From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Satanoperca leucosticta (1).jpg
S. leucosticta
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Cichlidae
Subfamily: Geophaginae
Genus: Satanoperca
Günther, 1862
Type species
Geophagus daemon
Heckel, 1840

Satanoperca is a small genus of cichlids from South America, where they are known from the Orinoco, Essequibo, Nickerie, Amazon, Paraná and Paraguay river basins.[1] They are mainly found in areas with slow-moving waters.[2]

They are part of a group popularly known as eartheaters and feed by picking up mouthfuls of sand to sift out food items such as invertebrates, plant material and detritus (the only exception is mid-water feeding S. acuticeps).[2] They often feed in small groups and one individual may act as a watchman, which will charge an approaching piranha with its mouth open and fins erected. The Satanoperca in the group take turn acting as watchman.[2] Satanoperca reach up to 25.5 cm (10.0 in) in standard length.[3]


There are currently eight recognized species in this genus:[3]


  1. ^ Eschmeyer W. "Catalog of Fishes". California Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 2007-04-05.
  2. ^ a b c van der Sleen, P.; and J.S. Albert, eds. (2017). Field Guide to the Fishes of the Amazon, Orinoco, and Guianas. Princeton University Press. p. 382. ISBN 978-0691170749.
  3. ^ a b Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2013). Species of Satanoperca in FishBase. April 2013 version.