Satoshi Ōmura, Nobel Laureate in medicine in Stockholm December 2015
|Native name||大村 智|
|Born||12 July 1935|
Nirasaki, Yamanashi, Japan
|Alma mater||University of Yamanashi|
Tokyo University of Science (M.S., Sc. D.)
|Known for||Avermectin and Ivermectin|
Discoveries more than 480 new compounds
|Awards||Japan Academy Prize (1990)|
Koch Gold Medal (1997)
Gairdner Global Health Award (2014)
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (2015)
|Academic advisors||Koji Nakanishi|
Satoshi Ōmura [satoɕi oːmu͍ɽa] (大村 智 Ōmura Satoshi, born 12 July 1935) is a Japanese biochemist. He is known for the discovery and development of various pharmaceuticals originally occurring in microorganisms. In 2015, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine jointly with William C. Campbell and Tu Youyou.
Early life and education
Satoshi Ōmura was born in Nirasaki, Yamanashi, Japan, in 1935, the second son of Ōmura family. After graduating from the University of Yamanashi in 1958, he was appointed to science teacher at Tokyo Metropolitan Sumida Tech High School. In 1960, he became an auditor of Koji Nakanishi’s course at Tokyo University of Education, one year later, he enrolled in the Tokyo University of Science (TUS) and studied sciences. Ōmura received his M.S. degree from TUS and his Ph.D. in Pharmaceutical Sciences from the University of Tokyo (1968, a Dissertation PhD) and a Ph.D. in Chemistry at TUS (1970).
In 1971, he was a visiting professor at Wesleyan University, he consulted the chairman of the American Chemical Society, Max Tishler, at the a Canadian international conference. Finally, they succeeded in acquiring research expenses from Merck & Co. .
Ōmura was considering continuing his research in the United States, but he ultimately decided to move back to Japan. In 1973, he became a director of the antibiotic laboratory at Kitasato University, and he also started collaborative research with Merck & Co. . In 1975, he became professor of Kitasato University School of Pharmacy. Meanwhile, the Ōmura laboratory raised many researchers and produced 31 university professors and 120 doctors.
At present date, Ōmura is professor emeritus at Kitasato University and Max Tishler Professor of Chemistry at Wesleyan University.
Satoshi Ōmura is known for the discovery and development of various pharmaceuticals originally occurring in microorganisms. He was awarded the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine jointly with William C. Campbell and Tu Youyou for discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites. More precisely, his research group isolated a strain of Streptomyces avermitilis that produce the anti-parasitical compound avermectin. Campbell later acquired these bacteria and developed the derived drug ivermectin that is today used against river blindness, lymphatic filariasis and other parasitic infections.
Since 1970s, Ōmura discoveries more than 480 new compounds, there are 25 kinds of drugs and reagents in use, such as a specific inhibitor of protein kinase: staurosporine, a proteasome inhibitor: lactacystin, a fatty acid biosynthesis inhibitor: cerulenin, and andrastin, herbimycin, neoxaline, and so on, which have greatly contributed to the elucidation of life phenomena. Furthermore, compounds having a unique structure and biological activity discovered by Omura are drawing attention as lead compounds in drug discovery research, and new anticancer drugs and the like have been created.
A Children's statues leading to adults of onchocerciasis before Kitasato University buildings were produced by sculptors of Burkina Faso in honor of Ōmura's contributions of avermectin and ivermectin, a symbol of the campaign to eradicate onchocerciasis, the similar life-sized Bronze statue is built in World Health Organization (WHO) Headquarters, Carter Center, Merck & Co., World Bank Headquarters, and Burkina Faso's World Health Organization Africa Onchocerciasis Control Program.
Ōmura served as deputy director and director at the Kitasato Institute, he was devoted to rebuild the laboratory and promoting the establishment of the medical center (now Kitasato University Medical Center). Meanwhile, he establishing a path to rebuilding of the corporate (school juridical person), it has integrated with the School corporation Kitasato Gakuen and has succeeded in establishing a new "School corporation Kitasato Institute". In addition, in the education field, he served as president of the School corporation Joshibi University of Art and Design twice, and served as the honorary school chief of the School corporation Kaichi Gakuen. In 2007, he established the Nirasaki Omura Art Museum on his collection.
Awards and honors
- 1985 – Hoechst-Roussel Award
- 1986 – The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan Award
- 1988 – Uehara Prize
- 1990 – Japan Academy Prize (academics)
- 1992 – Medal with Purple Ribbon
- 1995 – Fujihara Award
- 1997 – Robert Koch Gold Medal
- 1998 – Prince Mahidol Award
- 2000 – Nakanishi Prize (American Chemical Society and Chemical Society of Japan)
- 2005 – Ernest Guenther Award in the Chemistry of Natural Products (American Chemical Society)
- 2007 – Hamao Umezawa Memorial Award
- 2008 – Knight of the Legion of Honour of France
- 2010 – Tetrahedron Prize for Creativity in Organic Chemistry
- 2011 – Arima Award
- 2011 – Order of the Sacred Treasure, Gold and Silver Star
- 2012 – Person of Cultural Merit
- 2014 – Canada Gairdner Global Health Award
- 2015 – Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
List of honorary doctorate:
- 1992 – Lajos Kossuth University, Hungary
- 1994 – Wesleyan University, USA
- 2016 – Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
- 2018 – University of St Andrews, Scotland
Learned societies membership
- 1992 – Academy of Sciences Leopoldina
- 1999 – National Academy of Sciences
- 2001 – Japan Academy
- 2002 – Académie des sciences
- 2005 – Russian Academy of Sciences
- 2005 – Royal Society of Chemistry
- 2005 – Academia Europaea
- 2006 – Chinese Academy of Engineering
- 2009 – Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology and Agrochemistry
- 2014 – Pharmaceutical Society of Japan (ja)
- 2016 – Japan Pharmaceutical Association
- 2016 – Japan Society of Synthetic Organic Chemistry
- 2016 – Japan Society of Chemotherapy
- Ōmura, S.; wai, A.; Hirano, A.; Nakagawa, A.; Awaya, J.; Tsuchiya, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Masuma, R. (1977). "A new alkaloid AM-2282 of Streptomyces origin: Fermentation, isolation and preliminary characterization". J. Antibiot. 30 (4): 275–282. doi:10.7164/antibiotics.30.275. PMID 863788.
- Burg, R. W.; Miller, B. M.; Baker, E. E.; Birnbaum, J.; Currie, S. A.; Hartman, R.; Kong, Y.-L.; Monaghan, R.; Olson, G.; Putter, I.; Tunac, J. B.; Wallick, H.; Stapley, E. O.; Oiwa, R.; Ōmura, S. (1979). "Avermectins, new family of potent anthelmintic agents: producing organism and fermentation". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 15 (3): 61–367. doi:10.1128/AAC.15.3.361. PMC 352666. PMID 464561.
- Hopwood, D.A.; Malphatida, F.; Kieser, H.M.; Ikeda, J.; Juncan, J.; Fujii, B.A.M.; Rudd, H.; Floss, G.; Ōmura, S. (1984). "Production of 'hybrid' antibiotics by genetic engineering". Nature. 314 (6012): 642–644. doi:10.1038/314642a0. PMC 180355. PMID 3460518.
- Ikeda, H.; Nonomiya, T.; Usami, M.; Ohta, T; Ōmura, S. (1999). "Organization of the biosynthetic gene cluster for the polyketide anthelmintic macrolide avermectin in Streptomyces avermitilis". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 96 (17): 9509–9514. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.17.9509. PMC 22239. PMID 10449723.
- Hayashi, M.; Rho, M.-C.; Enomoto, A.; Fukami, A.; Kim, Y.-P.; Kikuchi, Y.; Sunazuka, T.; Hirose, T.; Komiyama, K.; Ōmura, S. (2002). "Suppression of bone resorption by madindoline A, a novel nonpeptide antagonist to gp130". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99 (21): 14728–14739. doi:10.1073/pnas.211433198. PMC 59794. PMID 11572948.
- Hirose, T.; Sunazuka, T.; Ōmura, S. (2010). "Recent development of two chitinase inhibitors, argifin and argadin, produced by soil microorganisms (Rev. article)". Proc. Jpn. Acad. 86 (2): 85–102. doi:10.2183/pjab.86.85. PMC 3417560. PMID 20154467.
- Matoba, N.; Husk, A.S.; Barnett, B.W.; Pickel, M.M.; Arntzen, C.J.; Montefiori, D.C.; Takahashi, A.; Tanno, K; Omura, Satoshi; Cao, C.; Mooney, J.P.; Hanson, C.V.; Tanaka, H. (2010). "HIV-1 Neutralization Profile and Plant-Based Recombinant Expression of Actinohivin, an Env Glycan-Specific Lectin Devoid of T-Cell Mitogenic Activity". PLoS ONE. 5 (6): e11143. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011143. PMC 2886112. PMID 20559567.
- Nakano, H.; Ōmura, S. (2009). "Chemical biology of natural indolocarbazole products: 30 years since the discovery of staurosporine (Review article)". J. Antibiot. 62 (1): 17–26. doi:10.1038/ja.2008.4. PMID 19132059.
- Ōmura, S. (2011). "Microbial metabolites: 45 years of wandering, wondering and discovering". Tetrahedron. 67: 6420–6459. doi:10.1016/j.tet.2011.03.117.
- Avermectin and Ivermectin
- Lactacystin, Cerulenin, Andrastin A, Herbimycin, and Neoxaline
- Merck & Co.
- Koji Nakanishi
- Tohru Fukuyama
- Kitasato Shibasaburō
- List of Japanese Nobel laureates
- List of Nobel laureates affiliated with the University of Tokyo
- "Satoshi Omura PhD". Retrieved 5 October 2015.
- 大村智北里研究所顧問・北里大学名誉教授が文化功労者に 北里大学 2012年11月1日
- [from ストックホルム「これからは人材の育成に努力します」大村先生が語った受賞後の活動]TUSToday 2015.12.18
- 「【ノーベル賞受賞】大村智氏、常識破りの発想で治療薬開発 」 産経ニュース2015.10.5
- 「 新しい微生物創薬の世界を切り開く 」 JT
- "Japanese microbiologist Satoshi Omura shares Nobel Prize for medicine". The Japan Times. 5 October 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
- 新しい微生物創薬の世界を切り開く | サイエンティスト・ライブラリー | JT生命誌研究館
- "大村先生". 開智学園高等部. Retrieved 2015-10-12.
- "韮崎大村美術館 館長あいさつ 大村智". 韮崎大村美術館. Archived from the original on 2015-10-15. Retrieved 2015-10-12.
- Satoshi Ōmura. "Satoshi Ōmura Curriculum Vitae" (PDF).
- "Robert Koch Gold Medal". Robert-Koch-Stiftung e.V. Retrieved 2015-10-05.
- 【政府】11年「春の叙勲」‐森田氏に旭重、大村氏が瑞重 薬事日報 2011年6月20日
- List of Members | Prof. Dr. Dr. Satoshi Ōmura
- Member Directory | Satoshi Omura
- Japan Academy membership profile
- Académie des sciences membership profile