|Types of fats in food|
A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all single bonds. A fat known as a glyceride is made of two kinds of smaller molecules: a short glycerol backbone and fatty acids that each contain a long linear or branched chain of carbon (C) atoms. Along the chain, some carbon atoms are linked by single bonds (-C-C-) and others are linked by double bonds (-C=C-). A double bond along the carbon chain can react with a pair of hydrogen atoms to change into a single -C-C- bond, with each H atom now bonded to one of the two C atoms. Glyceride fats without any carbon chain double bonds are called saturated because they are "saturated with" hydrogen atoms, having no double bonds available to react with more hydrogen.
Most animal fats are saturated. The fats of plants and fish are generally unsaturated. Various foods contain different proportions of saturated and unsaturated fat. Many processed foods like foods deep-fried in hydrogenated oil and sausage are high in saturated fat content. Some store-bought baked goods are as well, especially those containing partially hydrogenated oils. Other examples of foods containing a high proportion of saturated fat and dietary cholesterol include animal fat products such as lard or schmaltz, fatty meats and dairy products made with whole or reduced fat milk like yogurt, ice cream, cheese and butter. Certain vegetable products have high saturated fat content, such as coconut oil and palm kernel oil.
Guidelines released by many medical organizations, including the World Health Organization, have advocated for reduction in the intake of saturated fat to promote health and reduce the risk from cardiovascular diseases.
While nutrition labels regularly combine them, the saturated fatty acids appear in different proportions among food groups. Lauric and myristic acids are most commonly found in "tropical" oils (e.g., palm kernel, coconut) and dairy products. The saturated fat in meat, eggs, cacao, and nuts is primarily the triglycerides of palmitic and stearic acids.
|Food||Lauric acid||Myristic acid||Palmitic acid||Stearic acid|
|Palm kernel oil||48%||1%||44%||5%|
Examples of saturated fatty acids
Some common examples of saturated fatty acids:
- Lauric acid with 12 carbon atoms (contained in coconut oil, palm kernel oil, cow's milk, and breast milk)
- Myristic acid with 14 carbon atoms (contained in cow's milk and dairy products)
- Palmitic acid with 16 carbon atoms (contained in palm oil and meat)
- Stearic acid with 18 carbon atoms (also contained in meat and cocoa butter)
|As weight percent (%) of total fat|
|Palm kernel oil||86||12||2|
|Rice bran oil||25||38||37|
|Safflower oil, high oleic||6||75||14|
|Safflower oil, linoleic||6||14||75|
|Ice cream, gourmet||62||29||4|
|Ice cream, light||62||29||4|
|Fish, orange roughy||23||15||46|
|Hot dog, beef||42||48||5|
|Hot dog, turkey||28||40||22|
|Burger, fast food||36||44||6|
|Cheeseburger, fast food||43||40||7|
|Breaded chicken sandwich||20||39||32|
|Grilled chicken sandwich||26||42||20|
|Almonds dry roasted||9||65||21|
|Cashews dry roasted||20||59||17|
|Macadamia dry roasted||15||79||2|
|Peanut dry roasted||14||50||31|
|Pecans dry roasted||8||62||25|
|Walnuts dry roasted||9||23||63|
|Sweets and baked goods|
|Candy, chocolate bar||59||33||3|
|Candy, fruit chews||14||44||38|
|Cookie, oatmeal raisin||22||47||27|
|Cookie, chocolate chip||35||42||18|
|Fats added during cooking or at the table|
|Margarine, light tub||19||46||33|
|Dressing, blue cheese||16||54||25|
|Dressing, light Italian||14||24||58|
|Egg yolk fat||36||44||16|
|Unless else specified in boxes, then reference is:|
|* 3% is trans fats|
Association with diseases
The effect of saturated fat on heart disease has been extensively studied. Many health authorities, such as the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the British Dietetic Association, American Heart Association, the World Heart Federation, the British National Health Service, among others, advise that saturated fat is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. In 2020, the World Health Organization recommended lowering dietary intake of saturated fats to less than 10% of total energy consumption, and increasing intake of unsaturated fats. There is moderate-quality evidence that reducing the proportion of saturated fat in the diet and replacing it with unsaturated fats or carbohydrates for a period of at least two years leads to a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease. In 2019, the UK Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition concluded that higher saturated fat consumption is associated with raised blood cholesterol and increased risk of heart disease.
A 2021 review found that diets high in saturated fat were associated with higher mortality from all causes, as well as from cardiovascular disease.
Abnormal blood lipid levels – high total cholesterol, high levels of triglycerides, high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol – are associated with increased risk of heart disease and stroke.
Meta-analyses have found a significant relationship between saturated fat and serum cholesterol levels. High total cholesterol levels, which may be caused by many factors, are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
There are other pathways involving obesity, triglyceride levels, insulin sensitivity, endothelial function, and thrombogenicity, among others, that play a role in cardiovascular disease. Different saturated fatty acids have differing effects on various lipid levels. There is strong evidence that lauric, myristic, and palmitic acids raise LDL-C, while stearic acid is more neutral.
Type 2 diabetes
A 2022 review of cohort studies found that the risk of type 2 diabetes was not associated with dietary intake of total saturated fats, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. Dietary lauric acid and myristic acid, present in plant oils and also in dairy fat, were associated with reduced risk of diabetes.
|Avocado||11.6||70.6||52–66||13.5||1||12.5||12.5:1||250 °C (482 °F)|
|Brazil nut||24.8||32.7||31.3||42.0||0.1||41.9||419:1||208 °C (406 °F)|
|Canola||7.4||63.3||61.8||28.1||9.1||18.6||2:1||204 °C (400 °F)|
|Coconut||82.5||6.3||6||1.7||175 °C (347 °F)|
|Corn||12.9||27.6||27.3||54.7||1||58||58:1||232 °C (450 °F)|
|Cottonseed||25.9||17.8||19||51.9||1||54||54:1||216 °C (420 °F)|
|Flaxseed/linseed||9.0||18.4||18||67.8||53||13||0.2:1||107 °C (225 °F)|
|Grape seed||10.5||14.3||14.3||74.7||–||74.7||very high||216 °C (421 °F)|
|Hemp seed||7.0||9.0||9.0||82.0||22.0||54.0||2.5:1||166 °C (330 °F)|
|High-oleic safflower oil||7.5||75.2||75.2||12.8||0||12.8||very high||212 °C (414 °F)|
|Olive, Extra Virgin||13.8||73.0||71.3||10.5||0.7||9.8||14:1||193 °C (380 °F)|
|Palm||49.3||37.0||40||9.3||0.2||9.1||45.5:1||235 °C (455 °F)|
|Peanut||16.2||57.1||55.4||19.9||0.318||19.6||61.6:1||232 °C (450 °F)|
|Rice bran oil||25||38.4||38.4||36.6||2.2||34.4||15.6:1||232 °C (450 °F)|
|Soybean||15.6||22.8||22.6||57.7||7||51||7.3:1||238 °C (460 °F)|
|Sunflower||8.99||63.4||62.9||20.7||0.16||20.5||128:1||227 °C (440 °F)|
|Walnut oil||unrefined||9.1||22.8||22.2||63.3||10.4||52.9||5:1||160 °C (320 °F)|
Recommendations to reduce, limit or replace dietary intake of trans fats and saturated fats, in favor of unsaturated fats, are made by the World Health Organization,[a] American Heart Association, Health Canada, the US Department of Health and Human Services, the UK National Health Service, the UK Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition, the Australian Department of Health and Aging, the Singapore Ministry of Health, the Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, the New Zealand Ministry of Health, and Hong Kong's Department of Health.
In 2003, the World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) expert consultation report concluded:
The evidence shows that intake of saturated fatty acids is directly related to cardiovascular risk. The traditional target is to restrict the intake of saturated fatty acids to less than 10% of daily energy intake and less than 7% for high-risk groups. If populations are consuming less than 10%, they should not increase that level of intake. Within these limits, the intake of foods rich in myristic and palmitic acids should be replaced by fats with a lower content of these particular fatty acids. In developing countries, however, where energy intake for some population groups may be inadequate, energy expenditure is high and body fat stores are low (BMI <18.5 kg/m2). The amount and quality of fat supply have to be considered keeping in mind the need to meet energy requirements. Specific sources of saturated fat, such as coconut and palm oil, provide low-cost energy and may be an important source of energy for the poor.
A 2004 statement released by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) determined that "Americans need to continue working to reduce saturated fat intake…" In addition, reviews by the American Heart Association led the Association to recommend reducing saturated fat intake to less than 7% of total calories according to its 2006 recommendations. This concurs with similar conclusions made by the US Department of Health and Human Services, which determined that reduction in saturated fat consumption would positively affect health and reduce the prevalence of heart disease.
The United Kingdom, National Health Service claims the majority of British people eat too much saturated fat. The British Heart Foundation also advises people to cut down on saturated fat, and to read labels on the food they buy. The British Nutrition Foundation have said that based on the totality of available evidence the saturated fatty acids should make up no more than 10% of total dietary energy.
A 2004 review stated that "no lower safe limit of specific saturated fatty acid intakes has been identified" and recommended that the influence of varying saturated fatty acid intakes against a background of different individual lifestyles and genetic backgrounds should be the focus in future studies.
Blanket recommendations to lower saturated fat were criticized at a 2010 conference debate of the American Dietetic Association for focusing too narrowly on reducing saturated fats rather than emphasizing increased consumption of healthy fats and unrefined carbohydrates. Concern was expressed over the health risks of replacing saturated fats in the diet with refined carbohydrates, which carry a high risk of obesity and heart disease, particularly at the expense of polyunsaturated fats which may have health benefits. None of the panelists recommended heavy consumption of saturated fats, emphasizing instead the importance of overall dietary quality to cardiovascular health.
In a 2017 comprehensive review of the literature and clinical trials, the American Heart Association published a recommendation that saturated fat intake be reduced or replaced by products containing monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, a dietary adjustment that could reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases by 30%.
The two-dimensional illustration has implicit hydrogen atoms bonded to each of the carbon atoms in the polycarbon tail of the myristic acid molecule (there are 13 carbon atoms in the tail; 14 carbon atoms in the entire molecule).
Carbon atoms are also implicitly drawn, as they are portrayed as intersections between two straight lines. "Saturated," in general, refers to a maximum number of hydrogen atoms bonded to each carbon of the polycarbon tail as allowed by the Octet Rule. This also means that only single bonds (sigma bonds) will be present between adjacent carbon atoms of the tail.
- See the article Food pyramid (nutrition) for more information.
- Reece, Jane; Campbell, Neil (2002). Biology. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings. pp. 69–70. ISBN 978-0-8053-6624-2.
- "Saturated fats". American Heart Association. 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
- "Top food sources of saturated fat in the US". Harvard University School of Public Health. 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
- "Saturated, Unsaturated, and Trans Fats". choosemyplate.gov. 2020.
- "Saturated Fat". American Heart Association. 2020.
- "What are "oils"?". ChooseMyPlate.gov, US Department of Agriculture. 2015. Archived from the original on 9 June 2015. Retrieved 13 June 2015.
- "USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 20". United States Department of Agriculture. 2007. Archived from the original on 4 June 2012.
- Kumar, Vijay (2014). "Cocoa Butter and its Alternatives". Journal of Bioresource Engineering and Technology. 1: 7–17.
- "Thrive Culinary Algae Oil". Retrieved 7 January 2019.
- Anderson D. "Fatty acid composition of fats and oils" (PDF). Colorado Springs: University of Colorado, Department of Chemistry. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- "NDL/FNIC Food Composition Database Home Page". United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- "Basic Report: 04042, Oil, peanut, salad or cooking". USDA. Archived from the original on 9 March 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
- "Oil, vegetable safflower, oleic". nutritiondata.com. Condé Nast. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- "Oil, vegetable safflower, linoleic". nutritiondata.com. Condé Nast. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- "Oil, vegetable, sunflower". nutritiondata.com. Condé Nast. Retrieved 27 September 2010.
- USDA Basic Report Cream, fluid, heavy whipping
- "Nutrition And Health". The Goose Fat Information Service.
- "Egg, yolk, raw, fresh". nutritiondata.com. Condé Nast. Retrieved 24 August 2009.
- "09038, Avocados, raw, California". National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 26. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Archived from the original on 10 January 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
- "Feinberg School > Nutrition > Nutrition Fact Sheet: Lipids". Northwestern University. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011.
- Hooper, Lee; Martin, Nicole; Jimoh, Oluseyi F.; Kirk, Christian; Foster, Eve; Abdelhamid, Asmaa S. (21 August 2020). "Reduction in saturated fat intake for cardiovascular disease". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2020 (8): CD011737. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD011737.pub3. PMC 8092457. PMID 32827219.
- Kris-Etherton PM, Innis S (September 2007). "Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Dietary Fatty Acids". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 107 (9): 1599–1611 . doi:10.1016/j.jada.2007.07.024. PMID 17936958.
- "Food Fact Sheet - Cholesterol" (PDF). British Dietetic Association. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
- Sacks FM, Lichtenstein AH, Wu JH, Appel LJ, Creager MA, Kris-Etherton PM, Miller M, Rimm EB, Rudel LL, Robinson JG, Stone NJ, Van Horn LV (July 2017). "Dietary Fats and Cardiovascular Disease: A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association". Circulation. 136 (3): e1–e23. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000510. PMID 28620111. S2CID 367602.
- "Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors". World Heart Federation. 30 May 2017. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
- "Fat: the facts". National Health Service. 14 April 2020.
- "Nutrition Facts at a Glance – Nutrients: Saturated Fat". Food and Drug Administration. 22 December 2009. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
- "Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol". European Food Safety Authority. 25 March 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
- "Healthy diet: key facts". World Health Organization. 29 April 2020. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
- "Saturated Fats and Health" (PDF). Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN). Retrieved 26 July 2021.
- "SACN's 'Saturated fats and health' Report | The Nutrition Society". www.nutritionsociety.org. Retrieved 30 December 2022.
- Kim, Y; Youjin, J; Giovannucii, EL (2021). "Association between dietary fat intake and mortality from all-causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies". Clinical Nutrition. 40 (3): 1060–1070. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2020.07.007. PMID 32723506. S2CID 220852791.
- "Position Statement on Fat" (PDF). Retrieved 25 January 2011.
- "Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases" (PDF). World Health Organization. 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 April 2003. Retrieved 11 March 2011.
- "Cholesterol". Irish Heart Foundation. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
- Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 (PDF) (7th ed.). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. December 2010.
- Cannon C, O'Gara P (2007). Critical Pathways in Cardiovascular Medicine (2nd ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 243. ISBN 9780781794398.
- Clarke R, Frost C, Collins R, Appleby P, Peto R (1997). "Dietary lipids and blood cholesterol: quantitative meta-analysis of metabolic ward studies". BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.). 314 (7074): 112–7. doi:10.1136/bmj.314.7074.112. PMC 2125600. PMID 9006469.
- Bucher HC, Griffith LE, Guyatt GH (February 1999). "Systematic review on the risk and benefit of different cholesterol-lowering interventions". Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 19 (2): 187–195. doi:10.1161/01.atv.19.2.187. PMID 9974397.
- Lewington S, Whitlock G, Clarke R, Sherliker P, Emberson J, Halsey J, Qizilbash N, Peto R, Collins R (December 2007). "Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with 55,000 vascular deaths". Lancet. 370 (9602): 1829–39. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61778-4. PMID 18061058. S2CID 54293528.
- Thijssen MA, Mensink RP (2005). "Fatty acids and atherosclerotic risk". Atherosclerosis: Diet and Drugs. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. Vol. 170. Springer. pp. 165–94. doi:10.1007/3-540-27661-0_5. ISBN 978-3-540-22569-0. PMID 16596799.
- Gropper, Sareen S. (2018). Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism (Seventh ed.). Boston: Cengage Learning. p. 153. ISBN 978-1-305-62785-7.
- Gaeini, Zahra; Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin (3 September 2022). "Saturated Fatty Acid Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: An Updated Systematic Review and Dose–Response Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies". Advances in Nutrition. 13 (6): 2125–2135. doi:10.1093/advances/nmac071. PMC 9776642. PMID 36056919.
- Xia, H; Ma, S; Wang, S; Sun, G. (2015). "Meta-Analysis of Saturated Fatty Acid Intake and Breast Cancer Risk". Medicine. 94 (52): e2391. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000002391. PMC 5291630. PMID 26717389.
- Brennan, SF; Woodside, JV; Lunny, PM; Cardwell, CR; Cantwell, MM. (2017). "Dietary fat and breast cancer mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 57 (10): 1999–2008. doi:10.1080/10408398.2012.724481. PMID 25692500. S2CID 34098509.
- Dandamudi, A; Tommie, J; Nommsen-Rivers, L; Couch, S. (2018). "Dietary Patterns and Breast Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review". Anticancer Research. 38 (6): 3209–3222. doi:10.21873/anticanres.12586. PMID 29848668. S2CID 44149964.
- Gathirua-Mwangi, Wambui G.; Zhang, Jianjun (2014). "Dietary factors and risk for advanced prostate cancer". European Journal of Cancer Prevention. 23 (2): 96–109. doi:10.1097/CEJ.0b013e3283647394. PMC 4091618. PMID 23872953.
- "US National Nutrient Database, Release 28". United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. All values in this table are from this database unless otherwise cited or when italicized as the simple arithmetic sum of other component columns.
- "Fats and fatty acids contents per 100 g (click for "more details"). Example: Avocado oil (user can search for other oils)". Nutritiondata.com, Conde Nast for the USDA National Nutrient Database, Standard Release 21. 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2017. Values from Nutritiondata.com (SR 21) may need to be reconciled with most recent release from the USDA SR 28 as of Sept 2017.
- "USDA Specifications for Vegetable Oil Margarine Effective August 28, 1996" (PDF).
- "Avocado oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- Feramuz Ozdemir; Ayhan Topuz (May 2003). "Changes in dry matter, oil content and fatty acids composition of avocado during harvesting time and post-harvesting ripening period" (PDF). Elsevier. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
- Marie Wong; Cecilia Requejo-Jackman; Allan Woolf (April 2010). "What is unrefined, extra virgin cold-pressed avocado oil?". Aocs.org. The American Oil Chemists’ Society. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
- "Brazil nut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- Katragadda, H. R.; Fullana, A. S.; Sidhu, S.; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á. A. (2010). "Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils". Food Chemistry. 120: 59–65. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.070.
- "Canola oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- Wolke, Robert L. (16 May 2007). "Where There's Smoke, There's a Fryer". The Washington Post. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- "Coconut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Corn oil, industrial and retail, all purpose salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Cottonseed oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Cottonseed oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Linseed/Flaxseed oil, cold pressed, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- Garavaglia J, Markoski MM, Oliveira A, Marcadenti A (2016). "Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health". Nutrition and Metabolic Insights. 9: 59–64. doi:10.4137/NMI.S32910. PMC 4988453. PMID 27559299.
- Callaway J, Schwab U, Harvima I, Halonen P, Mykkänen O, Hyvönen P, Järvinen T (April 2005). "Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis". The Journal of Dermatological Treatment. 16 (2): 87–94. doi:10.1080/09546630510035832. PMID 16019622. S2CID 18445488.
- Melina, Vesanto. "Smoke points of oils" (PDF). veghealth.com. The Vegetarian Health Institute.
- "Safflower oil, salad or cooking, high oleic, primary commerce, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Olive oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Palm oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Palm oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, filling fat, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Oil, peanut". FoodData Central. usda.gov.
- Orthoefer, F. T. (2005). "Chapter 10: Rice Bran Oil". In Shahidi, F. (ed.). Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products. Vol. 2 (6 ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 465. doi:10.1002/047167849X. ISBN 978-0-471-38552-3.
- "Rice bran oil". RITO Partnership. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
- "Oil, sesame, salad or cooking". FoodData Central. fdc.nal.usda.gov. 1 April 2019.
- "Soybean oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Soybean oil, salad or cooking, (partially hydrogenated), fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "FoodData Central". fdc.nal.usda.gov.
- "Walnut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, United States Department of Agriculture.
- "Smoke Point of Oils". Baseline of Health. Jonbarron.org.
- "Choosing foods with healthy fats". Health Canada. 10 October 2018. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
- "Cut Down on Saturated Fats" (PDF). United States Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
- "Fat: the facts". United Kingdom's National Health Service. 27 April 2018. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
- "Fat". Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council and Department of Health and Ageing. 24 September 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
- "Getting the Fats Right!". Singapore's Ministry of Health. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
- "Health Diet". India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
- "Making healthier food choices". New Zealand's Ministry of Health. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
- "Know More about Fat". Hong Kong's Department of Health. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
- Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases (WHO technical report series 916) (PDF). World Health Organization. 2003. pp. 81–94. ISBN 978-92-4-120916-8. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
- "Trends in Intake of Energy, Protein, Carbohydrate, Fat, and Saturated Fat — United States, 1971–2000". Centers for Disease Control. 2004. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008.
- Lichtenstein AH, Appel LJ, Brands M, Carnethon M, Daniels S, Franch HA, Franklin B, Kris-Etherton P, Harris WS, Howard B, Karanja N, Lefevre M, Rudel L, Sacks F, Van Horn L, Winston M, Wylie-Rosett J (July 2006). "Diet and lifestyle recommendations revision 2006: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee". Circulation. 114 (1): 82–96. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.176158. PMID 16785338. S2CID 647269.
- Smith SC, Jackson R, Pearson TA, Fuster V, Yusuf S, Faergeman O, Wood DA, Alderman M, Horgan J, Home P, Hunn M, Grundy SM (June 2004). "Principles for national and regional guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention: a scientific statement from the World Heart and Stroke Forum" (PDF). Circulation. 109 (25): 3112–21. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000133427.35111.67. PMID 15226228.
- "Dietary Guidelines for Americans" (PDF). United States Department of Agriculture. 2005.
- "Eat less saturated fat". Nhs.uk. 26 March 2020. Retrieved 1 November 2021.
- "Fats explained". British Heart Foundation.
- "Fat - British Nutrition Foundation". www.nutrition.org.uk. Retrieved 30 December 2022.
- German JB, Dillard CJ (September 2004). "Saturated fats: what dietary intake?". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 80 (3): 550–559. doi:10.1093/ajcn/80.3.550. PMID 15321792.
- Zelman, K (2011). "The Great Fat Debate: A Closer Look at the Controversy—Questioning the Validity of Age-Old Dietary Guidance". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 111 (5): 655–658. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2011.03.026. PMID 21515106.