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For other uses, see Satanism (disambiguation).
The downward-pointing pentacle is often used to represent Satanism.

Satanism is a group of ideological and philosophical beliefs based on the character of Satan. [1] It was estimated that there were 50,000 Satanists in 1990. There may now be as many as 100,000 Satanists in the world.[2]

Eliphas Levi's Sabbatic Goat (known as The Goat of Mendes or Baphomet) has become one of the most common symbols of Satanism.

Although the public practice of Satanism began with the founding of The Church of Satan in 1966, historical precedents exist: a group called the Ophite Cultus Satanas was founded in Ohio by Herbert Arthur Sloane in 1948.[3]

Satanist groups that appeared after the 1960s are widely diverse, but two major trends are theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism. Theistic Satanists venerate Satan as a supernatural deity, viewing him not as omnipotent but rather as a patriarch. In contrast, atheistic Satanists regard Satan as merely a symbol of certain human traits.[4]

There are signs that Satanistic beliefs have become more socially tolerated. Satanism is now allowed in the Royal Navy of the British Armed Forces, despite opposition from Christians,[5][6][7] and in 2005, the Supreme Court of the United States debated over protecting the religious rights of prison inmates after a lawsuit challenging the issue was filed to them.[8][9]

Contemporary Satanism is mainly an American phenomenon, the ideas spreading with the effects of globalization and the Internet.[10] The Internet promotes awareness of other Satanists, and is also the main battleground for the definitions of Satanism today.[10] Satanism started to reach Eastern Europe in the 1990s, in time with the fall of the Soviet Union, and most noticeably in Poland and Lithuania, predominantly Roman Catholic countries.[11][12]

Historical background[edit]

Satan in Paradise Lost, as illustrated by Gustave Doré

European Enlightenment, some works, such as Paradise Lost, were taken up by Romantics like Byron and described as presenting the biblical figure of Satan as an allegory representing a crisis of faith, individualism, free will, wisdom and enlightenment.[citation needed] Those works actually featuring Satan as a heroic character are fewer in number but do exist. George Bernard Shaw and Mark Twain (cf. Letters from the Earth) included such characterizations in their works long before religious Satanists took up the pen. From then on, Satan and Satanism started to gain a new meaning outside of Christianity.[10]


Petersen noted that "Satanism as something others do is very different from Satanism as a self-designation".[13]

Theistic Satanism[edit]

The full sigil of Lucifer, as it originally appeared in the Grimorium Verum
A more symmetrical version of the symbol to the left, used by some modern Satanists
Main article: Theistic Satanism

Theistic Satanism (also known as traditional Satanism, Spiritual Satanism or Devil worship) is a form of Satanism with the primary belief that Satan is an actual deity or force to revere or worship.[14][15] Other characteristics of theistic Satanism may include a belief in magic, which is manipulated through ritual, although that is not a defining criterion, and theistic Satanists may focus solely on devotion. Unlike LaVeyan Satanism, theistic Satanism believes that Satan is a real being rather than a symbol of individualism.


Main article: Luciferianism

Luciferianism can be understood best as a belief system or intellectual creed that venerates the essential and inherent characteristics that are affixed and commonly given to Lucifer. Luciferianism is often identified as an auxiliary creed or movement of Satanism, due to the common identification of Lucifer with Satan. Some Luciferians accept this identification and/or consider Lucifer as the "light bearer" and illuminated aspect of Satan, giving them the name of Satanists and the right to bear the title. Others reject it, giving the argument that Lucifer is a more positive and easy-going ideal than Satan. They are inspired by the ancient myths of Egypt, Rome and Greece, Gnosticism and traditional Western occultism.


Main article: Palladists

Palladists are an alleged theistic Satanist society or member of that society. The name Palladian comes from Pallas and refers to the Greco-Roman goddess of wisdom and learning.

Our Lady of Endor Coven[edit]

Our Lady of Endor Coven, also known as Ophite Cultus Satanas (originally spelled "Sathanas"), was a satanic cult founded in 1948 by Herbert Arthur Sloane in Toledo, Ohio. The group was heavily influenced by gnosticism (especially that found in the contemporary book by Hans Jonas, The Gnostic Religion), and worshiped Satanas, their name for Satan (Cultus Satanas is a Latin version of Cult of Satan). Satanas (or Satan) was defined in gnostic terms as the Serpent in the Garden of Eden who revealed the knowledge of the true God to Eve. That it called itself "Ophite" is a reference to the ancient gnostic sect of the Ophites, who were said to worship the serpent.

Atheistic Satanism[edit]

The Sigil of Baphomet, the official insignia of the Church of Satan and LaVeyan Satanism.
Main article: LaVeyan Satanism

LaVeyan Satanism is a religious philosophy founded in 1966 by Anton LaVey, codified in The Satanic Bible and overseen by the Church of Satan. Its core philosophy is based concepts of individualism, egoism, epicureanism, self-deification and self-preservation,[16][17][18][19] and propagates a worldview of natural law, materialism, Lex Talionis, and mankind as animals in an amoral universe.[20][17][21][22] Adherents to the philosophy have described Satanism as a non-spiritual religion of the flesh, or "...the world's first carnal religion".[23][24][25]

Contrary to popular belief, LaVeyan Satanism does not involve "devil worship" or worship of any deities. It is an atheistic philosophy that asserts the individual as his or her own god. Adherents instead see the character of Satan as an archetype of pride, carnality, liberty, enlightenment, undefiled wisdom, and of a cosmos which Satanists perceive to be motivated by a "dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things".[26][27] He also serves as a conceptual framework and an external metaphorical projection of [the Satanists] highest personal potential. Satan (Hebrew: שָּׂטָן satan, meaning "adversary") is seen as a symbol of defiance to the conservatism of mainstream philosophical and religious currents, mainly the Abrahamic religions, that see this character as their antithesis.[28]

The prefix "LaVeyan" was never used by Anton LaVey or by the Church of Satan, nor does the term appear in any of its literature.[29] The church has stated its contention that they are the first formally organized religion to adopt the term "Satanism" and asserts that Satanism and the 'worship of Satan' are not congruent.[30] The term "Theistic Satanism" has been described as "oxymoronic" by the church and its High Priest.[31] The Church of Satan rejects the legitimacy of any other organizations who claim to be Satanists, dubbing them reverse-Christians, pseudo-Satanists or Devil worshipers.[32][33] Today, the Church of Satan promotes itself as the only authentic representation of Satanism, and it routinely publishes materials underscoring this contention.[34][35]

The fundamentals of the religion's creed are synthesized in The Nine Satanic Statements,[36] The Nine Satanic Sins,[37] and The Eleven Satanic Rules of the Earth.[38]

Accusations of Satanism[edit]

Historically, some people or groups have been specifically described as worshiping Satan or the Devil, or of being devoted to the work of Satan. The widespread preponderance of these groups in European cultures is in part connected with the importance and meaning of Satan within Christianity.


Title illustration of Johannes Praetorius (writer) (de) Blocksbergs Verrichtung (1668) showing many traditional features of the medieval Witches' Sabbath


The Yazidis, a minority religion of the Middle East who worship Melek Taus, are often referred to as Satan worshippers by some Muslims.[52] Due to this, they have been targeted for conversion and extermination by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.[53]

Popular music[edit]

Black metal has often been connected with Satanism, in part for the lyrical content of several bands and their frequent use of imagery often tied to left hand path beliefs (such as the inverted pentagram). More often than not musicians associating themselves with black metal say they do not believe in legitimate Satanic ideology and often profess to being atheists, agnostics, or religious skeptics. In some instances, followers of right hand path religions use Satanic references for entertainment purposes and shock value.[54] Most of black metal's "first wave" bands only used Satanism for shock value; one of the few exceptions is Mercyful Fate singer King Diamond, who follows LaVeyan Satanism[55] and whom Michael Moynihan calls "one of the only performers of the '80s Satanic Metal who was more than just a poseur using a devilish image for shock value".[56] One early precursor to Satanic metal was the 1969 rock album Witchcraft Destroys Minds & Reaps Souls, which contained numerous references to Satanism that reappeared in later Satanic rock music.

Glen Benton, vocalist and bassist of the band Deicide, once openly claimed to be a practitioner of theistic Satanism, and has spoken publicly to profess staunch anti-Christian sentiment. The controversial Dissection frontman Jon Nödtveidt openly spoke about his "chaos-gnostic" satanic beliefs, being a member of the Misanthropic Luciferian Order, and called his band "the sonic propaganda unit of the MLO".[57] Norwegian black metal artists such as Euronymous from Mayhem and Infernus from Gorgoroth have also identified themselves as Satanists and actively promoted their beliefs.[58] Numerous church burnings that covered parts of Norway in the early 1990s were also attributed to youths involved in the black metal movement, which included people promoting theistic Satanic beliefs and strong anti-LaVeyan attitudes.[59] However, the legitimacy of such actions as Satanic endeavors, rather than simply rebellious actions done for publicity, is something that has been doubted by even some of those who contribute to the genre.[60]


The Church of Satan[edit]

Main article: Church of Satan

The Church of Satan is an international organization dedicated to the religion of LaVeyan Satanism as codified in The Satanic Bible. The Church of Satan was established at the Black House in San Francisco, California, on Walpurgisnacht, April 30, 1966, by Anton Szandor LaVey, who was the church's High Priest until his death in 1997.[61] In 2001, Peter H. Gilmore was appointed to the position of high priest, and the church's headquarters were moved to Hell's Kitchen, Manhattan, New York City. The Church of Satan describes its structural basis as a cabal that is "an underground cell-system of individuals who share the basis of [our] philosophy".[62] On their website, the Church of Satan urge anyone seeking to learn about Satanism to read The Satanic Bible, stating that doing so is "tantamount to understanding at least the basics of Satanism".[63] The church emphasizes that one does not have to join the organization to consider themselves a Satanist, and that one only needs to recognize themselves in The Satanic Bible and live according to the tenets outlined therein.[64] The church offers wedding, funeral and baptismal services to members. Such ceremonies are performed by a member of the church's priesthood.[65][66]

Membership to the Church of Satan is available on two levels: registered membership and active membership.[64] Registered membership is available for basic affiliation, while active membership is available for those who wish to take a more active role in the organization, and is subject to the completion of a more comprehensive application.[67] The church follows a formulated system of degrees based on meritocracy. These degrees are not open to application or to request and are only awarded to those who demonstrate excellence in the understanding and communication of Satanic Theory coupled with personal achievements in the outside world.[68] The Church of Satan evaluates active members for the Priesthood by their accomplishment in society—mastered skills and peer recognition within a profession—rather than by mastery of "irrelevant occult trivia." Membership in the Priesthood is by invitation only. As the Church of Satan does not publicly release membership information, it is not known how many members belong to the Church. However, according to an interview with the Church of Satan, "interest in the Church of Satan and Satanism is growing all the time if our mailboxes, answering and fax machines, and e-mail is any indication."[69]

The Church does not formally advocate any one political party or ideology, nor does the Church as an organization collectively lobby for any political ends.[33] In his essay "A Map for the Misdirected", high priest Peter H. Gilmore stated,

As has been said many times before, one’s politics are up to each individual member, and most of our members are political pragmatists. They support political candidates and movements whose goals reflect their own practical needs and desires. Our members span an amazing political spectrum, which includes but is not limited to: Libertarians, Liberals, Conservatives, Republicans, Democrats, Reform Party members, Independents, Capitalists, Socialists, Communists, Stalinists, Leninists, Trotskyites, Maoists, Zionists, Monarchists, Fascists, Anarchists, and just about anything else you could possibly imagine. It is up to each member to apply Satanism and determine what political means will reach his/her ends, and they are each solely responsible for this decision. Freedom and responsibility—must be a novel concept for those who aren’t Satanists. We take it in stride. Members who demand conformity from other members to their particular political fetish are welcomed to depart.[70]

The church has stated its contention that they are the first formally organized religion to adopt the term "Satanism" and asserts that Satanism and the 'worship of Satan' are not congruent.[30] The church rejects the legitimacy of any other organizations who claim to be Satanists, atheistic or otherwise,[33][71] and promotes itself as the only authentic representation of Satanism.[34][72]

First Satanic Church[edit]

Main article: First Satanic Church

After LaVey's death in 1997 the Church of Satan was taken over by a new administration and its headquarters was moved to New York. LaVey's daughter, the High Priestess Karla LaVey, felt this to be a disservice to her father's legacy. The First Satanic Church was re-founded on October 31, 1999 by Karla LaVey to carry on the legacy of her father. She continues to run it out of San Francisco, California.

Temple of Set[edit]

Main article: Temple of Set

The Temple of Set is an initiatory occult society claiming to be the world's leading left-hand path religious organization. It was established in 1975 by Michael A. Aquino and certain members of the priesthood of the Church of Satan,[73] who left because of administrative and philosophical disagreements. ToS deliberately self-differentiates from CoS in several ways, most significantly in theology and sociology.[74] The philosophy of the Temple of Set may be summed up as "enlightened individualism" — enhancement and improvement of oneself by personal education, experiment and initiation. This process is necessarily different and distinctive for each individual. The members do not agree on whether Set is "real" or not, and they're not expected to.[74]

Setianism, in theory, is similar to theistic Satanism. The principle deity of Setianism is the ancient Egyptian god Set, or Seth, the god of adversary. Set supposedly is the Dark Lord behind the Hebrew entity Satan. Set, as the first principle of consciousness, is emulated by Setians, who symbolize the concept of individual, subjective intelligence distinct from the natural order as the "Black Flame". (Some people who are not members of the Temple of Set find spiritual inspiration in the Egyptian god Set, and may share some beliefs with the organization. The belief system in general is referred to as Setianism.)

Members of the Temple of Set are mostly male, between the ages of twenty and fifty.[74]

Order of Nine Angles[edit]

Main article: Order of Nine Angles

The authors Per Faxneld and Jesper Petersen write that the Order of Nine Angles (ONA, O9A) "represent a dangerous and extreme form of Satanism".[75] The ONA first attracted public attention during the 1980s and 1990s after being mentioned in books detailing fascist Satanism. They were initially formed in the United Kingdom and are presently organized around clandestine cells (which it calls traditional nexions)[76][77] and around what it calls sinister tribes.[78][79]

The Satanic Temple[edit]

Main article: The Satanic Temple

The Satanic Temple is an organization founded around January 2013. The Temple uses the literary Satan as a mythological foundation for a non-supernatural religion, in order to construct a cultural narrative that can usefully contextualize life experiences and promote pragmatic skepticism, rational reciprocity, personal autonomy, and curiosity. Both of the co-founders are "atheistic Satanists" - they do not believe that Satan actually exists.[80]

The church actively participates in public affairs. This has manifested in several public political actions[81][82] and efforts at lobbying,[83] with a focus on the separation of church and state and using satire against religious organizations that it believes interfere with freedom and the pursuit of happiness.

The only requirements to be a member are to support the tenets and beliefs of the organization, and to name oneself a member.

The Satanic Temple was founded by Lucien Greaves, and its largest chapter, in Detroit, Michigan, is led by Jex Blackmore.[83][84]

The group has held worship services that include dance music, porn rooms, phallic imagery, S&M behaviors and nudity.[85] It also considers gay marriage a religious sacrament, and therefore argues that bans on the practice violate Satanists' freedom of religion.

Because the group regards inviolability of the body as a key doctrine, it also views all restrictions on abortion, including mandatory waiting periods, as an infringement on the rights of Satanists to practice their religion.[86]

Kuwaiti sect[edit]

According to Kuwaiti media, numerous teenagers in the country have been joining a Satanic sect that is managed from abroad. Every month, the sect's leaders encourage several members to commit suicide to promote Satanism. Members reportedly have piercings and tattoos depicting Satan, stars, or the number 666. Police have conducted raids on cottages allegedly used by the sect.[87][88]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ B.A. Robinson (March 2006). "Religious Satanism, 16th-century Satanism, Satanic Dabbling, etc". Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Retrieved March 24, 2013. 
  2. ^ B.A. Robinson (March 2006). "Religious Satanism, 16th-century Satanism, Satanic Dabbling, etc". Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Retrieved March 24, 2013. 
  3. ^ Lewis, James R. (2002). The Encyclopedia of Cults, Sects, and New Religions. Prometheus Books. p. 553. ISBN 1573922226. 
  4. ^ Gilmore, Peter. "Science and Satanism". Point of Inquiry Interview. Retrieved 9 December 2013. 
  5. ^ Royal Navy to allow devil worship CNN
  6. ^ Carter, Helen. The devil and the deep blue sea: Navy gives blessing to sailor Satanist. The Guardian
  7. ^ Navy approves first ever Satanist BBC News
  8. ^ Linda Greenhouse (March 22, 2005). "Inmates Who Follow Satanism and Wicca Find Unlikely Ally". New York Times. 
  9. ^ "Before high court: law that allows for religious rights". Christian Science Monitor. 
  10. ^ a b c Jesper Aagaard Petersen (2009). "Introduction: Embracing Satan". Contemporary Religious Satanism: A Critical Anthology. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-5286-1. 
  11. ^ Alisauskiene, Milda (2009). "The Peculiarities of Lithuanian Satanism". In Jesper Aagaard Petersen. Contemporary Religious Satanism: A Critical Anthology. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-7546-5286-6. 
  12. ^ "Satanism stalks Poland". BBC News. 2000-06-05. 
  13. ^ Petersen 2012, p. 92.
  14. ^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82. Retrieved 2008-05-12. 
  15. ^ "Prayers to Satan". 
  16. ^ Faxneld & Petersen 2013, p. 92.
  17. ^ a b Gallagher & Ashcraft 2006, p. 158.
  18. ^ Handbook of Religion and the Authority of Science, Lewis & Hammer 2010, p. 77.
  19. ^ Handbook of Religion and the Authority of Science, Lewis & Hammer 2010, p. 74.
  20. ^ Faxneld & Petersen 2013, p. 80.
  21. ^ Handbook of Religion and the Authority of Science, Lewis & Hammer 2010, p. 76-77.
  22. ^ The Invention of Satanism, Dyrendal & Lewis 2016.
  23. ^ Who's? Right: Mankind, Religions & The End Times & Warman-Stallings 2012, p. 35.
  24. ^ Sexuality and New Religious Movements et al. 2014.
  25. ^
  26. ^ Controversial New Religions, Lewis & Petersen 2014, p. 408.
  27. ^ Religion and Reality: An Exploration of Contemporary Metaphysical Systems, Theologies, and Religious Pluralism & Darren Iammarino 2013, p. 191.
  28. ^ Catherine Beyer. "An Introduction to LaVeyan Satanism and the Church of Satan". Religion & Spirituality. 
  29. ^ 9sense - Peter H. Gilmore, High Priest of the Church of Satan, Walpurgisnacht XLVII A.S. YouTube. 4 May 2012. 
  30. ^ a b "Church of Satan". Church of Satan. 
  31. ^ High Priest, Magus Peter H. Gilmore. "F.A.Q. Fundamental Beliefs". 
  32. ^ AbOhlheiser (7 November 2014). "The Church of Satan wants you to stop calling these ‘devil worshiping’ alleged murderers Satanists". Washington Post. 
  33. ^ a b c Wikinews:Satanism: An interview with Church of Satan High Priest Peter Gilmore Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "ReferenceA" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  34. ^ a b Gilmore, Peter H. (2007). The Satanic Scriptures. Scapegoat Publishing. 
  35. ^ High Priest, Magus Peter H. Gilmore. "Rebels Without Cause". 
  36. ^ High Priest, Magus Peter H. Gilmore. "The Nine Satanic Statements". 
  37. ^ High Priest, Magus Peter H. Gilmore. "The Nine Satanic Sins". 
  38. ^ High Priest, Magus Peter H. Gilmore. "The Eleven Satanic Rules of the Earth". 
  39. ^ a b c d e Robbins, Rossell Hope, The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Demonology, 1959.
  40. ^ Manichaeism by Alan G. Hefner in The Mystica, undated
  41. ^ Acta Archelai of Hegemonius, Chapter XII, c. AD 350, quoted in Translated Texts of Manicheism, compiled by Prods Oktor Skjærvø, page 68. History of the Acta Archelai explained in the Introduction, page 11
  42. ^ Extensively described in: Zacharias, Gerhard, Der dunkle Gott: Satanskult und Schwarze Messe, München (1964).
  43. ^ Original sources: Ravaisson, François Archives de la Bastille (Paris, 1866-1884, volumes IV, V, VI, VII)
  44. ^ Dr. Iwan Bloch, Marquis de Sade: His Life and Work, 1899: "The Marquis de Sade gave evidence in his novels of being a fanatic Satanist."
  45. ^ Jullian, Philippe, Esthétes et Magiciens, 1969; Dreamers of Decadence, 1971.
  46. ^ Bois, Jules, Le Satanisme et la Magie - avec une étude de J.-K. Huysmans, Paris, 1895.
  47. ^ Huysmans, J.-K., Là-Bas, 1891
  48. ^ Waite, A.E., Devil Worship in France, London: George Redway 1896.
  49. ^ Per Faxneld, Witches, Anarchism, and Evolutionism, in The Devil's Party, Chapter 3, Oxford University Press, 2013: ...from the 1910s and onwards (until at least 1925), horror author and poet Hanns Heinz Ewers (1871-1943) held wildly popular lectures with the title "Die Religion des Satan", based almost verbatim on "Die Synagoge des Satan". In the 1920s, the satanic content in the teachings of the German esoteric order Fraternitas Saturni was greatly inspired by Przybyszewski's ideas.
  50. ^ Medway, Gareth (2001). Lure of the Sinister: The Unnatural History of Satanism. p. 18.
  51. ^ Messe Luciférienne, in Pierre Geyraud, Les Petites Églises de Paris, 1937 (Source here: Messe Luciférienne).
  52. ^ "The Devil Worshipers of the Middle East : Their Beliefs & Sacred Books" Holmes Pub Group LLC (December 1993) ISBN 1-55818-231-4 ISBN 978-1-55818-231-8
  53. ^ O'Loughlin, Ed (16 August 2014). "Devil in the detail as Yazidis look to Kurds in withstanding Islamic radicals’ advance". Irish Times. Retrieved 16 August 2014. 
  54. ^ Baddeley, Gavin (1993). Raising Hell!: The Book of Satan and Rock 'n' Roll.
  55. ^ Götz Kühnemund (de): A History of Horror. In: Rock Hard, no. 282, November 2010, pp. 20-27.
  56. ^ Michael Moynihan, Didrik Søderlind: Lords of Chaos: The Bloody Rise of the Satanic Metal Underground, Feral House 1998, pp. 15f.
  57. ^ INTERVIEW FOR THE FANS BY THE FANS. - Final Interview with Jon Nödtveidt -.
  58. ^ Garry Sharpe-Young (2007). Metal: The Definitive Guide. 
  59. ^ Grude, Torstein (Director) (January 1, 1998). Satan rir media (motion picture). Norway: Grude, Torstein. 
  60. ^ Ihsahn Interview
  61. ^ "Official Church of Satan Website". Retrieved 2009-06-07. 
  62. ^ High Priest, Magus Peter H. Gilmore. "Myth of the Satanic Community -". 
  63. ^ Lewis 2002, p. 12.
  64. ^ a b High Priest, Magus Peter H. Gilmore. "Join the Church of Satan". 
  65. ^ High Priest, Magus Peter H. Gilmore. "Diabolical Endeavors -". 
  66. ^ High Priest, Magus Peter H. Gilmore. "F.A.Q. Ritual and Ceremony -". 
  67. ^ High Priest, Magus Peter H. Gilmore. "Active Membership -". 
  68. ^ High Priest, Magus Peter H. Gilmore. "Hierarchy -". 
  69. ^ "The Church Of Satan – Interview - Worm Gear". Worm Gear. 
  70. ^ High Priest, Magus Peter H. Gilmore. "A Map for the Misdirected". 
  71. ^ Ohlheiser, Abby (2014-11-07). "The Church of Satan wants you to stop calling these ‘devil worshiping’ alleged murderers Satanists". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2015-11-19. 
  72. ^ Peter, Magus. "Rebels Without Cause". Retrieved 2015-11-19. 
  73. ^ Aquino, Michael (2002). Church of Satan (PDF). San Francisco: Temple of Set. 
  74. ^ a b c Harvey, Graham (2009). "Satanism: Performing Alterity and Othering". In Jesper Aagaard Petersen. Contemporary Religious Satanism: A Critical Anthology. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-5286-1. 
  75. ^ Per Faxneld: Post-Satanism, Left Hand Paths, and Beyond in Per Faxneld & Jesper Petersen (eds) The Devil's Party: Satanism in Modernity, Oxford University Press (2012), p.207. ISBN 9780199779246
  76. ^ Senholt, Jacob. Secret Identities in The Sinister Tradition: Political Esotericism and the Convergence of Radical Islam, Satanism and National Socialism in the Order of Nine Angles, in Per Faxneld & Jesper Petersen (eds), The Devil's Party: Satanism in Modernity. Oxford University Press, 2012. ISBN 9780199779246
  77. ^ FAQ About ONA
  78. ^ Angular Momentum: from Traditional to Progressive Satanism in the Order of Nine Angles
  79. ^ Sinister Tribes Of The ONA
  80. ^ Oppenheimer, Mark (July 10, 2015). "A Mischievious Thorn in the Side of Conservative Christianity". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-07-11. 
  81. ^ Massoud Hayoun (2013-12-08). "Group aims to put 'Satanist' monument near Oklahoma capitol | Al Jazeera America". Retrieved 2014-03-25. 
  82. ^ "Satanists petition to build monument on Oklahoma state capitol grounds | Washington Times Communities". 2013-12-09. Retrieved 2014-03-25. 
  83. ^ a b Bugbee, Shane (2013-07-30). "Unmasking Lucien Greaves, Leader of the Satanic Temple | VICE United States". Retrieved 2014-03-25. 
  84. ^ "Hundreds Gather for Unveiling of Satanic Statue in Detroit". 
  85. ^ Kaffer, Nancy (February 17, 2015). "Can the Satanic Temple Save America?". Retrieved July 11, 2015. 
  86. ^ Kutner, Jenny (May 1, 2015). "Satanist challenges Missouri’s 72-hour abortion wait: It’s "a burden on my sincerely held religious beliefs"". Salon Magazine. Retrieved July 11, 2015. 
  87. ^ "Teenaged 'Satanists' ending life in Kuwait". 
  88. ^ "Kuwaiti cops raid 'satanist' cottage". 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]