Satanoperca is a small genus of cichlids from South America, where they are known from the Orinoco, Essequibo, Nickerie, Amazon, Paraná and Paraguay river basins. They are mainly found in areas with slow-moving waters.
They are part of a group popularly known as eartheaters and feed by picking up mouthfuls of sand to sift out food items such as invertebrates, plant material and detritus (the only exception is mid-water feeding S. acuticeps). They often feed in small groups and one individual may act as a watchman, which will charge an approaching piranha with its mouth open and fins erected. The Satanoperca in the group take turn acting as watchman. Satanoperca reach up to 25.5 cm (10.0 in) in standard length.
There are currently eight recognized species in this genus:
- Satanoperca acuticeps (Heckel, 1840) (Sharphead eartheater)
- Satanoperca daemon (Heckel, 1840) (Threespot eartheater)
- Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel, 1840) (Demon eartheater)
- Satanoperca leucosticta (J. P. Müller & Troschel, 1848)
- Satanoperca lilith S. O. Kullander & E. J. G. Ferreira, 1988
- Satanoperca mapiritensis (Fernández-Yépez, 1950)
- Satanoperca pappaterra (Heckel, 1840) (Pantanal eartheater)
- Satanoperca rhynchitis S. O. Kullander, 2012
- Eschmeyer W. "Catalog of Fishes". California Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 2007-04-05.
- van der Sleen, P.; and J.S. Albert, eds. (2017). Field Guide to the Fishes of the Amazon, Orinoco, and Guianas. Princeton University Press. p. 382. ISBN 978-0691170749.
- Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2013). Species of Satanoperca in FishBase. April 2013 version.
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