.[11]

The word "Satanism" was adopted into English from the French satanisme.[12] The earliest appearances of the term "Satanism" feature in texts in which one group of Christians use it to condemn another.[12] In a Roman Catholic tract of 1565, the author condemns the "heresies, blasphemies, and sathanismes [sic]" of the Protestants.[12] In an Anglican work of 1559, Anabaptists and other Protestant sects are condemned as "swarmes of Satanistes [sic]".[12]

Accusations of Satanism[edit]

Historically, some people or groups have been specifically described as worshiping Satan or the Devil, or of being devoted to the work of Satan. The widespread preponderance of these groups in European cultures is in part connected with the importance and meaning of Satan within Christianity.

Christianity[edit]

Saint Wolfgang and the Devil, by Michael Pacher.
Title illustration of Johannes Praetorius (writer) (de) Blocksbergs Verrichtung (1668) showing many traditional features of the medieval Witches' Sabbath

Within Christian thought, the idea developed that certain individuals could make a pact with Satan.[13] This may have emerged after observing that pacts with gods and goddesses played a role in various pre-Christian, "pagan" belief systems, or that such pacts were also made as part of the Christian cult of saints.[14] Another possibility is that derives from a misunderstanding of Augustine of Hippo's condemnation of augury in his On the Christian Doctrine, written in the late fourth century. Here, he stated that people who consulted augurs were entering "quasi pacts" (covenants) with demons.[15] The idea of the diabolical pact made with demons was popularised across Europe in the story of Faust, likely based in part on the real life Johann Georg Faust.[16]

Most historians agree that the majority of those persecuted in these witch trials were innocent of any involvement in Devil worship.[17]

Islam[edit]

The Yazidis, a minority religion of the Middle East who worship Melek Taus, are often referred to as Satan worshippers by some Muslims.[30] Due to this, they have been targeted for conversion and extermination by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.[31]

Satanic ritual abuse hysteria[edit]

Main article: Satanic ritual abuse

At the end of the twentieth century, a moral panic developed around claims regarding a Devil-worshipping cult that made use of sexual abuse, murder, and cannibalism in its rituals, with children being among its victims.[32] Initially, the alleged perpetrators of such crimes were labelled "witches", although the term "Satanist" was soon adopted as a favoured alternative,[32] and the phenomenon itself came to be called "the Satanism Scare".[33] Promoters of the claims alleged that there was a conspiracy of organised Satanists who occupied many different professions, from the police to politicians, and that they had been powerful enough to cover up their crimes.[32]

A key source behind the promotion of the conspiracy theory was fundamentalist and evangelical forms of Christianity, and in particular Pentecostalism. Evangelical Christian groups were involved in promoting belief in the Satanic conspiracy, holding conferences, and producing books and videotapes that promoted belief.[33] Despite the strong impact of evangelical Christian groups, there were also those from Jewish and secular backgrounds promoting this idea too.[33] Many of those involved in this anti-Satanism movement insisted that children making such allegations were telling the truth, with "believe the children" being a widely repeated mantra in it.[34]

The anthropologist Jean La Fontaine examined the allegations of SRA in Britain, noting that while approximately half did reveal evidence of genuine sexual abuse of children, none revealed any evidence that Satanist groups had been involved or that any murders had taken place.[35] She noted three examples in which lone individuals engaged in child molestation had created a ritual performance to facilitate their sexual acts, with the intent of frightening their victims and justifying their actions, but that none of these individuals were involved in wider Satanist groups.[36]

Artistic Satanism[edit]

Literary Satanism[edit]

Satan in Paradise Lost, as illustrated by Gustave Doré

European Enlightenment, some works, such as Paradise Lost, were taken up by Romantics like Byron and described as presenting the biblical figure of Satan as an allegory representing a crisis of faith, individualism, free will, wisdom and enlightenment.[citation needed] Those works actually featuring Satan as a heroic character are fewer in number but do exist. George Bernard Shaw and Mark Twain (cf. Letters from the Earth) included such characterizations in their works long before religious Satanists took up the pen. From then on, Satan and Satanism started to gain a new meaning outside of Christianity.[3]

In music[edit]

Black metal has often been connected with Satanism, in part for the lyrical content of several bands and their frequent use of imagery often tied to left hand path beliefs (such as the inverted pentagram). More often than not musicians associating themselves with black metal say they do not believe in legitimate Satanic ideology and often profess to being atheists, agnostics, or religious skeptics.[37] In some instances, followers of right hand path religions use Satanic references for entertainment purposes and shock value.[38] Most of black metal's "first wave" bands only used Satanism for shock value; one of the few exceptions is Mercyful Fate singer King Diamond, who follows LaVeyan Satanism[39] and whom Michael Moynihan calls "one of the only performers of the '80s Satanic Metal who was more than just a poseur using a devilish image for shock value".[40] One early precursor to Satanic metal was the 1969 rock album Witchcraft Destroys Minds & Reaps Souls, which contained numerous references to Satanism that reappeared in later Satanic rock music.

Glen Benton, vocalist and bassist of the band Deicide, once openly claimed to be a practitioner of theistic Satanism, and has spoken publicly to profess staunch anti-Christian sentiment. The controversial Dissection frontman Jon Nödtveidt openly spoke about his "chaos-gnostic" satanic beliefs, being a member of the Misanthropic Luciferian Order, and called his band "the sonic propaganda unit of the MLO".[41] Norwegian black metal artists such as Euronymous from Mayhem and Infernus from Gorgoroth have also identified themselves as Satanists and actively promoted their beliefs.[42] Numerous church burnings that covered parts of Norway in the early 1990s were also attributed to youths involved in the black metal movement, which included people promoting theistic Satanic beliefs and strong anti-LaVeyan attitudes.[43] However, the legitimacy of such actions as Satanic endeavors, rather than simply rebellious actions done for publicity, is something that has been doubted by even some of those who contribute to the genre.[44]

Religious Satanism[edit]

Rather than being one single form of religious Satanism, there are instead multiple different religious Satanisms, each with different ideas about what being a Satanist entails.[45] Dyrendal, Lewis, and Petersen believed that it was not a single movement, but rather a milieu.[46] They believed that there was a family resemblance that united all of the varying groups in this milieu,[6] and that most of them were self religions.[46] They argued that there were a set of features that were common to the groups in this Satanic milieu: these were the positive use of the term "Satanist" as a designation, an emphasis on individualism, a genealogy that connects them to other Satanic groups, a transgressive and antinomian stance, a self-perception as an elite, and an embrace of values such as pride, self-reliance, and productive non-conformity.[47]

Dyrendal, Lewis, and Petersen argued that the groups within the Satanic milieu could be divided into three groups: reactive Satanists, rationalist Satanists, and esoteric Satanists.[48] They saw reactive Satanism as encompassing "popular Satanism, inverted Christianity, and symbolic rebellion" and noted that it situates itself in opposition to society while at the same time conforming to society's perspective of evil.[48] Rationalist Satanism is used to describe the trend in the Satanic milieu which is atheistic, sceptical, materialistic, and epicurean.[49] Esoteric Satanism instead applied to those forms which are theistic and draw upon ideas from other forms of Western esotericism, Modern Paganism, Buddhism, and Hinduism.[49]

LaVeyan Satanism[edit]

The Sigil of Baphomet, the official insignia of the Church of Satan and LaVeyan Satanism.
Main article: LaVeyan Satanism

LaVeyan Satanism was founded in 1966 by Anton LaVey through the establishment of the Church of Satan. Its central text, The Satanic Bible, was published in 1969. The fundamentals of the religion's creed are synthesized in The Nine Satanic Statements, The Nine Satanic Sins, and The Eleven Satanic Rules of the Earth. Contrary to popular belief, LaVeyan Satanism does not involve the worship of deities. It is an atheistic philosophy that asserts the individual as their own god. Adherents instead see the character of Satan as an archetype of pride, carnality and enlightenment. Adherents to the philosophy have described Satanism as a non-spiritual religion of the flesh, or "...the world's first carnal religion".[50][51][52]

The Church of Satan[edit]

Main article: Church of Satan

The Church of Satan was established at the Black House in San Francisco, California, on Walpurgisnacht, April 30, 1966, by Anton Szandor LaVey, who was the church's High Priest until his death in 1997. In 2001, Peter H. Gilmore was appointed to the position of high priest, and the church's headquarters were moved to Hell's Kitchen, Manhattan, New York City.[53] The Church is dedicated to the religion of LaVeyan Satanism as codified in The Satanic Bible. The church rejects the legitimacy of any other organizations who claim to be Satanists.[54][55]

First Satanic Church[edit]

Main article: First Satanic Church

After LaVey's death in 1997, the Church of Satan was taken over by a new administration and its headquarters was moved to New York. LaVey's daughter, the High Priestess Karla LaVey, felt this to be a disservice to her father's legacy. The First Satanic Church was re-founded on October 31, 1999 by Karla LaVey to carry on the legacy of her father. She continues to run it out of San Francisco, California.

The Satanic Temple[edit]

Main article: The Satanic Temple

The Satanic Temple is an American religious and political activist organization based in New York. The organization actively participates in public affairs that have manifested in several public political actions[56][57] and efforts at lobbying,[58] with a focus on the separation of church and state and using satire against Christian groups that it believes interfere with personal freedom.

The Satanic Temple does not believe in a supernatural Satan, as they believe that this encourages superstition that will keep them from being "malleable to the best current scientific understandings of the material world". The Temple uses the literary Satan as metaphor to construct a cultural narrative which promotes pragmatic skepticism, rational reciprocity, personal autonomy, and curiosity.[59] Satan is thus used as a symbol representing "the eternal rebel" against arbitrary authority and social norms.[60][61]

Theistic Satanism[edit]

Main article: Theistic Satanism

Theistic Satanism (also known as traditional Satanism, Spiritual Satanism or Devil worship) is a form of Satanism with the primary belief that Satan is an actual deity or force to revere or worship.[62][63] Other characteristics of theistic Satanism may include a belief in magic, which is manipulated through ritual, although that is not a defining criterion, and theistic Satanists may focus solely on devotion.

Third Term of the Trinity[edit]

In 1935 the Temple of the Third Term, an esoteric group that included Satanic rhetoric and elements, was established in a room in Paris, France by Maria de Naglowska, a Russian occultist who had fled to France following the Russian Revolution.[64] She promoted a theology centred on what she called the Third Term of the Trinity consisting of Father, Son, and Sex, the latter of which she deemed to be most important.[64] Her early disciplines, who underwent what she called "Satanic Initiations", included models and art students recruited from bohemian circles.[64]

Our Lady of Endor Coven[edit]

Our Lady of Endor Coven, also known as Ophite Cultus Satanas (originally spelled "Sathanas"), was a satanic cult founded in 1948 by Herbert Arthur Sloane in Toledo, Ohio. The group was heavily influenced by gnosticism (especially that found in the contemporary book by Hans Jonas, The Gnostic Religion), and worshiped Satanas, their name for Satan (Cultus Satanas is a Latin version of Cult of Satan). Satanas (or Satan) was defined in gnostic terms as the Serpent in the Garden of Eden who revealed the knowledge of the true God to Eve. That it called itself "Ophite" is a reference to the ancient gnostic sect of the Ophites, who were said to worship the serpent.[65]

Order of Nine Angles[edit]

Main article: Order of Nine Angles

The authors Per Faxneld and Jesper Petersen write that the Order of Nine Angles (ONA, O9A) "represent a dangerous and extreme form of Satanism".[66] The ONA first attracted public attention during the 1980s and 1990s after being mentioned in books detailing fascist Satanism. They were initially formed in the United Kingdom and are presently organized around clandestine cells (which it calls traditional nexions)[67][68] and around what it calls sinister tribes.[69][70]

Luciferianism[edit]

A version of the symbol of Lucifer, used by some modern Satanists
Main article: Luciferianism

Luciferianism can be understood best as a belief system or intellectual creed that venerates the essential and inherent characteristics that are affixed and commonly given to Lucifer. Luciferianism is often identified as an auxiliary creed or movement of Satanism, due to the common identification of Lucifer with Satan. Some Luciferians accept this identification and/or consider Lucifer as the "light bearer" and illuminated aspect of Satan, giving them the name of Satanists and the right to bear the title. Others reject it, giving the argument that Lucifer is a more positive and easy-going ideal than Satan. They are inspired by the ancient myths of Egypt, Rome and Greece, Gnosticism and traditional Western occultism.

Temple of Set[edit]

Main article: Temple of Set

The Temple of Set is an initiatory occult society claiming to be the world's leading left-hand path religious organization. It was established in 1975 by Michael A. Aquino and certain members of the priesthood of the Church of Satan,[71] who left because of administrative and philosophical disagreements. ToS deliberately self-differentiates from CoS in several ways, most significantly in theology and sociology.[72] The philosophy of the Temple of Set may be summed up as "enlightened individualism" — enhancement and improvement of oneself by personal education, experiment and initiation. This process is necessarily different and distinctive for each individual. The members do not agree on whether Set is "real" or not, and they're not expected to.[72]

Setianism, in theory, is similar to theistic Satanism. The principle deity of Setianism is the ancient Egyptian god Set, or Seth, the god of adversary. Set supposedly is the Dark Lord behind the Hebrew entity Satan. Set, as the first principle of consciousness, is emulated by Setians, who symbolize the concept of individual, subjective intelligence distinct from the natural order as the "Black Flame". (Some people who are not members of the Temple of Set find spiritual inspiration in the Egyptian god Set, and may share some beliefs with the organization. The belief system in general is referred to as Setianism.)

Controversies[edit]

Approval by Royal Navy[edit]

In 2004 it was claimed that Satanism was allowed in the Royal Navy of the British Armed Forces, despite opposition from Christians.[73][74][75] In 2016, under a Freedom of Information request, the Navy Command Headquarters stated that "we do not recognise satanism as a formal religion, and will not grant facilities or make specific time available for individual worship".[76]

Supreme Court Ruling[edit]

In 2005, the Supreme Court of the United States debated in the case of Cutter v. Wilkinson over protecting minority religious rights of prison inmates after a lawsuit challenging the issue was filed to them.[77][78] The court ruled that facilities that accept federal funds cannot deny prisoners accommodations that are necessary to engage in activities for the practice of their own religious beliefs.[79][80]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ B.A. Robinson (March 2006). "Religious Satanism, 16th-century Satanism, Satanic Dabbling, etc". Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Retrieved March 24, 2013. 
  2. ^ Gilmore, Peter. "Science and Satanism". Point of Inquiry Interview. Retrieved 9 December 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c Jesper Aagaard Petersen (2009). "Introduction: Embracing Satan". Contemporary Religious Satanism: A Critical Anthology. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-5286-1. 
  4. ^ Alisauskiene, Milda (2009). "The Peculiarities of Lithuanian Satanism". In Jesper Aagaard Petersen. Contemporary Religious Satanism: A Critical Anthology. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-7546-5286-6. 
  5. ^ "Satanism stalks Poland". BBC News. 2000-06-05. 
  6. ^ a b Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 7.
  7. ^ Petersen 2012, p. 92.
  8. ^ Gallagher 2006, p. 151.
  9. ^ a b Medway 2001, p. 51.
  10. ^ Medway 2001, p. 52.
  11. ^ Medway 2001, p. 53.
  12. ^ a b c d Medway 2001, p. 9.
  13. ^ Medway 2001, p. 57.
  14. ^ Medway 2001, p. 58.
  15. ^ Medway 2001, pp. 57–58.
  16. ^ Medway 2001, pp. 60–63.
  17. ^ Medway 2001, p. 70.
  18. ^ a b c Robbins, Rossell Hope, The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Demonology, 1959.
  19. ^ Manichaeism by Alan G. Hefner in The Mystica, undated
  20. ^ Acta Archelai of Hegemonius, Chapter XII, c. AD 350, quoted in Translated Texts of Manicheism, compiled by Prods Oktor Skjærvø, page 68. History of the Acta Archelai explained in the Introduction, page 11
  21. ^ Extensively described in: Zacharias, Gerhard, Der dunkle Gott: Satanskult und Schwarze Messe, München (1964).
  22. ^ Original sources: Ravaisson, François Archives de la Bastille (Paris, 1866-1884, volumes IV, V, VI, VII)
  23. ^ Dr. Iwan Bloch, Marquis de Sade: His Life and Work, 1899: "The Marquis de Sade gave evidence in his novels of being a fanatic Satanist."
  24. ^ Jullian, Philippe, Esthétes et Magiciens, 1969; Dreamers of Decadence, 1971.
  25. ^ Bois, Jules, Le Satanisme et la Magie - avec une étude de J.-K. Huysmans, Paris, 1895.
  26. ^ Huysmans, J.-K., Là-Bas, 1891
  27. ^ Waite, A.E., Devil Worship in France, London: George Redway 1896.
  28. ^ Per Faxneld, Witches, Anarchism, and Evolutionism, in The Devil's Party, Chapter 3, Oxford University Press, 2013: ...from the 1910s and onwards (until at least 1925), horror author and poet Hanns Heinz Ewers (1871-1943) held wildly popular lectures with the title "Die Religion des Satan", based almost verbatim on "Die Synagoge des Satan". In the 1920s, the satanic content in the teachings of the German esoteric order Fraternitas Saturni was greatly inspired by Przybyszewski's ideas.
  29. ^ Messe Luciférienne, in Pierre Geyraud, Les Petites Églises de Paris, 1937 (Source here: Messe Luciférienne).
  30. ^ "The Devil Worshipers of the Middle East : Their Beliefs & Sacred Books" Holmes Pub Group LLC (December 1993) ISBN 1-55818-231-4 ISBN 978-1-55818-231-8
  31. ^ O'Loughlin, Ed (16 August 2014). "Devil in the detail as Yazidis look to Kurds in withstanding Islamic radicals' advance". The Irish Times. Retrieved 16 August 2014. 
  32. ^ a b c La Fontaine 2016, p. 13.
  33. ^ a b c La Fontaine 2016, p. 15.
  34. ^ La Fontaine 2016, p. 16.
  35. ^ La Fontaine 2016, pp. 13–14.
  36. ^ Medway 2001, p. 118; La Fontaine 2016, p. 14.
  37. ^ "Death to False Satanism | NOISEY". NOISEY. Retrieved 2016-03-08. 
  38. ^ Baddeley, Gavin (1993). Raising Hell!: The Book of Satan and Rock 'n' Roll.
  39. ^ Götz Kühnemund (de): A History of Horror. In: Rock Hard, no. 282, November 2010, pp. 20-27.
  40. ^ Michael Moynihan, Didrik Søderlind: Lords of Chaos: The Bloody Rise of the Satanic Metal Underground, Feral House 1998, pp. 15f.
  41. ^ INTERVIEW FOR THE FANS BY THE FANS. - Final Interview with Jon Nödtveidt -.
  42. ^ Garry Sharpe-Young (2007). Metal: The Definitive Guide. 
  43. ^ Grude, Torstein (Director) (January 1, 1998). Satan rir media (motion picture). Norway: Grude, Torstein. 
  44. ^ Ihsahn Interview
  45. ^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 3.
  46. ^ a b Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 4.
  47. ^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, pp. 7–9.
  48. ^ a b Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 5.
  49. ^ a b Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 6.
  50. ^ Who's? Right: Mankind, Religions & The End Times & Warman-Stallings 2012, p. 35.
  51. ^ Sexuality and New Religious Movements et al. 2014.
  52. ^ http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/chi-satanjul09-story.html
  53. ^ Popular Witchcraft: Straight from the Witch's Mouth & Jack Fritscher 2004.
  54. ^ Ohlheiser, Abby (2014-11-07). "The Church of Satan wants you to stop calling these 'devil worshiping' alleged murderers Satanists". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2015-11-19. 
  55. ^ Wikinews:Satanism: An interview with Church of Satan High Priest Peter Gilmore
  56. ^ Massoud Hayoun (2013-12-08). "Group aims to put 'Satanist' monument near Oklahoma capitol | Al Jazeera America". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2014-03-25. 
  57. ^ "Satanists petition to build monument on Oklahoma state capitol grounds | Washington Times Communities". The Washington Times. 2013-12-09. Retrieved 2014-03-25. 
  58. ^ Bugbee, Shane (2013-07-30). "Unmasking Lucien Greaves, Leader of the Satanic Temple | VICE United States". Vice.com. Retrieved 2014-03-25. 
  59. ^ Oppenheimer, Mark (July 10, 2015). "A Mischievous Thorn in the Side of Conservative Christianity". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-07-11. 
  60. ^ "FAQ". The Satanic Temple. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  61. ^ "What does Satan mean to the Satanic Temple? - CNN". CNN. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  62. ^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82. Retrieved 2008-05-12. 
  63. ^ "Prayers to Satan". theisticsatanism.com. 
  64. ^ a b c Medway 2001, p. 18.
  65. ^ Lewis, James R. (2002). The Encyclopedia of Cults, Sects, and New Religions. Prometheus Books. p. 553. ISBN 1573922226. 
  66. ^ Per Faxneld: Post-Satanism, Left Hand Paths, and Beyond in Per Faxneld & Jesper Petersen (eds) The Devil's Party: Satanism in Modernity, Oxford University Press (2012), p.207. ISBN 9780199779246
  67. ^ Senholt, Jacob. Secret Identities in The Sinister Tradition: Political Esotericism and the Convergence of Radical Islam, Satanism and National Socialism in the Order of Nine Angles, in Per Faxneld & Jesper Petersen (eds), The Devil's Party: Satanism in Modernity. Oxford University Press, 2012. ISBN 9780199779246
  68. ^ FAQ About ONA
  69. ^ Angular Momentum: from Traditional to Progressive Satanism in the Order of Nine Angles
  70. ^ Sinister Tribes Of The ONA
  71. ^ Aquino, Michael (2002). Church of Satan (PDF). San Francisco: Temple of Set. 
  72. ^ a b Harvey, Graham (2009). "Satanism: Performing Alterity and Othering". In Jesper Aagaard Petersen. Contemporary Religious Satanism: A Critical Anthology. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-5286-1. 
  73. ^ Royal Navy to allow devil worship CNN
  74. ^ Carter, Helen. The devil and the deep blue sea: Navy gives blessing to sailor Satanist. The Guardian
  75. ^ Navy approves first ever Satanist BBC News
  76. ^ Ministry of Defence Request for Information. Navy Command FOI Section, 7 January 2016.
  77. ^ Linda Greenhouse (March 22, 2005). "Inmates Who Follow Satanism and Wicca Find Unlikely Ally". The New York Times. 
  78. ^ "Before high court: law that allows for religious rights". The Christian Science Monitor. 
  79. ^ Johnson, M. Alex (May 31, 2005). "Court upholds prisoners' religious rights". MSNBC. Retrieved August 26, 2016. 
  80. ^ "Cutter v. Wilkinson 544 U.S. 709 (2005)". Oyez. Retrieved 7 October 2013. 

Source list[edit]

Baddeley, Gavin (2010). Lucifer Rising: Sin, Devil Worship & Rock n' Roll (third ed.). London: Plexus. ISBN 978-0-85965-455-5. 
Dyrendal, Asbjørn (2012). "Satan and the Beast: The Influence of Aleister Crowley on Modern Satanism". In Henrik Bogdan and Martin P. Starr (eds.). Aleister Crowley and Western Esotericism. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 369–394. ISBN 978-0-19-986309-9. 
Dyrendal, Asbjørn; Lewis, James R.; Petersen, Jesper Aa. (2016). The Invention of Satanism. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195181104. 
Gallagher, Eugene (2006). "Satanism and the Church of Satan". Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. Eugene V. Gallagher, W. Michael Ashcraft (editors). Greenwood. pp. 151–168. ISBN 978-0313050787. 
La Fontaine, Jean (2016). Witches and Demons: A Comparative Perspective on Witchcraft and Satanism. New York and Oxford: Berhahn. ISBN 978-1-78533-085-8. 
Medway, Gareth J. (2001). Lure of the Sinister: The Unnatural History of Satanism. New York and London: New York University Press. ISBN 9780814756454. 

External links[edit]