The Satsumon culture (擦文文化 Satsumon Bunka) is a post-Jōmon, partially agricultural, archeological culture of northern Honshu and southern Hokkaido (700–1200 CE) that has been identified as the Emishi, as a Japanese-Emishi mixed culture, as the incipient modern Ainu, or with all three synonymously. It may have arisen as a merger of the Yayoi–Kofun and the Jōmon cultures. The Satsumon culture appears to have spread from northern Honshu into Hokkaido, Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, and southern Kamchatka, merging with or displacing the Okhotsk culture in those areas.
- Imamura, Keiji (1996). Prehistoric Japan: New Perspectives on Insular East Asia. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9780824818524.
- Imamura 1996, p. 204.
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