Sati (castle)

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Position of Sati in 1448

Sati (Serbian Cyrillic: Шати, Latin: Satti, Albanian: Shati) was a medieval fortified town near Shkodër in contemporary Albania. Between 1395 and 1459, it passed through the control of the Venetian Republic, the Dukagjini family, the Ottoman Empire, and Skanderbeg, who razed it sometime after 1459.

History[edit]

Lordship of Zeta and Zaharia family[edit]

Together with Scutari and surrounding region, Sati was a part of the Lordship of Zeta until 1395. It belonged to the fief of Konstantin Balšić who appointed Koja Zaharia as Sati's castellan. In 1395 Balša II ceded Sati, together with Scutari and Drivast, to the Venetian Republic in order to create a buffer zone between his lordship and the Ottoman Empire. Zaharia refused to allow Venetians to take control of Sati and proclaimed himself lord of Sati and Dagnum ("dominus Sabatensis et Dagnensis").[1] Venetians attempted to capture Sati by force in 1396 but without success because Zaharia was supported by Ottoman Empire since in the meantime he had become an Ottoman vassal.[2] Still, after a year Venetians managed to convince Koja to allow them to appoint Venetian citizen Progon Dukagjin on the position of castellan of Sati.[3]

The Zaharia family was able to consolidate its control of Sati; another member, Petar or Pjetër was bishop of Sati (eрisсорus Sati) in 1417.[4] After his death, Koja Zaharia was succeeded by his son Lekë Zaharia.

During Skanderbeg's rebellion[edit]

Lekë Zaharia was killed in 1444 by his pronoiar, Nicholas Dukagjini. Because Lekë Zaharia joined the League of Lezhe in 1444 and Dukagjin was also a member, Skanderbeg requested that Venice cede Zaharia's former pronoia to him. In spite of Skanderbeg's claims, Zaharia's mother Boša and the population of Zaharia's pronoia supported the Venetian takeover of their towns, including Sati, because they were hostile toward Skanderbeg's League of Lezhe and preferred Venice to any local supporter of the League.[5] Nikola Dukagjin continued his struggle, now against the new authorities, and managed to capture Sati and several villages without a fight.[6] In 1446, Dukagjin appears in Venetian archives as a "former enemy" (tunc hostis noster).[7]

After Venetian recaptured Dagnum from Lekë Dukagjini at the beginning of September 1457, the governor of Scutari initially granted the Zadrima region to Draga Dukagjin (another member of Dukagjin family and enemy of Lekë Dukagjini) under the excuse that it belonged to Sati.[8] Draga Dukagjin, who was upset because of the treaty between Venetians and Lekë and Pal Dukagjini, begged the Venetian Senate to confirm his rights over the fortress of Sati.[9] The Venetian Senate did not accept the decision of Scutari's governor and confirmed Draga Dukagjin's rights over Sati and the surrounding area on 11 September 1458.[10]

In 1459, Skanderbeg's forces captured Sati from the Ottoman Empire and Skanderbeg ceded it to Venice in order to secure a cordial relationship with its Signoria before he sent his troops to Italy to help King Ferdinand to regain and maintain his kingdom after the death of king Alfonso V of Aragon.[11][12] According to the treaty, the Venetians had an obligation to raze the fortress and to take away from the hill all remaining construction material to prevent future rebuilding of the fortress.[13] Before the Venetians took control of Sati, Skanderbeg captured it and the surrounding area, driving Lekë Dukagjini and his forces away, then destroyed Sati.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Šufflay 1925, p. 49

    Na papiru ili pergameni predaje Djurdje tom zgodom Mlečanima i »grad Sati s carinom na Danju«. Ali dočim Skadar i Drivast domala i bez zapreke preuzimaju mletački provedituri, mali gradići u gudurama Drina, Danj i Sati, ostaju za njih Tih mjesta, u kojima 1395 vlada Kostadin Balšić, ne će izručiti njegov kaštelan, Arbanas Coya Zaccaria. On se poslije nazivao »dominus Sabatensis et Dagnensis« i bio čas turski kletvenik, čas mletački saveznik..

  2. ^ Albanološki institut u Prištini 1968, p. 124

    ...,Uprkos pokusaju Mlecana da se već 1396. godine silom do kopaju tvrdave Sati, Koja Zakarija je kao sultanov vazal ostao.

  3. ^ Bešić 1970, p. 73

    Тек послије годину дана скадарски кнез се споразудшос Којом Закаријом да се за капетана Шатија постави Прогон Дукађин, који је био млетачки поданик и Којин зет у исти мах.)

  4. ^ Antonović 2003, p. 238

    ...,Петар 3ахариjа носи титулу Сапског (1402: Sabatanus, 1410: Sabatensis) епископа. Менутим, веп 1417. године, приликом расподеле бивше параспорне земле коjу jе држао епископ ове дщецезе, н>егова титула гласи eрisсорus Sati.

  5. ^ Van Antwerp Fine 1987, p. 557

    ...,Venice quickly sent a force into Danj and received support of Lekë's mother and local populace, who preferred Venice to any of local Albanians who all supported Skanderbeg's league... The town's hostility toward Albanian league... Venice also took Zakarija's other towns of Sati, Gladri and Dušmani,... Dukagjini chiefs. A few members of this family, particularly some residing in Skadar, remained loyal to Venice.

  6. ^ Božić 1979, p. 365

    Никола Дукађин наставио је борбу против нових господара Дања; заузео је Сати и неколико села која се нису могла бранити.

  7. ^ Božić 1979, p. 365

    Не види се како је склопљен мир и под којим се условима Никола споразумео са Млечанима. Тек он се 1446 године помиње као бивши непријатељ (tunc hostis noster)

  8. ^ Antonović 2003, p. 241

    ...Када је почетком септембра 1457.г. Дањ преотет од Леке Дукађина, његовом противнику из исте породице, Драгу, дато је Подримље и то уз тврдњу да оно припада Шатију.

  9. ^ Božić 1979, p. 376

    ... узнемирио је Драгу Дукађина и он је молио Сенат да му потврди право на тврђаву Сати, коју је приликом последње провале био заузео Лека Дукађин...

  10. ^ Antonović 2003, p. 241

    ...Годину дана касније, 11. IX 1458. године, приликом договора са Драгом Дукађином, овоме је ипак потврђен Шати са околином

  11. ^ Gegaj 1937, p. 120

    En 1459, Scanderbeg occupa la ville de Sati (Sapa) et beaucoup d'autres localites. Bien qu'il eut enleve ces places aux Turcs, il se montra dispose a les ceder a la republique de Venise.

  12. ^ Noli 1947, p. 65

    After the death of Alphonse V rapprochement with Venice became necessity. It came very slowly and painfully. In 1459 he returned the fortress of Sati to the Venetians though he had conquered it from the Turks.

  13. ^ Božić 1979, p. 376

    ... и тврђаву Сати са околином. Млечани би тада тврђаву порушили и материјал однели с брда, тако да ту нико више не би могао дизати утврђење...

  14. ^ Božić 1979, p. 378

    Када је Лека порушио тврђаву Сати пре него што ће је предати Млечанима, Скендербег је заузео град и села по његовој околини, потиснувши одатле Леку.

Sources[edit]