Satellite map images with missing or unclear data

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Some locations on free, publicly viewable satellite map services have missing, incomplete, or unclear map data. In some cases, these regions have been intentionally digitally obscured or blurred.[1] Westchester County, New York, for example, has asked Google to blur potential terror targets (such as an amusement park, a beach, and parking lots) from its satellite imagery.[2]

In some cases, censorship of certain sites has been removed. When Google Maps was launched, images of the White House and United States Capitol in Washington, D.C. were blurred out; current versions of Google Maps and Google Earth show these sites uncensored, but with out-of-date imagery.[3]

Countries in official contact with Google Maps[edit]

During talks with the Indian government, Google issued a statement saying "Google has been talking and will continue to talk to the Indian government about any security concerns it may have regarding Google Earth."[4] Google agreed to blur images on request of the Indian government.[1]

The Australian government has decided that images of sensitive areas are not a risk, due to poor level of detail.[5] It was reported that in the lead-up to the APEC forum in Sydney held in September 2007 certain key locations in images of the city's central business district, where APEC leaders were meeting, might have been intentionally reduced in resolution; however, Google has indicated that the change was unrelated to APEC, while the NSW police said that they knew nothing about the change in Google's images. It is known that images of Her Majesty's Australian Prisons are intentionally blurred out. Images of the prime minister's official residence, The Lodge have not been blurred. However, images of its roof have been and the entrance to The Lodge is blurred in Google Street View.[6]

The government of Malaysia has stated that it will not ask Google to censor sensitive areas because that would identify the locations it deemed to be sensitive.[7]

List of map locations with missing or unclear data[edit]

Antarctica[edit]

Extremely low resolution area in Google Earth covers over 3 million square miles.

East / South Asia[edit]

South Korea[edit]

South Korean online map services Daum Maps and Naver Maps, as well as Bing maps, censor a substantial part of their satellite/aerial imagery. Every military used land (US and ROK) is altered to show woodland or mountains. Also the nuclear reactor sites and many airports and possibly other civilian infrastructure. The national mint is pixellated. Google Maps does not have these omissions for South Korea.

Taiwan[edit]

Rounded irregular areas overlaid with older imagery, etc.

Coordinates Object Notes Link
24°12′22″N 120°36′26″E / 24.206117°N 120.607181°E / 24.206117; 120.607181 (northwestern Taichung (Taizhong) Taiwan) Taichung Older imagery of cruise missile base[citation needed] overlays newer science park [1]
25°02′42″N 121°36′12″E / 25.044976°N 121.60346°E / 25.044976; 121.60346 (Nangang, Taipei (Taibei) Taiwan) Nangang 202 Military Factory Oval overlay [2]
24°12′26″N 120°48′01″E / 24.207203°N 120.800278°E / 24.207203; 120.800278 (Xinshe, Taiwan) Xinshe military reservations Two military reservations, cut and pasted [3]
24°09′04″N 120°44′11″E / 24.15111°N 120.736259°E / 24.15111; 120.736259 (Taiping, Taiwan) Taiping military reservations Military reservations, cut and pasted [4]
24°11′11″N 120°39′03″E / 24.18626°N 120.65074°E / 24.18626; 120.65074 (Shuinan, Taichung (Taizhong), Taiwan) Shuinan Airport (RCLG) Airport (Ching Chuan Kang Air Base), cut and pasted. [5]
25°06′27″N 121°32′09″E / 25.107496°N 121.535756°E / 25.107496; 121.535756 (National Security Bureau Headquarters) National Security Bureau Headquarters Pixelization [6]
25°02′50″N 121°35′29″E / 25.047352°N 121.591471°E / 25.047352; 121.591471 (Army Logistics Command headquarters, Taiwan) Army Logistics Command headquarters building in Nangang, Taipei, Taiwan Pixelization [7]
25°02′23″N 121°32′23″E / 25.03986°N 121.53977°E / 25.03986; 121.53977 (Republic of China Air Force facility, Taiwan) Republic of China Air Force facility in Daan District, Taipei, Taiwan Pixelization [8]

The above are but a few examples. Pixelization also occurs for bases like zh:成功嶺.

In addition, whole areas like downtown Taipei, Taichung, and Kaohsiung have not been updated since 2006, due to restrictions posed by the Land Surveying and Mapping Act, etc.

Pakistan[edit]

Coordinates Object Notes Link
27°51′0″N 65°10′0″E / 27.85000°N 65.16667°E / 27.85000; 65.16667 (Predator Air Base) Shamsi Airfield[8] Unmanned Predators. Images from 2006 were removed. Images from 2007 have runway markings removed. [9]

Nepal[edit]

Coordinates Object Notes Link
27°47′45″N 86°48′50″E / 27.79583°N 86.81389°E / 27.79583; 86.81389 (Predator Air Base) Kangtega Black blur near Kangtedga, 20 miles south of Mount Everest, appears to be missing satellite data. [10]

Southeast Asia[edit]

Coordinates Object Notes Link
16°20′53.3″N 112°04′26.5″E / 16.348139°N 112.074028°E / 16.348139; 112.074028 (Paracel Islands) Paracel Islands Area has random striped-over sections. Many segments of the area appear cut and pasted from elsewhere, do not match surrounding imagery as well. [11]

Central Asia[edit]

Turkmenistan[edit]

Coordinates Object Notes Link
41°10′22.57″N 53°42′15.47″E / 41.1729361°N 53.7042972°E / 41.1729361; 53.7042972 (Garabogazköl Basin) Garabogazköl The Garabogazköl Basin is shown pixelated in Fourmilab, in all other mapping services it appears as a normal lagoon. [12]

Natural gas purification plants and gas complexes located in Yoloten region of South Turkmenistan are also replaced with desert images.

SW Asia[edit]

Israel[edit]

Coordinates Object Notes Link
31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35 (Garabogazköl Basin) Israel The entire country of Israel is shown pixelated in all mapping services, including Google maps, mapquest, Bing, etc.. [13]

The entire country of Israel, as well as the Israeli-occupied territories of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, is shown pixelated in all mapping services. This is a result of the Kyl-Bingaman Amendment to the National Defense Authorization Act of 1997. The amendment is titled "Prohibition on collection and release of detailed satellite imagery relating to Israel" and requires NOAA's Commercial Remote Sensing Regulatory Affairs agency to regulate the distribution of zoomed images of Israel.

Europe[edit]

France[edit]

Coordinates Object Notes Link
46°42′47″N 1°14′39″E / 46.713056°N 1.244167°E / 46.713056; 1.244167 (HWU transmitter) HWU transmitter reduced resolution [14]
21°50′00″S 138°50′00″W / 21.833333°S 138.833333°W / -21.833333; -138.833333 (Moruroa) Moruroa Airstrip, dock and buildings greyed out [15]
44°8′36″N 4°42′34″E / 44.14333°N 4.70944°E / 44.14333; 4.70944 (Marcoule) Marcoule The Marcoule site of the Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique is shown in reduced resolution. [16]
49°40′49″N 1°52′48″W / 49.68028°N 1.88000°W / 49.68028; -1.88000 (AREVA La Hague nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) AREVA La Hague nuclear fuel reprocessing facility The AREVA La Hague nuclear fuel reprocessing facility is shown in reduced resolution. [17]
43°42′25.8″N 5°46′31.4″E / 43.707167°N 5.775389°E / 43.707167; 5.775389 (ITER Tokamak Complex) ITER Tokamak Complex & Surrounding Facilities ITER Complex, CEA Cadarache Nuclear Research Center shown in reduced resolution [18]

Ile du Ramier, Toulouse (Link), the location of the National Organization for Powder and Explosives (preparation of phosgene for the aerospace industry and other form of explosive gas including Sulfur Mustard). The AZF chemical factory is pixelated, but Google Maps feature links to a detailed photo of the factory. Reims – Champagne Air Base.

A number of French military installations are pixelated, including the naval bases at Toulon and Brest.Also parts of Istres-Le Tubé Air Base are pixelated.

Germany[edit]

Coordinates Object Notes Link
50°57′38″N 6°2′32″E / 50.96056°N 6.04222°E / 50.96056; 6.04222 (NATO Air Base Geilenkirchen) NATO Air Base Geilenkirchen Whereas the western side of the base is severely blurred on Google Maps, a high-resolution aerial view of the base is available on Bing. [19]
50°57′17″N 6°3′33″E / 50.95472°N 6.05917°E / 50.95472; 6.05917 (NATO Air Base Geilenkirchen) NATO Air Base Geilenkirchen A camouflage pattern covers a big area southeast of the NATO airport. A high-resolution aerial view of the area is available on Bing. [20]
48°42′56″N 11°32′02″E / 48.71556°N 11.53389°E / 48.71556; 11.53389 (Ingolstadt Manching Airport) Ingolstadt Manching Airport No longer blurred on Google Maps. Entire airport blurred out on Bing Maps aerial view. [21]

Iceland[edit]

Coordinates Object Notes Link
64°30′58.9″N 18°03′58.6″W / 64.516361°N 18.066278°W / 64.516361; -18.066278 (Area south of Hagonulon Reservoir) Area south of Hagonulon Reservoir The image has borders that look like a patch. [22]


Ireland[edit]

Coordinates Object Notes Link
53°02′16.69″N 7°17′10.72″W / 53.0379694°N 7.2863111°W / 53.0379694; -7.2863111 (Portlaoise Prison) Portlaoise Maximum Security Prison An old satellite image from 2005 is superimposed over newer images for the entire area of the prison. The prison houses convicted members of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) and other illegal paramilitary organisations. The security features include an army detachment of the Irish Defence Forces armed with assault rifles and anti-aircraft machine guns. An air exclusion zone operates over the entire complex. [23]

The Netherlands[edit]

Coordinates Object Notes Link
50°56′16.85″N 5°58′45.89″E / 50.9380139°N 5.9794139°E / 50.9380139; 5.9794139 (unknown) Joint Force Command Brunssum Images smudged on Google maps, images blurred in Bing Maps. Marked as AFCENT on maps. Ok in Yandex maps. [24][25]
51°28′32.48″N 05°22′7.66″E / 51.4756889°N 5.3687944°E / 51.4756889; 5.3687944 (Generaal Majoor de Ruyter van Steveninck Kazerne) Generaal Majoor de Ruyter van Steveninck Kazerne [26]
51°33′06.45″N 04°56′5.56″E / 51.5517917°N 4.9348778°E / 51.5517917; 4.9348778 (Gilze-Rijen Air Base) Gilze-Rijen Air Base Pixelization [27]
52°07′25.94″N 05°21′30.12″E / 52.1238722°N 5.3583667°E / 52.1238722; 5.3583667 (Personeelsvereniging Tankwerkplaats) Personeelsvereniging Tankwerkplaats Good example of censoring. Visible on Bing. [28]
52°14′55.40″N 04°26′22.74″E / 52.2487222°N 4.4396500°E / 52.2487222; 4.4396500 (ESA) part of Noordwijk aan Zee Former location of the "Defensie Pijpleiding Organisatie" offices, was not meant to be blurred. [29]
52°16′29.38″N 06°53′38.11″E / 52.2748278°N 6.8939194°E / 52.2748278; 6.8939194 (Twente Air Force Base) Twente Air Force Base [30]
52°26′47.00″N 05°59′40.00″E / 52.4463889°N 5.9944444°E / 52.4463889; 5.9944444 (Prinses Margriet Army Base) Prinses Margriet Army Base [31]
51°39′27.54″N 5°42′12.58″E / 51.6576500°N 5.7034944°E / 51.6576500; 5.7034944 (Volkel Air Force Base) Volkel Air Force Base [32]
52°02′12.85″N 05°40′45.82″E / 52.0369028°N 5.6793944°E / 52.0369028; 5.6793944 (Command and Control Support) Command and Control Support [33]
53°02′00″N 6°25′49″E / 53.03347°N 6.4303°E / 53.03347; 6.4303 (Munitiecomplex Veenhuizen) Munitiecomplex Veenhuizen Ammunition depot [34]
52°03′26.72″N 5°52′37.88″E / 52.0574222°N 5.8771889°E / 52.0574222; 5.8771889 (Deelen) Deelen Air Base [35]
Eindhoven airport Civil airport, very pixelated.

Poland[edit]

Coordinates Object Notes Link
52°13′18″N 21°00′09″E / 52.221648°N 21.002371°E / 52.221648; 21.002371 (AMW) Urban quarter in Warsaw The quarter containing the offices of the Military Property Agency and the Military Technical Supervision Office is blurred out. Area unobscured on Bing Maps. [36]

Portugal[edit]

Coordinates Object Notes Link
38°42′15″N 9°12′24″W / 38.7042°N 9.20677°W / 38.7042; -9.20677 (Ministério da Defesa) Ministério da Defesa Defense Ministry Offices Lisbon. Blurry image shown, but data layers are integrated when looking at previous dates. [37]

Russia[edit]

Coordinates Object Notes Link
51°9′12.9″N 29°58′55.29″E / 51.153583°N 29.9820250°E / 51.153583; 29.9820250 Rassokha Equipment Cemetery [38]
79°19′22.8″N 95°19′42.13″E / 79.323000°N 95.3283694°E / 79.323000; 95.3283694 Severnaya Zemlya, a large archipelago off the north coast of Russia.

All of the major islands have obviously been blurred.

[39]

Spain[edit]

Coordinates Object Notes Link
42°16′45″N 3°14′17″E / 42.279205°N 3.238075°E / 42.279205; 3.238075 (Roses) Aerial Military Radar, Roses, Girona Black zone in google maps and completely blurred in Bing.
40°27′55″N 3°44′00″W / 40.465201°N 3.733313°W / 40.465201; -3.733313 (Puerta de Hierro) Area in Puerta de Hierro, Madrid Regimiento Estratégico de Transmisiones número 22 (RETES22) "Strategic Signals Regiment number 22" [9][10]

Image not consistent with surroundings. Completely blurred in Bing.

[40]
40°24′25″N 3°47′16″W / 40.40706°N 3.78772°W / 40.40706; -3.78772 (Puerta de Hierro) Area in Somosaguas, Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid Mando de Transmisiones del Ejército "Army Command Signals"[10][11]

Censored in Bing Bird's Eye view.

[41]
37°39′29″N 1°00′44″W / 37.658157°N 1.012094°W / 37.658157; -1.012094 (Helipuerto de Cartagena) Helipuerto de Cartagena Cartagena Heliport censored in Google Maps and in 2007 for Google Earth. [42]
36°44′51″N 2°43′06″W / 36.747447°N 2.718279°W / 36.747447; -2.718279 (El Ejido) El Ejido Heliport censored in most maps. Visible in Google Earth between June 2005 and March 2007. [43]
36°40′38″N 4°30′14″W / 36.677281°N 4.503900°W / 36.677281; -4.503900 (Malaga Airport) Málaga Airport runway 13/31 The airbase connected to Málaga Airport is censored in most maps, the runway itself is even censored in Bing Maps. Visible as of June 2015 in Google. [44]

Sweden[edit]

Coordinates Object Notes Link
59°09′49″N 17°40′58″E / 59.163661°N 17.682741°E / 59.163661; 17.682741 (Hall High-security prison) Hall High-security prison south of Sodertalje Hall High-security prison. Link to Bing [12] Blurred in Bing. Although Visible in Google. [45]
59°19′55″N 17°51′20″E / 59.332046°N 17.855496°E / 59.332046; 17.855496 (Försvarets Radioanstalt - Swedish National Defence Radio Establishment) Försvarets Radioanstalt - West of Stockholm near Drottningholm Facility surrounded partially by woods which is blurred in Bing and Yahoo Maps. Replaced with badly edited overlay of woods in Eniro.se and Hitta.se. Clear in Google Maps. [46]
59°20′47″N 18°05′14″E / 59.346302°N 18.087294°E / 59.346302; 18.087294 (Högkvarteret (HKV) - Swedish Armed Forces Headquarters) Högkvarteret (HKV) - Near the port of Stockholm Headquarters of the Swedish Armed Forces. A square, red brick building.

Censored in Apple's Maps and Bing - Link to Bing.[13]

Clear in Google Maps, Google Earth, Hitta.se and Eniro.se

[47]

Turkey[edit]

All satellite images of Turkey for certain zoom levels are either missing or blurry countrywide on Google Maps. This problem was first discovered in Google Maps for Android app. Then, it turns out the problem is not platform-specific and countrywide. The satellite images are also blurry in the maps.google.com.tr domain since September 2015, but not in the maps.google.com domain. Lots of people are reporting the same issue in Google product forums but the problem still continues and there is not any statement made by Google about the issue.[14] There is no problem in satellite images with Bing Maps, Yandex Maps, Yahoo Maps and Apple's Maps. Also the google earth app for ios removed from Turkish Apple store.

Maps TimeLine is also not available on Google Maps for Mobile. Just as the satellite view problem, Location History can be seen on "google.com/maps" domain, but not on the mobile phone and "google.com.tr/maps" domain.

North America[edit]

In November 2015, the City of Adelanto, California adopted ordinances that allow for the cultivation of Medical Marijuana inside of the cities industrial parks 2, 3 and 4. Since this has happened the industrial parks have been covered over in Google Earth and only show up as blank white shapes. The parks are completely covered over. Google Earth also stopped showing parcels of land and APN numbers. Industrial Park 2 is within the borders of Yucca Rd., Raccoon Rd., Koala Rd. and Rancho Rd.

United States[edit]

Coordinates Object Notes Link
38°53′51.61″N 77°02′11.58″W / 38.8976694°N 77.0365500°W / 38.8976694; -77.0365500 (White House and environs) The White House and environs. Buildings blurred or otherwise censored for various dates in Google Earth. Other years the area lacks any censorship. [48]
38°53′22.99″N 77°0′01″W / 38.8897194°N 77.00028°W / 38.8897194; -77.00028 (U.S. Capitol and environs) The United States Capitol and environs. Buildings blurred or otherwise censored for various dates in Google Earth. Other years the area lacks any censorship. [49]
38°55′16.64″N 77°04′01″W / 38.9212889°N 77.06694°W / 38.9212889; -77.06694 (Naval Observatory/Residence of Vice President Dick Cheney) Number One Observatory Circle, official residence of the Vice President of the United States Buildings blurred for various dates in Google Earth. Other years the area lacks any obfuscation. [50]
42°06′53.032″N 76°49′44.64″W / 42.11473111°N 76.8290667°W / 42.11473111; -76.8290667 (Elmira Correctional Facility) Elmira Correctional Facility (maximum security prison), Elmira, New York Censored for 4 September 2006 in Google Earth. [51]
42°56′4.92″N 76°34′27.64″W / 42.9347000°N 76.5743444°W / 42.9347000; -76.5743444 (Auburn Correctional Facility) Auburn Correctional Facility (maximum security prison), Auburn, New York Shown as censored, however not in all years. [52]
42°9′36″N 76°53′30″W / 42.16000°N 76.89167°W / 42.16000; -76.89167 (Elmira-Corning Regional Airport) Elmira-Corning Regional Airport, Big Flats, New York Censored on date 29 April 2006 in Google Earth. [53]
42°26′32.69″N 76°28′26.04″W / 42.4424139°N 76.4739000°W / 42.4424139; -76.4739000 (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY) Cornell University Combined Heat and Power Plant in Ithaca, New York Facility blurred in Google, but not on Bing Maps. [54]
32°22′18″N 103°47′37″W / 32.37167°N 103.79361°W / 32.37167; -103.79361 (WIPP) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico A site one mile south of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is blurred out on Bing Maps. [55]
44°57′12″N 74°53′06″W / 44.95333°N 74.88500°W / 44.95333; -74.88500 (Alcoa) Alcoa aluminum smelting plants and adjacent areas in Massena, New York Facility blurred in Google, but not on Bing Maps. [56]
42°34′12″N 71°31′23″W / 42.57000°N 71.52306°W / 42.57000; -71.52306 (Sandy Pond Converter Station) National Grid's Sandy Pond converter station in Ayer, Massachusetts; southern terminus of the Quebec – New England Transmission Facility blurred on Bing Maps, but not on Google Maps. [57]
44°2′24.34″N 75°45′36.32″W / 44.0400944°N 75.7600889°W / 44.0400944; -75.7600889 (Fort Drum) Fort Drum, U.S. Army base and home of the 10th Mountain Division. The grounds and all buildings are blurred on Google Maps, but not on Bing Maps. [58]
34°6′53.32″N 118°20′27.02″W / 34.1148111°N 118.3408389°W / 34.1148111; -118.3408389 (Hollywood Bowl) Hollywood Bowl, Object North of Hollywood Bowl. An object is blacked out in 45° view only. Older images from Bing and Yahoo, as well as the standard Google Maps view, are not obscured. There is nothing of interest at the location. [59]
62°23′30″N 145°09′00″W / 62.39167°N 145.15000°W / 62.39167; -145.15000 (HAARP) The large chunk of land north of HAARP in Alaska The large surface of land above the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility has been left at a lower resolution than its surrounding area. Both Google Maps and Bing Maps.[needs update] [60]
41°28′21.1″N 81°41′52.39″W / 41.472528°N 81.6978861°W / 41.472528; -81.6978861 Wooden house at 2207 Seymour Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio Street view is obscured in Google. Home of Ariel Castro, demolished on 7 August 2013. [61]
39°27′24.7″N 76°09′13.7″W / 39.456861°N 76.153806°W / 39.456861; -76.153806 (Aberdeen Proving Ground) Aberdeen Proving Ground Censored in Bing Maps aerial and "Bird's Eye" oblique views. Lower resolution than surrounding areas, with irregular boundaries. [62]
31°7′50.3″N 105°41′33.7″W / 31.130639°N 105.692694°W / 31.130639; -105.692694 (Aberdeen Proving Ground) United States–Mexico border in Hudspeth County, Texas An approximately 15-mile stretch of the Rio Grande is intentionally distorted in Google Maps. [63]
40°40′27.5″N 73°57′26.2″W / 40.674306°N 73.957278°W / 40.674306; -73.957278 (612 Park Place) 621 Park Place near Park Place Subway Station, Brooklyn, New York Street view is obscured in Google at most angles (although not directly in front of the building). There is nothing of interest at the location. The building appears unblurred in Google Earth and on Bing Maps. [64]

South America[edit]

Chile[edit]

Coordinates Object Notes Link
43°11′56.11″S 74°15′50.91″W / 43.1989194°S 74.2641417°W / -43.1989194; -74.2641417 (Tantauco) Tantauco National Park Small area of low resolution imagery. [65]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Deshpande, Rajeev (4 February 2007). "Google Earth agrees to blur pix of key Indian sites". The Times of India. [dead link]
  2. ^ "Westchester 'Blurs' Out Terror Targets On Google". WCBS-TV. 8 May 2008. Archived from the original on 10 May 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2015. 
  3. ^ Johnson, Jenna (22 July 2007). "Google's View of D.C. Melds New and Sharp, Old and Fuzzy". Washington Post. Retrieved 23 May 2010. 
  4. ^ "Google Earth prompts Indian fears". BBC News. 5 February 2007. Archived from the original on 8 March 2008. 
  5. ^ Skatssoon, Judy (8 August 2005). "Lucas Heights image stays on Google". 34.0516520;150.9804300: ABC. Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  6. ^ Moses, Asher (13 February 1989). "Google's photos of Sydney go all fuzzy". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 13 August 2007. 
  7. ^ Parliament In Brief: ‘No need to blur images’ Archived May 9, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ Shachtman, Noah (19 February 2009). "Google Earth Shows U.S. Drones at Pakistani Base?". Wired. 
  9. ^ "Sitios Censurados De Espa/Ñ/A En Google Earth -Foro España" (in Spanish). Google-Earth.es. Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  10. ^ a b "Edificio invisible en Madrid". Urbanity.es. 5 May 2010. Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  11. ^ "Photo of Pozuelo de Alarcón - Antenas del cuartel de transmisiones". Panoramio. 18 February 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  12. ^ "Bing Maps - Driving Directions, Traffic and Road Conditions". Bing.com. 19 June 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  13. ^ "Bing Maps - Driving Directions, Traffic and Road Conditions". Bing.com. 19 June 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  14. ^ "Google Groups". productforums.google.com. Retrieved 2016-03-29. 

External links[edit]